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Annals of the Four Masters (Author: [unknown])

Annal M1595


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1595. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred ninety-five.


The Chief Justiciary of Ireland, Sir William Russell, marched to Baile-na-Cuirre in the month of January, against Fiagh, the son of Hugh O'Byrne, at


the instance of Fiagh's neighbours and acquaintances. Upon their arrival in the neighbourhood of the castle, but before they had passed through the gate of the rampart that surrounded it, the sound of a drum was accidentally heard from the soldiers who were going to the castle. Fiagh, with his people, took the alarm; and he rose up suddenly, and sent a party of his people to defend the gate; and he sent all his people, men, boys, and women, out through the postern-doors of the castle, and he himself followed them, and conveyed them all in safety to the wilds and recesses, where he considered them secure.

While Fiagh was thus avoiding his enemies, Walter Reagh, the son of Gerald, son of Thomas, one of the Geraldines of Kildare, came to join him. As for the Lord Justice, he remained for ten days at Ballinacor, after it had been deserted by Fiagh; and, having left one or two companies of soldiers to defend it, he himself returned to Dublin.

Fifteen days after this, Walter Reagh and some of the sons of Fiagh, the son of Hugh, set out upon a nocturnal excursion (in sleeping time) to Cruimghlinn, near the gate of Dublin. They burned and totally plundered that town bally, and took away as much as they were able to carry of the leaden roof of the church of the town; and though the blaze and flames of the burning town were plainly visible in the streets of Dublin, Walter escaped without wound or bloodshed.

In a month after this, Walter made an attack on a neighbouring castle, belonging to a gentleman of his enemies. But the gentleman was wary and vigilant, in readiness against any attack of his enemies. When Walter and his people attacked the castle, the gentleman came to a bold and fierce combat with Walter; and they struck at each other furiously and inimically, and Walter was wounded in the leg. His people carried him off to the nearest mountain, and they placed him under cure in a subterranean cave, with the situation of which no three persons were acquainted. They left with him only one young physician of his own faithful people, who was wont to go every second day to the nearest woods to gather herbs. A conversation privately occurred between this man and a party of Walter's enemies; and he, having leagued with them,


betrayed Walter, and led a party to where he was, who bound him. Walter was afterwards taken to Dublin, where he was hanged and quartered.


The entire province of Ulster rose up in one alliance and one union against the English this year.


An army was led by the O'Neills, in the month of February in this year, into the country of the Baron of Slane, and left no property after them in those districts, of corn, dwellings, flocks, or herds.


Another army was led by the O'Neills to Kells, and they spoiled and totally ravaged the whole country around.


An army was led by Maguire (Hugh, the son of Cuconnaught, son of Cuconnaught, son of Cuconnaught), and by Mac Mahon (Brian, the son of Hugh Oge, son of John Boy), into Breifny O'Reilly, and they quickly plundered and ravaged that country; and they left not a cabin in which two or three might be sheltered in all Cavan which they did not burn, except the monastery of Cavan, in which English soldiers were at that time.



Maccon, the son of Cucogry, son of Dermot, son of Teige Cam O'Clery, .Ollav to O'Donnell in history, an erudite and ingenious man, professed in history and poetry; a fluent orator, with the gift of elocution, address, and eloquence; a pious, devout, religious, and charitable man, died at Leitir-Maelain, in Thomond.


At the end of the month of February Sir John Norris, the Queen's general, came to Ireland with a force of eighteen hundred soldiers, to suppress the war in Ulster and Connaught.


A hosting was made by O'Donnell (Hugh Roe), to march into Connaught. He first crossed the Erne, on the third day of March, and moved on, keeping the lake of Melge, the son of Cobhthach, on his right, until he arrived at Ballaghmeehin, where he stopped that night. He then proceeded on through Breifny, until he came to Braid-Shliabh, where he stopped for one night. It was difficult for him at that time to get an advantage of or surprise the province of Olnegmacht, because the English held their abode and residence throughout the country in general, and especially in its chief towns and impregnable fortresses. In the first place, Sir Richard Bingham, the Governor of the province of Connaught, was stationed at Roscommon; another large party of the English was stationed in a monastery which is situated on the bank of the Boyle; another in Tulsk, in the very centre of Moy-Ai, to the north-east of Rathcroghan; another in the fort, a fortress erected by the English themselves between Lough Key and Lough Arrow; another at Ballymote; and a great party at Sligo. News having reached the Governor at Roscommon, that O'Donnell was on his march into the country, he made no delay until he arrived at the monastery of Boyle, and ordered all the English of the towns above mentioned to come to him at that place, for he thought that it should be by that way that O'Donnell would pass with his forces.

O'Donnell, on his way to Coillte-Chonchobhair, ordered his troops to halt, to be drawn out in array, and reviewed. This they accordingly did, and the number he had there was not great, being only four hundred men fit for valor


and action; for no other forces joined his muster besides the Kinel-Connell, except a few from the province of Olnegmacht, who acted as spies and guides in pointing out the way to him, under the conduct of Conor Oge Mac Dermot, and Con, the son of Dubhaltach, son of Tuathal O'Conor. This host, after having been reviewed, marched on until they arrived at the River Boyle, and crossed it at the bridge of Cnoc-an-Bhiocara early in the evening. From thence they proceeded through Moylurg and Moy-Nai, and next morning, by break of day, arrived at Rathcroghan. Here, as he O'Donnell had instructed them before they arrived at that place, marauding parties were detached and sent forth; far and wide did these heroic bands disperse from each other, for one party of them proceeded to the country of O'Conor Roe and O'Hanly, another to the bridge of Bel-atha-Mogha, on the River Suck, and a third party west-wards, beyond Caislen-riabhach. The dense cloud of vapour and smoke which spread in every place where these forces passed, all around Rathcroghan, was enough to conceal their numbers. The party that had gone to Ath-Mogha Ballimoe, and those who had gone to Airteach and Clann-Keherny, returned to Rathcroghan before mid-day, though it was difficult for them to return in regular order, by reason of the immensity of their preys and spoils; and they could have procured more, if they had been but able to carry or drive them. O'Donnell and these went on with their preys to Elphin, and remained there for some time, awaiting the party who had gone to the country of O'Conor Roe and O'Hanly. He afterwards proceeded on from Elphin, keeping Ath-slisean on the right, until he arrived in Hy-Briuin, where he remained that night, until all his people had come to him with their spoils. None of the Irish had for a long time before collected (by one day's plundering) so much booty as he had there.

On the next day O'Donnell ordered his people to convey their preys across the Shannon; and he sent his recruits, and all those unfit to wield arms, with


the preys and spoils, into Muintir-Eolais. When the rear of the army was crossing the ford, they were overtaken by the recruits and musketeers of the English; and a battle ensued, in which many were hurt and mortally wounded on both sides. The Kinel-Connell, however, crossed the river, and carried off their spoils, after triumph.


Another hosting was made by O'Donnell (Hugh Roe) into Connaught, on the eighteenth day of the month of April. He first crossed the Erne, and marched on, keeping Lough Melvin on the right, until he arrived at Ros-inbhir, where he stopped for that night. From thence he went to Cill-Fhearga, where he waited for the coming up of the rear of his army. Upon their arrival they proceeded through Breifny to Braid-Shliabh, and from thence into Machaire-Chonnacht; and such part of it as had escaped being plundered on the former expedition was plundered now; and they collected the preys together to him. After this he proceeded onward with these preys and spoils, and arrived the same night in Leitrim in Muintir-Eolais.

Now his enemies thought that he would return into Ulster; this, however, he did not do, but privately dispatched messengers to Maguire (Hugh), requesting that he would come to hin, in Annaly; and he sent spies before him through the country, and ordered them to meet him at a certain place. He himself then marched onwards, secretly and expeditiously, and arrived with his troops at the dawn of day in the two Annalys (these were the countries of the two O'Farrells, though the English had some time before obtained sway over them); and one of the English, Christopher Browne by name, was then dwelling in the chief mansion-seat of O'Farrell. The brave troops of O'Donnell and Maguire marched from Sliabh-Cairbre to the River Inny, and set every place to which they came in these districts in a blaze of fire, and wrapped it in a black, heavy cloud of smoke. They took the Longford, for they had set fire to every side and corner of it, so that it was only by the help of a rope that they conveyed Christopher Browne and his brother-in-law, and both their wives, out of it. Fifteen men of the hostages of that country (who had been in the custody of the aforesaid Christopher Browne) were burned to death, who could not be saved, in consequence of the fury and violence that prevailed.



Three other castles were also taken by O'Donnell on the same day; and on those occasions many persons were slain and destroyed, of whom one of the freeborn was Hubert, the son of Fergus, son of Brian O'Farrell, who was accidentally slain by Maguire. The son of the Prior O'Reilly was taken prisoner by others of the army. As much of the property of the country as they wished to have was collected and gathered, and brought to them from every quarter. They then proceeded with their preys and spoils, and pitched their camp that night in Teallach-Dunchadha. On the next day they sent marauding parties to the monastery of Cavan, to see whether they could get an advantage of the English who were quartered in it; but as they did not find any of the English about the town, they carried off every thing of value belonging to them to which they came. They marched that night to Teallach-Eachdhach, west of Bel-atha-Chonaill; and from thence they returned home, after the victory of expedition on that occasion.

When the English felt satisfied that the Earl O'Neill had risen up in alliance with O'Donnell in the war, the Lord Justice and Council sent a thousand warriors to Iubhar-Chinn-tragha, to make war on the Kinel-Owen; and the Lord Justice promised to follow them, and plunder and ravage the country.

O'Neill sent his messengers to O'Donnell, requesting him to come to his assistance against the overwhelming forces that had come to oppose him. O'Donnell did not listen inattentively to them, for he assembled his forces, and proceeded through Tyrone, to the place where O'Neill was; upon which both went to Fochard-Muirtheimhne. This was in the month of May. When the Lord Justice heard that they were both in readiness there to meet him, he remained in Dublin for that time.


George Oge Bingham, who was stationed at Sligo under Sir Richard Bingham, the Governor of Connaught, went with a ship and its crew north-eastwards,


to commit depredations in Tirconnell; and they sailed round, keeping Ireland to the right, until they put into the harbour of Swilly. They obtained an advantage of the country at this time, so that they plundered Mary's Abbey, which was situated on the brink of the Strand, and carried off the Mass vestments, chalices, and other valuable articles. They then sailed to Torach (an island consecrated by St. Columbkille, the holy patron), and preyed and plundered every thing they found on the island, and then returned back to Sligo.


O'Donnell having been informed of the spoliation of his territory, in his absence, by strangers, he returned from Tyrone to revenge it; but his stay had not been long in Tirconnell when O'Neill's messengers came to him to inform him that the Lord Justice had arrived with an army in Tyrone. He, thereupon, went back to the place where O'Neill was, who rejoiced at his arrival. The army brought by the Lord Justice (i.e. Sir William Russell) was very immense, for he had with him Sir John Norris, the Queen's general in Ireland, and the Earl of Thomond (Donough, son of Conor O'Brien), with all their forces. These never halted until they arrived at Newry, from whence they proceeded to Armagh. Here they resolved not to delay, until they should reach the Abhainn-mhor, in the very middle of Tyrone. On their march over the direct road from Armagh to this river, they beheld the fortified camp, and the strong battle-array of the Kinel-Owen and Kinel-Connell, under the Earl O'Neill and O'Donnell; and when the English army perceived this, they remained where they were until the next morning, when they returned back to Armagh. The Irish went in pursuit of them, and pitched their camp near them. They remained thus face to face for the space of fifteen days, without any attack from either side; for the Lord Justice and his army were within the fortifications of Armagh, engaged in erecting towers, and deepening the trenches around the town. At the expiration of this time the Lord Justice left three companies of soldiers to defend Armagh, and he himself returned to Newry; and the Irish went in pursuit to the gate of Newry. In a week afterwards the Lord Justice set out


with provisions, to victual Monaghan, and from thence he proceeded with his army to Dublin.


For some time after this the English did not dare to bring any army into Ulster, except one hosting which was made by Sir John Norris and his brother, Sir Thomas Norris, the President of the two provinces of Munster, with the forces of Munster and Meath, to proceed into Ulster. They marched to Newry, and passed from thence towards Armagh. When they had proceeded near halfway, they were met by the Irish, who proceeded to annoy, shoot, pierce, and spear them, so that they did not suffer them either to sleep or rest quietly for the space of twenty-four hours. They were not permitted to advance forward one foot further; and their chiefs were glad to escape with their lives to Newry, leaving behind them many men, horses, arms, and valuable things. The General, Sir John Norris, and his brother, Sir Thomas, were wounded on this occasion. It was no ordinary gap of danger for them to go into the province after this.


The aforesaid George Bingham returned to Sligo, after having plundered


the monastery of the Blessed Virgin at Rath-Maelain, and the church of St. Columbkille on Torach; but God did not permit him to remain for a long time without revenging them upon him, for there was in his company a gentleman of the Burkes, who had twelve warriors along with him, namely, Ulick Burke, the son of Redmond-na-Scuab. Upon one occasion he was offered insult and indignity by George and the English in general, at which he felt hurt and angry; and he resolved in his mind to revenge the insult on George, if he could, and afterwards to get into the friendship of O'Donnell, for he felt certain of being secure with him. He afterwards got an advantage of the aforesaid George, one day as he was in an apartment with few attendants; he went up to him, and upbraided him with his lawlessness and injustice towards him, and as he did not receive a satisfactory answer, he drew his sword, and struck at him till he severed his head from his neck. He then took the castle, and sent messengers to Ballyshannon, where O'Donnell's people then were; and these dispatched messengers to Tyrone, where O'Donnell himself was. They relate the news to him, and he then went to the Earl O'Neill; and both were much rejoiced at that killing. On the following day O'Donnell bade the Earl farewell, and, setting out with his army, did not halt, except by night, until he arrived at Sligo. He was welcomed; and Ulick Burke delivered up the town to him, which made him very happy in his mind. This happened in the month of June.


When intelligence of the death of George Bingham, and the taking of Sligo, came to the hearing of those of the province of Connaught who were in insurrection, namely, the Lower Burkes, the Clann-Donnell, the Sil-Conor, the Rourkes, and the Clann-Mulrony, and not these alone, but also those who had been proclaimed, and roving after having been expelled and banished into Ulster


and other places, by the Binghams, they came to O'Donnell to Sligo; and each of them went afterwards to his own patrimonial inheritance; and every inhabitant whom the English had established in their lands during the period of their proscription adhered to them as followers from that hour forth. In the course of one month the greater part of the inhabitants of the district, from the western point of Erris and Umhall to the Drowes, had unanimously confederated with O'Donnell; and there were not many castles or fortresses in those places, whether injured or perfect, that were not under his control.


O'Donnell then went to Donegal, and remained there till the middle of August. He was informed that a number of Scots had landed at Lough Foyle, with their chief, Mac Leod of Ara; he went thither to hire them. They were six hundred in number. After being hired by him, and after remaining some time to rest and recruit themselves, he assembled his forces and hirelings, and they marched across the Erne, the Drowes, the Duff, the Sligeach, and Easdara, across Sliabh-Gamh, into Leyny, and from thence into Costello. The English held at that time abode and residence in Castlemore-Mac-Costello. O'Donnell with his forces laid siege to this castle; and the warders were finally obliged to surrender it. He then proceeded to Dunmore-Mic-Feorais, and dispatched marauding parties into Conmaicne, Muintir-Murchadha, to the borders of Machaire-Riabhach, and to Tuam-da-ghualann. They took Turlach-Mochain, and a great number of the chiefs of the country, together with Richard, the son of Mac Feorais. They plundered and totally ravaged the country all around them, and carried off its flocks and herds, its wealth and riches, from all those they had met on their route, and then returned back.

When the Governor of the province of Connaught, namely, Sir Richard Bingham, heard that O'Donnell had passed by him westwards into Connaught, he assembled fifteen companies of soldiers, both horse and foot, and marched


to the top of the Coirrshliabh Curlieu hills, with the intention of making an attack upon O'Donnell, on his return from his expedition. When O'Donnell received intelligence of this, he soon returned back, with his preys and spoils, from one encampment to the other, through Costello, Leyny, the lower part of Tirerrill, and over the three bridges, namely, the bridge of Cul-maoile, the bridge of Ballysadere, and the bridge of Sligo. Through these passages the English went in pursuit of him as quickly as they could. O'Donnell detached a troop of cavalry, and ordered them to fall to the rear of his army, to prevent the van of the English army from coming into collision with the attendants or unarmed portion of his people. He afterwards moved on with his preys, till he reached the neighbourhood of Gleann-Dallain, without any opposition. The Governor followed in his track, and took up his quarters in the monastery of Sligo, to besiege O'Donnell's warders who were in the castle. On the next day O'Donnell sent a party of cavalry to reconnoitre the English, and learn the state of the fortress, and of the men who were in it; and they advanced to the banks of the river, to the hill which is called Rath-Dabhritog, from which they espied the English moving up and down throughout the town.


There was at this time along with Sir Richard his own sister's son, a proud and haughty youth, Captain Martin by name, who was the commander of his cavalry. He could not bear to see his enemies so near him without attacking them, and proceeded with his squadron across the bridge of Sligo. When O'Donnell's people perceived them advancing, they returned back as speedily as they were able, as they were not equal to them in number. The English pursued them; but not overtaking them, they returned back. O'Donnell's people then related how they had been pursued, and how they had escaped by means of the swiftness of their horses. When O'Donnell heard this story, the resolution he came to was, to lay a snare for the foreigners on the same passage.


He then selected one hundred of the best horsemen of his army, and three hundred infantry with their shooting implements, namely, bows with their arrow-quivers; he ordered them to lie in ambush within a mile of Sligo, and to send a small squadron of horse to the banks of the river, to decoy the English army; and should they the foreigners pursue them, not to wait for an engagement, until they should have come beyond the place where the ambuscade was laid. This was accordingly done. When Captain Martin perceived the small squadron of cavalry on the bank of the river, he advanced directly with a numerous body of cavalry, to wreak his vengeance upon them. The others at first moved slowly and leisurely before them, but these young heroes were soon obliged to incite their horses forward, the English having pursued them with such speed and vehemence. One of them, namely, Felim Reagh Mac Devit, was however compelled to remain behind, in consequence of the slowness of his horse; and, being unable to accompany his own people, he was obliged to disobey the orders of his lord, that is, to fight the English before he had passed the ambuscade. As he was certain of being immediately slain, he turned his face to the nearest of his pursuers, who was Captain Martin; and, as he Captain Martin raised his arm to strike his antagonist with his weapon, Felim placed his finger on the string of the javelin, which he had in readiness to discharge, so that he struck Captain Martin directly in the arm-pit, and pierced his heart in his breast. He was covered with mail, except in the spot where he was wounded. The English, seeing their champion and commander mortally wounded, returned back, carrying him, in his weakly condition, and in the agonies of death, in a recumbent posture, to the town, where he died on that night. When O'Donnell saw that the English had retreated, he was enraged, until the decoying party


bore testimony in behalf of Felim, that his horse was lame, which prevented him from keeping up with his party, and that there was nothing to have saved him from being slain by Captain Martin, excepting the one chance thrust; but his anger afterwards subsided when news reached him on the next day that the Captain had died.


As for the Governor, he was filled with anger and fury after the killing of his kinsman; and he ordered his army to construct engines for demolishing the castle, to see whether they could take it from O'Donnell's people who were in it. This they constructed of the crannchaingel, and of the bed-chambers of the Culdees, and of other implements which they found befitting for the purpose in the monastery. They covered these engines on the outside with the hides of cows and oxen, and wheels were put under them to remove them to the fortress. They were afterwards filled with heroes, warriors, and artisans for the purpose of razing the castle. This mighty train was drawn by them in the beginning of the night to the corner of the castle; and they immediately proceeded to destroy the wall. At this time some artisans who were within the castle began to pull down the opposite wall, in order that the youths within


might hurl the stones down on their enemies. Some of the warders also ascended to the battlements of the castle, and proceeded to cast down messy flags and ponderous, rough rocks, which broke and shattered to pieces every thing on which they fell. Others within the castle went to the windows and loopholes, and commenced discharging leaden bullets and showers of fire upon them; so that the soldiers who were in the wooden engines were bruised by that dropping of the stones, and by the incessant firing. The English did not remain to be wounded further; and, finding that they could effect nothing against the castle, they abandoned their wall-destroying domicile, and returned home, severely wounded, and glad to escape with their lives. It preyed upon the heart of the Governor, Sir Richard Bingham, that he was not able to wreak his vengeance upon the warders of the fortress, or on any of O'Donnell's people. He returned back homeward across the Curlieus, and over Moy-Nai, never halting until he arrived at Roscommon; and O'Donnell also returned homeward across the Erne, and discharged the Scots, having paid them their wages. He went back to Sligo, and demolished the castle, lest the English should inhabit it.


Theobald Burke, the son of Walter Kittagh, son of John, son of Oliver, son of John, laid siege to Bel-leice, a castle in the barony of Tirawley, in the county of Mayo, and it was then defended by the Governor's warders. When the Governor received intelligence of this, he ordered his brother, Captain John Bingham, Captain Foal, Captain Mensi, the son of William Boy Tuite, with many other gentlemen, to go to the relief of the castle with provisions and arms; but, before they could relieve the warders, Theobald had obtained possession of the castle. They then returned home in sorrow; and Theobald went in pursuit of them, piercing, surrounding, disturbing, and slaying them throughout that fair day, so that they lost many men, and much arms and armour. On this day he slew Captain Foal, Captain Mensi, and the son and heir of William Tuite, with many others, both of the gentlemen and common people, not enumerated;


and all who escaped did so by virtue of their prowess, valour, and superior knowledge.


O'Neill (Turlough Luineach, the son of Niall Conallagh, son of Art, son of Con, son of Henry, son of Owen) died. He had bestowed most wealth and riches upon the learned, the Ollavs, and all those who sought gifts of any of the lords of Ireland in his time; for he had often issued a proclamation throughout Ireland to all those who sought gifts, inviting them to come to him on the festivals of the nativity of our Lord; and when they came, not one departed dissatisfied, or without being supplied. He was a lord who had many soldiers in his service for pay and wages,—a lord prosperous in peace, and powerful in war, until age and infirmity came upon him; and an heir had been appointed in his place, ten years before his death, at the parliament held in Dublin in the name of Queen Elizabeth, namely, Hugh (the son of Ferdorcha the Baron, son of Con, son of Con, son of Henry, son of Owen), who had been styled Earl at this parliament. O'Neill died at Strabane, and was interred at Ardstraw.


Magennis (Hugh, the son of Hugh, son of Donnell Oge), a man, of his patrimony, of greatest name and renown among the English and Irish of Ireland, died penitently.


Turlough, the son of Brian, son of Donough, son of Donough Bacagh Mac Mahon, Lord of West Corca-Bhaiscinn, a man of great fame and character throughout Ireland, considering his patrimony, for he had but one cantred, died; and his son, Teige Caech, took his place.


Redmond-na-Scuab, son of Ulick-na-gCeann, son of Rickard, son of Ulick Burke of Cnoc-Tuagh, died.



O'Gallagher (Sir John, the son of Tuathal), a man of great name and renown among the English and Irish of this time, died on the 25th of April.


The monastery of Monaghan in Oriel was this year in the possession of the English, and a company of soldiers constantly guarding it. A message from them reached Dublin that they were in want of provisions. When the Lord Justice, Sir William Russell, and Sir John Norris, heard this, they ordered that twenty-six bands of English and Irish soldiers, together with many gentlemen, should be sent with provisions and all other necessaries to Monaghan. And these marched onward to the town without being noticed or opposed; and, having remained that night in Monaghan, they prepared the next morning to set out for Newry. When, however, they had gone a short distance from Monaghan eastward, they were met by O'Neill's people; and ungentle and unfriendly was the salute they received there, for they O'Neill's people proceeded to shoot, strike, kill, and destroy them, and the engagement lasted from the fourth hour before noon until the dusk of the evening; so that it would not be easy to reckon or enumerate all those of the peopIe of the Lord Justice, both gentle and plebeian, who were lost, or the number of steeds, of coats of mail, of arms, of various weapons, of wares, of rich raiment, of horses, and hampers of provisions, that were left on every road over which they passed on that day. They i.e. the survivors pitched a camp near Newry, and companies of soldiers came for them the next morning; and deficient and broken were they in going to that town. Little had they thought, when leaving Dublin, that they should receive such an attack in Ulster. This conflict took place in the month of May.


Captain Felli, a gentleman of the Queen's people, who had the superintendence and care of the lands of the Governor of Connaught, was treacherously slain in the castle of Aircin by his own people.


In the month of December O'Donnell mustered an army to march into Connaught. The route he took was to Sligo, Traigh-Eothuile, Tireragh, and across


the Moy into Tirawley. The Clann-William Burke were at variance with each other concerning the lordship of the territory, each man of them i.e. of the candidates thinking that he himself was entitled to it. They all came at the summons of O'Donnell, on his arrival in the country; and he consulted with his advisers as to which of them he would nominate lord; he finally decided upon nominating as lord Theobald Burke, son of Walter Kittagh, son of John, son of Oliver, because he had been the first to come over to him after his expulsion from his country by the English; and he O'Donnell had promised to assist him, if in his power. Moreover, this Walter was in the bloom of youth, and able to endure the hardships and toils of the war in which they were engaged. His title of chief was conferred on him in the presence of the forces in general, although there were others of his tribe older and greater in point of dignity than he. Hostages and pledges were delivered into the hands of Theobald by the other Burkes who were in opposition, aFter his election. O'Donnell remained with Mac William in the barony of Cill Meadhoin, and at Brees in Clanmaurice, during the Christmas of this year.


At this time Sir William Russell, the Chief Justiciary of Ireland, was at Galway; and, on his leaving Galway, a peace of two months was proclaimed, but without pledges or hostages, between O'Donnell and the Connacians, on the one side, and the Lord Justice, on the other. There was not at this time any county in Connaught, excepting the county of Clare only, in which the inhabitants, or great numbers of them, had not joined and united with O'Donnell, from the Drowes to Conmaicne-mara, and from the Moy to the Shannon. Among them were the O'Kellys, excepting Conor, the son of Donough Reagh, son of Teige Duv O'Kelly; for he had (forcibly) taken the Callow from Ferdorcha, the son of Kellagh, son of Donnell, son of Hugh na gCailleach O'Kelly; upon which Ferdorcha, with all his number followers, went over to O'Donnell, who appointed him lord of Hy-Many. The O'Maddens rose up in the same war, except the O'Madden alone, namely, Donnell, the son of John, and his son,


Anmchadh. The sons of Redmond na-Scuab, son of Ulick Burke, and those we have mentioned, went and took and destroyed Meelick-I-Madden, Tir-athain, and all the castles of the country, except Longphort. They plundered and totally devastated Clonfert-Brendan, and took the bishop of that town prisoner. Among the rest, on this occasion, was Owen Duv, the son of Melaghlin Balbh O'Madden, from the district of Lusmagh. They afterwards proceeded across the Shannon, into Delvin and Fircall; and, upon their return to the banks of the Shannon, two companies of soldiers, who had been billeted in Meath, were drawn in pursuit of them. These soldiers advanced unnoticed, until they had surrounded the castle of Cloghan, in which the plunderers were, when they slew many of them, and, among the rest, Anmchadh, son of Melaghlin Moder, son of Melaghlin, son of Breasal O'Madden; and Coffagh Oge, the son of Coffagh O'Madden. The sons of Redmond Burke, with the greater part of their people along with them, escaped from conflict.

On this occasion thirteen of the castles of Connaught were broken down by O'Donnell. After crossing the Moy into Tireragh, he conferred the title of O'Dowda upon Teige, the son of Teige Reagh, son of Owen, the O'Dowda; in Leyny he nominated [...] the O'Hara Reagh; and he appointed Maurice Caech, the son of Teige-an-Triubhais, the Mac Donough of Tirerrill; Rory, the son of Hugh, the Mac Donough of Corran; and Conor, the son of Teige, the Mac Dermot of Moylurg. He took away hostages from every territory into which he had come, as a security for their fealty; and he then returned home across the Erne, having terminated his expedition.


The hostages of the greater part of the province of Connaught, who had been imprisoned in Galway by the Governor, Sir Richard Bingham, being intoxicated


and excited after drinking wine, plotted together in the month of August in this year to make their escape from the prison in which they were, by stratagem or force. This resolution being adopted by them, they knocked off their chains and fetters. This was in the early part of the night, while the gates of the town were still open; and it was the time at which all in general were dining, for it was the beginning of the night, when they passed out through the gate of the town westward. The bridge was gained upon them, so that they were obliged to face the rough river which lay before them; but, at the same time that they were leaving the river, the soldiers of the town, who had crossed the bridge, were ready to meet them. Some of them were slain on the spot, and others were turned back to the prison from which they had fled. When the news of this reached the Governor, he sent a writ to Galway, ordering that all those who had consented to escape on this occasion should be hanged without delay; and there were hanged by order of the Governor, namely, the son of Mac William Burke (Edmond, the son of Richard-an-Iarainn); the son of O'Conor Roe, i.e. [...]; the son of Teige Oge, son of Teige Boy, son of Cathal Roe; the son of Mac David (Hubert, the son of Hubert Boy, son of William, son of Thomas); Murrough Oge, the son of Murrough of the Battle-axes, son of Teige O'Flaherty; Donnell, the son of Rory, son of Teige O'Flaherty; and Myler, the son of Theobald, son of Walter Fada Burke.