Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition
Annals of the Four Masters (Author: [unknown])

Annal M1521


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1521. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred twenty-one.


The Prior of Devenish died, Redmond, son of the Parson of Inis-Maighe-Samh, a clerical, kind, charitable, and humane man.


Mac Mahon died, i.e. Redmond, the son of Glasny, son of Redmond, son of Rury; and his son, Glasny Oge, was styled the Mac Mahon.


O'Kane, i.e. Thomas, the son of Aithne, died. He had before this time of his death been taken prisoner, and forcibly deprived of his lordship by Donough O'Kane.


Donough, the son of Rory, son of Brian Maguire, was slain by the sons of Magauran, namely, Donnell Oge, son of Donnell Bearnagh, and Owny, the sons of Manus Magauran. And there was not of his tribe in his time a better man than this Donough.


Grainne, daughter of Thomas O'Eoghain, and mother of Maguire, the Coarb, a woman of great prosperity and wealth, of bounty and true hospitality, died.


Rury, the son of Egneghan O'Donnell, was slain at Dun-Dealgan Dundalk. by the English, while he was in company with O'Neill, i.e. Con, the son of Con.


Turlough, the son of Donough Mac Sweeny, died.


The Lordship of Delvin was divided (by O'Melaghlin, Torlogh, and O'Carroll, Mulrony) between Ferdoragh, the son of the last Mac Coghlan (Fineen Roe), and his relative Cormac.


Celia, the daughter of Niall Garv O'Donnell, died on the 14th of August.


Annal M1522


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1522. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred twenty-two.


Redmond Roe Maguire, Prior of Lisgool, died.


A great war arose between O'Donnell and O'Neill. Mac William of Clanrickard, the English and Irish of Connaught, the O'Briens, the O'Kennedys, and the O'Carrolls, joined and leagued with O'Neill against O'Donnell in that war. The following are the chiefs who came from the west with their combined forces on this expedition: Mac William of Clanrickard (Ulick, the son of Ulick of the Wine); and a party of the chiefs of the O'Briens namely, Donough and Teige, the sons of Turlough, son of Teige O'Brien; and the young Bishop O'Brien; O'Carroll (Mulrony, the son of John), and the O'Kennedys; and not they alone, but such of the Connacians as had been until that time under his tribute, and had been obedient to him O'Donnell, namely, O'Conor Roe, O'Conor Don, Mac William Burke, Mac Dermot of Moylurg, and all that were amongst them in Connaught. All these forces were in readiness to march against O'Donnell, and it was on Lady-day in Harvest they appointed to join O'Neill in Tirhugh.


O'Neill, in the meantime, assembled, in the first place, the forces of Kinel-Owen, then the Clan-Aengusa Magennises, the Oriel, the Reillys, the people of Fermanagh, and a vast number of Scots, under the command of Alexander, the son of Mac Donnell. Great numbers of the English forces of Meath, and the gallowglasses of the province of Leinster, of the Clann-Donnell and Clann-Sheehy, also came thither, from their attachment to the daughter of the Earl of Kildare, who was O'Neill's mother.


O'Donnell on the other hand assembled his own small, but truly faithful, forces in Kinel-Connell, namely, O'Boyle, O'Doherty, the three Mac Sweenys, and the O'Gallaghers, with his son Manus, at Port-na-dtri-namhad, a perilous


pass, through which he supposed O'Neill would make his onslaught upon them. When O'Neill heard of this position of the enemy, the route he took was through Kinel-Owen; and he marched unperceived until he arrived at Termon-Daveog, and from thence to Ballyshannon. The son of Mac Sweeny of Tir-Boghaine (Brian of the Fleet), whom O'Donnell had left to guard the castle of Ballyshannon, defended the town against O'Neill as well as he was able; it was, however, at length taken by O'Neill, and the son of Mac Sweeny, with a great number of his people, was slain by him. There were also slain there two of O'Donnell's ollaves, namely, Dermot, the son of Teige Cam O'Clery, a learned historian and poet, a man who kept an open house of general hospipitality for the mighty and the indigent, and the son of Mac Ward (Hugh, the son of Hugh), with several others besides these. This was on the 11th day of June. Bundrowes and Beal-lice were also taken, and burned by O'Neill on this occasion. On his return from Bundrowes, a party of his forces slew Rory, son of Godfrey, who was son of Hugh Gallda O'Donnell, and the son of Mac Kelly of Breifny, near Sgairbh-innsi-an-fhraoich.


When O'Donnell heard that O'Neill had done these deeds, he ordered his son, Manus O'Donnell, to proceed into Tyrone with a detachment of his army, and to plunder and burn that country; and he himself, with the number of forces he had kept with him, directed his course over Bearnas, in pursuit of O'Neill, and to defend Tirhugh. As to Manus, he plundered and burned all the neighbouring parts of Kinel-Owen; he also slew and destroyed many persons, and then returned in triumph.


When O'Neill discovered that Manus had gone into Tyrone, he returned across the River Finn, and spoiled the country before him as far as Ceann-Maghair, from whence he carried off a prey; and he then proceeded in triumph to his own country.



O'Neill afterwards pitched his camp at Cnoc Buidhbh, at Loch Monann, commonly called Cnoc an Bhogha, with all the forces before mentioned, except the western army, as we have said before.


As to O'Donnell, after his son Manus had reached him with many spoils, as he had not caught O'Neill at Ballyshannon, and as he had not overtaken him after the plundering of Ceann-Maghair, he returned across Bearnas, and mustered all the forces he had, though they were few against many at that time, and they all came to one place to Druim-Lighean. They held council to consider what they should do in the strait difficulties they had to meet, for they knew that they would not be at all able to maintain a contest with O'Neill and his army, and with the Connacian army, which was then marching towards their country, should they succeed in joining each other before the engagement; so that the resolution they adopted was to attack O'Neill, as he was the nearest to them, choosing rather to be slain on the field than to become slaves to any one in the world. They agreed (as the army opposed to them were so very nurmerous) to attack O'Neill's by night. A notice and forewarning of this resolution reached O'Neill, so that he placed sentinels to guard every pass by which he thought the Kinel-Connell might come to attack him, while he himself, with the main body of his army, remained on the watch at the rere in his camp.


O'Donnell, having arrayed and marshalled, excited and earnestly exhorted his small army, commanded them to abandon their horses, for they had no desire to escape from the field of battle unless they should be the victors. They his forces then advanced until they came up to the sentinels of O'Neill without being perceived by them. However, the sentinels began to


give notice to their people that their enemies were approaching. The Kinel-Connell now, fearing that the sentinels would reach O'Neill before them, rushed onwards with such violence and vehemence that they went out of array; and they and the sentinels reached the camp together. On thus coming into collision with one another they raised great shouts aloud, and their clamour was not feebly responded to by O'Neill's common soldiers, for they proceeded bravely and protectively to defend their chief and their camp. Both armies were engaged at striking and killing each other, and mighty men were subdued, and heroes hacked, on either side; men were hewn down, and death and evil destiny seized vigorous youths in that place. Scarcely did any one of them on either side know with whom he should engage in combat, for they could not discern one another's faces on account of the darkness of the night, and their close intermixing with each other. At last, however, O'Neill and his army were defeated, and the camp was left to O'Donnell. Great indeed was the slaughter made upon O'Neill recte, O'Neill's forces on that spot, for it was calculated by the people of the churches in which many of them were interred, and by those of the neighbours who were near them and recognized the bodies, that upwards of nine hundred of O'Neill's army fell in that engagement, so that the name and renown of that victory spread all over Ireland. The most distinguished men who fell in that engagement were the following: Donnell Oge Mac Donnell, with a countless number of gallowglasses of the Clann-Donnell Mac Donnell; Turlough Mac Sheehy, with a great number of his people ; John Bissett, with the greater part of the Scots who had come with him; Hugh, the son of Owen, son of William Mac Mahon, with a party of his troops; and Rory Maguire, and some of his people along with him. There fell there also many of the Lagenians and of the men of Meath, for there came not a leader of a band or troop, small or great, in that muster of O'Neill, who did not complain of the number of his people that were left dead on that field; so that this battle of Cnoc Buidhbh was one of the most bloody engagements that had ever occurred between the Kinel-Connell and the Kinel-Owen. The Kinel-Connel seized upon horses, arms,


armour, a store of provisions, strong liquors, and several beautiful and rich articles, both eiscras and goblets, of the forces whom they had defeated; and though O'Donnell's people were without horses on going into the engagement, they had many horses from the warriors whom they had cut off in that slaughter. Some of O'Donnell's forces went to their houses with their share of the spoils, without his permission, but he sent them a peremptory order to return to him at once; and after they had collected to one place at his summons, he marched, with all the speed that might be, westwards, through the gap of Bearnas Mor, over the Rivers Erne, Drowes, and Duff, and over the lower part of Carbury, and pitched his camp at Ceathramha-na-madadh, on the north side of Binn-Golban, because the Connacian army, of which we have already spoken, had advanced to Sligo, and were laying siege to that town, in which O'Donnell had placed warders; and nothing delayed their march to Tirconnell but the taking of the town. When the two Mac Williams, the two O'Conors, Mac Dermot, the O'Briens, O'Carroll, and the O'Kennedys, with their forces, heard of O'Donnell's having encamped in their vicinity, and of that victory which he had gained over O'Neill, they resolved to dispatch messengers to sue for peace from him; and they offered to him to leave all the covenants and matters in dispute between O'Donnell and Mac William to the arbitration of Manus O'Donnell and O'Carroll. Teige, the son of Turlough O'Brien, with other chiefs, were sent with these proposals. While the messengers were delivering their embassy to O'Donnell, the chiefs of the army, together with all their forces, came to the resolution of raising the siege and retreating privately; and they acted on this resolution, though it was strange and wonderful that such an army as was there—so numerous, so complete, with leaders so noble, and with enmity so intense against the persons opposed to them—should have retreated in this manner, and should not have waited until each party had expended its fury, and wreaked its vengeance on the other. These troops did not halt or wait for the return of their messengers, or the report of their embassy as to peace and tranquillity, until they reached the Curlieu mountains, where the lords and chieftains of the army separated from one another.



O'Donnell, however, did not know that these hosts had fled from him after this manner, for had he known it he would have pursued them with all possible speed. Manus O'Donnell sent an escort with the messengers, i.e. with Teige O'Brien and his associates, and it was at the Curlieu mountains he overtook his people. Scarcely did the defeat of Cnoc-Buidhbh, in which many men had been slaughtered and vast spoils obtained, procure greater renown or victory for O'Donnell throughout Ireland than this bloodless defeat, although no one among them had lost a drop of blood or received a single wound.


Donnell i.e. Donnell Cleireach, the son of John O'Kane, the paragon of the youth of his tribe, and a man of general hospitality, was slain by the people of the Route.


Donnell, the son of Donnell O'Rourke, distinguished for his nobleness and great deeds, was slain by the sons of Felim O'Rourke.


Master Felim O'Corcran, a learned doctor of the canon law, died.

Annal M1523


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1523. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred twenty-three.


John O'Maenaigh, who was parson of Geshill, and a canon chorister at Kildare, a clergyman of the greatest name and renown in the upper part of Leinster, died.


O'Kane (Donough, the son of John), the best patron of his own tribe, in his time, of the learned and the distressed, died.


O'More (Kedagh, the son of Laoighseach), died.


Mary, the daughter of O'Malley, and wife of Mac Sweeny Fanad, the best wife of a constable in her time, died.


O'Malley (Cormac, the son of Owen), a general supporter for his prowess and hospitality, died.


Mac Tiernan (Farrell, the son of Gilla-Isa Oge, son of Gilla-Isa, son of


Brian), Lord of Teallach-Dunchadha Tullyhunco, a charitable and humane man, died; and his brother assumed his place.


Brian, son of Teige-an-Chomhaid, son of Torlogh, who was son of Brian Chatha-an-Aonaigh, died suddenly, about the festival of St. Patrick, at Cluain Ramhfhoda Clonroad.


The son of O'Brien of Thomond (Teige, son of Turlough, son of Teige, son of Turlough, son of Brian Catha-an-aenaigh), was killed by a shot of a ball at Ath-an-Chamais, upon the River Suir, by the Butlers, i.e. Pierce Roe Butler, Lord Justice of Ireland. This Teige was, of all men of his age, the most dreaded by his enemies.


Mac Gille Eain (Loughlin) was slain.


Mac Conmidhe, i.e. Melaghlin, died.


Hugh Boy, the son of Con, son of Niall, son of Art O'Neill, was slain by Rory Carragh, the son of Cormac, son of Hugh.


Owen, the son of Felim, son of Donough, son of Tiernan Oge O'Rourke, was drowned in the Lough of Glenn-éda.


Ross, the son of Rory, son of Brian, son of Felim Maguire, died in captivity with the Coarb Maguire (Cuconnaught).


Hugh, the son of Art O'Toole, the most celebrated of his tribe in his time for hospitality and nobleness, was slain by the Byrnes.


A war broke out between O'Neill, i.e. Con and O'Donnell (Hugh Duv, son of Hugh Roe). O'Donnell remained encamped during the Spring in Glenn-Finne, and Manus O'Donnell went to Scotland; and he returned in safety after his visit. O'Donnell and Manus then went to Tyrone, and ravaged and burned the whole country from Bealach Coille na g-Cuirritin to Dungannon. The town of Mac Donnell, i.e. Cnoc-an-Chluiche, was burned


by O'Donnell, and a beautiful herb garden there was cut down and destroyed by his forces. They remained for some time encamped at Tullyhoge, and ravaged and plundered the country on every side; and again they encamped for a time at one side of Carn t-Siaghail Carnteel, where they killed and destroyed numbers of cattle, and committed other great depredations, and they returned safe after having thus plundered the country on that expedition.


O'Donnell went again to Tyrone and continued to plunder and devastate the country until the end of the year, when O'Neill made peace with him, and so no other remarkable exploit was performed between them.


O'Donnell (Hugh Oge, the son of Hugh Roe), after having made peace with O'Neill, assembled the forces within his own territory, and those of his neighbourhood, and made an irruption into Breifny-O'Rourke. Spoils and goods of the country were conveyed by the men of Breifny into the wilds and fastnesses of the country, to guard and protect them against O'Donnell. The sons of O'Rourke, with all the forces which they had with them, were defending the country against O'Donnell. O'Donnell, however, overran the country on this occasion, burned its edifices and corn, and left nothing worth notice in it without burning.


A very great army was led by Garrett, Earl of Kildare, the English of Meath, and O'Neill (Con, the son of Con, son of Henry, son of Owen), against O'Conor Faly, Connell O'More, and the Irish of Leinster in general. All these Irish abided by the decision and arbitration of O'Neill between them and the Earl, and O'Neill, after having made peace between them, delivered the pledges and hostages of the Irish into the keeping of the Earl, in security for the performance of every demand he made of them; and so they separated from each other in peace.


Fearadhach Boy O'Madden, Tanist of Sil-Anmchadha, was slain by the army of O'Carroll, i.e. Mulrony.


Annal M1524


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1524. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred twenty-four.


The two sons of O'Donnell, namely, Niall Garv and Owen, the sons of Hugh Oge, son of Hugh Roe, formed a confederacy to wage war; and they continued for some time disturbing the country, until at length they were induced to oppose each other. The town of Niall Garv, i.e. the Crannog of Loch Beatha, in which he had been left only by Owen as protector and caretaker, was seized to his own use; Niall left the territory, and again marched from a great distance to attack the town mansion; and he lay in ambush in its vicinity. Owen, having received intelligence of this, repaired to the place where Niall was; and they fought there for a long time, until Owen was slain on the spot; and Niall was so deeply wounded, that he died of his wounds soon afterwards. The loss of two who fell there would have been the cause of great grief before this time.


Dermot, son of Gilla-Duv O'Brien, a man who assisted those that requested any thing of him better than any other man, owning a like extent of territory; a man of the most untiring hospitality and prowess, who was rather expected to live and enjoy the wealth and dignity of his patrimony, died, after Unction and Penance.


An army was led by O'Donnell into Tyrone; and he burned and ravaged the country, after which he returned safe.


An army was led by the Lord Justice (Garrett, the son of Garrett, Earl of Kildare), precisely in the middle of Autumn, to relieve his kinsman, O'Neill, i.e. Con, the son of Con, and to wreak his vengeance upon O'Donnell; and he never halted until he arrived at Port-na-dtri-namhad, for they i.e. he and his forces considered themselves secure and protected in that place against O'Donnell, of whom they were afraid, for there lay all around them deep ditches and strong and broad trenches, which had been formed some time before by Manus


O'Donnell. O'Donnell mustered a numerous army to defend his country against the Lord Justice and O'Neill. The following are those who joined the army of O'Donnell on this occasion, exclusive of his own native forces: a great body of Scots, consisting of the gentlemen of the Clann-Donnell of Scotland, under the conduct of Mac Donnell himself, i.e. Alexander, the son of John Cahanagh, and under Mac Donnell Galloglagh, with many others of the chieftains of Scotland who accompanied them. These never halted until they arrived at Druimlighean, and there was a promise of battle between them on the morrow. Manus O'Donnell was desirous of attacking the Lord Justice and O'Niall on that night, but to this O'Donnell would not consent, on account of the strength of the position of the enemy, and from a dread of the ordnance which the Lord Justice's people had with them. Manus, however, without consulting O'Donnell, set out on foot with a party of gallowglasses, to harass and confuse the army of the Lord Justice and O'Neill, and commenced discharging showers of arrows at them, so that they neither allowed them to sleep nor rest; and they slew Calvagh, the son of O'Brien, who was a great loss in his own territory, and many others along with him. The resolution which the Lord Justice and O'Neill adopted on the following day was, to send messengers to O'Donnell, requesting him to come to a conference, and conclude a peace. This was accordingly done, and the Lord Justice confirmed a peace between O'Neill and O'Donnell, he himself being as surety between them. A gossipred was also formed between the Lord Justice and O'Donnell, so that on this occasion they parted from each other in friendship and amity, through the miraculous interposition of God. The Lord Justice and O'Neill, on their return, found Hugh, the son of Niall, son of Con, son of Hugh Boy, son of Brian Ballagh, ravaging Tyrone with a numerous army ; and Hugh, when he heard that these hosts were approaching him, sent the greater number of his forces onwards with the preys and spoils of the country, and he himself remained at a great distance behind them, with only a small body of troops, so that the main body of the other army overtook him. They attacked him, and, being caught in a perilous condition, he was overpowered and killed on the spot, on the 6th of October. It was a rueful and grievous thing that this noble and highborn chieftain should


thus be cut off,—for his peer for nobleness, intelligence, hospitality, valour, prowess, and protection, had not been found for a long time before among the Kinel-Owen. The following quatrain was composed in commemoration of the year of his death:
  1. Four and twenty years, 'tis true,
    A thousand and five hundred,
    From birth of Christ till death of Hugh,
    Should any one inquire.


Mac Quillin (Cormac) and the son of John Duv Mac Donnell were wounded and taken prisoners after this killing of Hugh, by O'Neill's people.


Gormley, the daughter of O'Donnell (Hugh Roe), and wife of Hugh, the son of Niall, son of Con O'Neill, a most bounteous and hospitable woman, who had bestowed many gifts upon the orders and churches, and upon the literary men and ollaves (which, indeed, was what might have been expected from her, for she had a husband worthy of her), died, having gained the victory over the Devil and the world.


A great war broke out among the O'Kanes, in which Cumaighe. the son of Brian Finn O'Kane, was slain, and Ferdoragh, the son of Rory, of the Route. In this war was also slain Hugh Carragh, the son of O'Doherty, by Godfrey, the son of Godfrey O'Kane, together with a party of his people, they having gone to assist John, the son of Thomas O'Kane.


Cumhaighe Ballagh, the son of Donnell O'Kane, a distinguished gentleman, considering his means, was slain by some of the people of the Route.


Mac Donough of Tirerrill died, namely, Rory, the son of Tomaltagh, son of Brian ; whereupon a contention arose among the Mac Donoughs, concerning the lordship of the country; and Cormac, the son of Teige, son of Brian, was at last styled the Mac Donough.


Mac Sweeny of Tir-Boghaine (Niall More, the son of Owen), a constable of hardiest hand and heroism, of boldest heart and counsel, best at withholding and attacking, best in hospitality and prowess, who had the most numerous troops, and most vigorous soldiers, and who had forced the greatest number of


perilous passes of any man of his own fair tribe, died, after Unction and Penance, in his own castle of Rathain, on the 14th of December.


O'Conor Kerry (Conor, the son of Conor) set out upon a predatory incursion into Duthaidh-Ealla, but was overtaken by Cormac Oge, the son of Cormac, son of Teige Mac Carthy, who defeated O'Conor, wounded him, and took him prisoner. In this defeat Conor, the son of Dermot, son of Gilla-Duv O'Brien, and Dermot, the son of Cormac O'Malley, were slain by Cormac, son of Teige (Mac Carthy).


Mac Carthy Reagh (Donnell, the son of Fineen, son of Dermot) made a predatory incursion into Gleann-Fleisce; but, being overtaken by the people of the country as he was leaving the glen, he himself was taken prisoner, and some of his people were slain.


Mac Rannall (Cathal Oge, the son of Cathal) was treacherously slain on the green of his own town, by the sons of O'Mulvey.


More, the daughter of O'Brien (i.e. Turlough, the son of Teige), and wife of Donough, the son of Mahon O'Brien, a woman who kept a house of open hospitality, died.


Eveleen, daughter of the Knight of Glynn, and wife of O'Conor Kerry, a good, charitable, and humane woman, died.


Turlough, the son of Felim Boy O'Conor, was slain by Turlough Roe, the son of Teige Boy, son of Cathal Roe.


Rory, the son of Brian, son of Philip Maguire, a distinguished captain, died.


The son of O'Reilly (Cathal, the son of Owen, son of Cathal) was taken prisoner by the sons of John, son of Cathal O'Reilly, the consequence of which was, the desolation of all Breifny, between O'Reilly and the sons of John O'Reilly. O'Neill (Con, the son of Con) twice marched with an army into Breifny, to destroy that part of it which belonged to the sons of John; and the sons of John destroyed O'Reilly's part; and the young Prior, son of Cathal, son of Farrell, son of John, a distinguished captain, was killed by the shot of a ball at the castle of Tulach Moain.



The son of Maguire (Conor, the son of John, son of Philip) was slain by the descendants of Art O'Neill.


Ross, son of Rory, son of Thomas Oge Maguire, was drowned in the port of Claoininis Cleenish, after having carried off a prey from the son of Maguire, i.e. Gilla-Patrick, the son of Conor.


Brian, the son of Gilla-Patrick, son of Hugh Oge Mac Mahon; Ardgal, son of Hugh Oge; and Eochy, son of Hugh Oge. came to the town of Mac Mahon (i.e. of Glasny, the son of Redmond, son of Glasny Mac Mahon), to confirm and ratify their peace with him; and there, having made peace, and concluded their covenants and compacts with him by many oaths and sureties, they left the town without fear or apprehension; but Brian-na-Moicheirghe Mac Mahon, and Mac Mahon's household, were sent in pursuit of them, and Brian and Ardgal, two of the best men, of their years, in their neighbourhood, were slain by them through treachery and deceit.


John Boy, the son of Andrew Magrath, a man of note, a prosperous man, and very wealthy, died.


O'Breslen (Owen Oge, the son of Owen), Ollav to Maguire in judicature, died.


Mac Rithbheartaigh (i.e. Cuconnaught), Ollav to Maguire in poetry, died.

Annal M1525


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1525. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred twenty-five.


A foul and abominable deed was committed in this year, namely, the Bishop of Leighlin was treacherously murdered by Mac an-Abbaidh Mac Murrough and others, who was in his company, with the appearance of love and charity. As many of the perpetrators of this crime as were apprehended by the


Earl of Kildare, were by his orders brought to the spot on which they had murdered the bishop, and condemned to be first flayed alive, and then to have their bowels and entrails taken out and burned before them.


Turlough, the son of Mahon, son of Turlough, son of Brian Catha an aenaigh O'Brien, Bishop of Killaloe, died.


The Dean, the son of Brian Roe Mac Conmidhe Mac Namee, who kept a house of general hospitality, died.


A general meeting of the principal men of Ireland was held in Dublin, by the Lord Justice, the Earl of Kildare (Garrett Oge, son of Garrett). Thither repaired the earls and barons, knights and other distinguished men, and the greater number of the Irish and the English of all Ireland. Thither repaired O'Neill (Con, the son of Con) and O'Donnell (Hugh, the son of Hugh Roe), with intent to form a league and reconfirm their peace in presence of the Lord Justice. But after they themselves, and their English and Irish friends, had debated and argued upon every covenant that had ever been entered into between them till that time, it was still found impossible for the Lord Justice and all the other chieftains to reconcile them to each other; so that they returned to their homes at strife, and the war between them was renewed. O'Donnell went twice into Tyrone this year, and burned and devastated every part of the country through which he passed, and received neither battle nor opposition, either in going or returning, on either of these expeditions. In the beginning of the following harvest, however, a peace was concluded between them; and they mutually agreed to abide, on each side, by the arbitration of the Lord Justice and Manus O'Donnell.


O'Kane, i.e. John, the son of Thomas, was slain by a party of his own tribe, namely, Rory O'Kane of the Route, the son of Godfrey O'Kane, and others.


Catherine, the daughter of O'Duigennan, died on the 9th of June, and was honourably buried in the monastery of Donegal.


Rose, the daughter of Maguire (John), died.


Joan, daughter of Mac Mahon (Brian), died.


Annal M1526


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1526. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred twenty-six.


Glasny, the son of Hugh Magennis, Abbot of the Monks of Newry, and Prior of Down and Saul, was slain by the sons of Donnell Magennis, namely, by Donnell Oge and his kinsmen.


O'Reilly, i.e. Owen, died. After his death a great war arose among the chiefs of his tribe concerning the lordship, and continued until Farrell, the son of John, was styled O'Reilly, by advice of the Lord Justice and many others of the English and Irish chieftains, though some of his rivals were elder than he.


The son of O'Rourke, i.e. Teige, the son of Owen, was treacherously slain by his own brother's people.


O'Neill (Con) and Manus O'Donnell went before the Lord Justice to make peace between the Kinel-Connell and Kinel-Owen; and many of the chiefs of the English and Irish assembled to reconcile them, but they were not able to establish peace or amity between them, so that they returned home in emnity on that occasion.


O'Donnell (after the return of Manus from Dublin) and Manus himself, with the forces of both, marched, in the beginning of Spring, into Tyrone: they committed many depredations and great devastations in the territory. They feasted upon those preys during Shrovetide at Coill-na-lon, in Sil-Baoighill, and then returned home in safety, loaded with great booty.


A great dissension arose in Lower Connaught. The greater number of them i.e. of the inhabitants combined against O'Donnell. The following were those who formed this confederacy: Brian, the son of Felim O'Conor, and Teige, the son of Cathal Oge O'Conor, together with the descendants of Cormac


Mac Donough, namely, Owen and Murtough, with their sons and followers. These people committed a depredation in the lower part of Carbury, upon the descendants of Felim, the son of Owen O'Conor; and they carried off the preys with them into Moylurg, for the inhabitants of that territory were at peace with them, for having opposed O'Donnell.


When O'Donnell had heard of these depredations having been committed. he mustered his forces together, namely, some of the chiefs of Tirconnell and Maguire (Cuconnaught), with the rising-out of Fermanagh. He first proceeded to Carbury, where he, without delay, demolished the castle of Grainseach, the town i.e. mansion-seat of the descendants of Brian O'Conor. He afterwards marched at the head of this army into Moylurg, and ravaged and burned the country; the descendants of Brian O'Conor having shunned him on this occasion, he returned home. When the O'Conors heard that O'Donnell had returned into Tirconnell, they and the Mac Donoughs, already mentioned, came with all their forces around Sligo, and proceeded to cut down the crops and corn fields; and they were preparing to take the town, until Rory Ballagh, the son of O' Hart, a good man of their people, was slain; and they departed from the town on that day; but they again collected around it. O'Donnell, on receiving intelligence of their proceedings, went, without delay or neglect, vigorously and expeditiously, to the relief of Sligo; but the others did not await his coming, for the O'Conors and Mac Donoughs went to Bal-an-droichit. O'Donnell pursued them with all possible speed, and he at once routed the said O'Conors and Mac Donoughs. The son of Mac Donough (Melaghlin, the son of Owen) and many others besides him, were slain; Brian, the son of Felim, son of Manus O'Conor, was thrown from his horse, and it was by the closeness and fastness of the wood that surrounded Bel-an-droichit that he was enabled to escape from them,—and some say that he was never perfectly well from the period of that defeat until he died some time afterwards. The Connacian army left great spoils, consisting of horses, arms, and armour,


to the Kinel-Connell on that occasion; and from the time that Hugh Roe, the son of Niall Garv, had gained the battle of Ceideach-droighneach over the Connacians, where many of them were slain, the Kinel-Connell had not given a defeat to the Connacians which redounded more to their triumph, or by which they obtained more spoils, than this defeat of Bel-an-droichit.


O'Neill set out to prevent the erection of a castle which Manus O'Donnell had begun at Port-na-dtri-namhad; but Manus met the van of his army, and took Henry, the son of John O'Neill, prisoner; whereupon O'Neill himself took to flight.


O'Kane (Godfrey, son of Godfrey) was slain at Bealach-an-Chamain, by the son of O'Neill (Niall Oge); and Niall himself was soon afterwards taken prisoner by O'Neill, and he was detained a long time in captivity.


The son of O'Kane, i.e. Godfrey, heir to the lordship of his own country, set out upon a predatory incursion into Gleann-Concadhan, in the month of January; and he perished in consequence of the intense cold of the winter; nor was there a word heard about him until the end of the following Lent, when his body was discovered. Henry, son of Niall, who was son of Niall, Lord of Baile-na-braghat, was slain on this occasion; and many others perished of cold and were slain along with them.


A defeat was given by the son of Mac Pierce to the sons of Edmond, son of Thomas Butler, in which was slain Conor Oge, son of Conor Caech O'Donnell, who was a constable of gallowglasses, and who had often before that time, but especially on that day, made a display of the prowess and activity of his arm; for the greatness of his mind and the dexterity of his hand would not suffer him to accept quarter, after it had been offered him. And a great number of chieftains of cavalry and of gallowglasses were slain in that defeat along with him.


O'Doherty (Eachmarcach), Lord of Inishowen, died; and a great contention


arose among his tribe concerning the lordship, and continued until Gerald, the son of Donnell, son of Felim O'Doherty, was at last styled Lord.


An army was led by O'Donnell into Tirawley, at the instance of the descendants of Richard Burke. In this army were the chiefs of Tirconnell and Maguire, with the rising-out of Fermanagh; and these chieftains marched, without delaying or halting, on to Sligo. This army of O'Donnell collected in Cuil-irra a great quantity of corn, belonging to the descendants of Brian O'Conor, and drew it into Sligo; and such corn as they did not carry off they totally destroyed. O'Donnell then marched his army into Tirawley, where he took the castles of Caerthanan and Cros-Maoiliona, in which he found hostages and many spoils; and he then threw down and totally demolished these castles, so that they were no longer habitable. He afterwards established peace, amity, and concord, between the descendants of Rickard Burke and the Barretts, so that they were for a long time afterwards friendly towards one another. On his way home O'Donnell pitched his camp at Cul-Maoile Collooney, the inhabitants of which were in a state of hostility and insubordination to him at that time; and he destroyed and burned all the corn belonging to the descendants of Cormac Mac Donough; and it was not until after they had been plundered and ruined that they made peace with O'Donnell, upon his own conditions, and gave him hostages for the fulfilment to him of every thing they promised. The descendants of Brian O'Conor acted in like manner, for they gave O'Donnell his demands, and made peace with him on his own terms, after he had demolished the castle of Grainseach Grange, and destroyed all their crops and corn. They afterwards took their creaghts into the country. O'Donnell, with his army, returned safe, after victory and triumph, on that expedition. This hosting was made by O'Donnell a short time before Allhallowtide.


Breasal O'Madden, Lord of Sil-Anmchadha, a kind, brave, mild, and justly-judging man, died.


Annal M1527


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1527. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred twenty-seuen.


Laurence, Abbot of Lisgool, died.


Maguire (Conor) died; and the Coarb, namely, Cuconnaught, son of Cuconnaught, who was son of Brian, was styled Maguire in his place by O'Donnell.


Turlough, the son of Egneghan O'Donnell, and Felim, the son of Godfrey, son of John Luirg O'Donnell, died.


Mac Donough of Tirerrill (Cormac, the son of Teige, son of Brian), died; and a contention arose between the Clann-Donough concerning the lordship, and continued until Owen, the son of Donough, son of Murrough, was styled Mac Donough.


Brian, the son of Felim, son of Manus O'Conor, and Donnell, the son of Felim, son of Turlough Carragh O'Conor, died.


Flaherty, the son of Rory, son of Brian Maguire, was slain by Teallach-Eachdhach, i.e. by Owny, the son of Manus Magauran.


Auliffe Oge Duv Magawley, Chief of Calry, fell by the Clann-Colman; but before his fall, he himself avenged himself, for he slew Fiacha Mageoghegan on the field of contest.


O'Clery (Gilla-Reagh, the son of Teige Cam), a scientific adept in history, poetry, and literature, and a man of consideration, wealth, prosperity, and great power, died in the habit of St. Francis, on the 8th day of March.


The physician O'Donlevy (Donough, son of Owen), a Doctor of Medicine, and learned in other sciences, a man of great affluence and wealth, who kept a house of general hospitality, died on the 30th of September.


Mac Manus Maguire (Thomas Oge, the son of Cathal Oge, son of Cathal Oge), Biatach of Seanadh, and Official of Lough Erne, a wise man, skilled in the sciences, a man of great fame and renown throughout his neighbourhood, died.


Rory, the son of Murrough Mac Sweeny, was slain by his own kinsmen.



William, the son of Andrew Magrath, a man of wealth and prosperity, died.


Catherine, the daughter of Con, son of Donnell O'Neill, a pious and truly hospitable woman, who had been married to good men, namely, first to O'Reilly, and afterwards to O'Rourke, died, after unction and penance.


An army was mustered by O'Donnell (Hugh, the son of Hugh Roe), to march into Connaught. The following were those who joined his forces:— O'Boyle, O'Doherty, the three Mac Sweenys, Maguire (Cuconnaught), with the rising-out of Fermanagh, and also the chiefs of Lower Connaught, with their rising-out; and they marched on, without halting, until they reached Moylurg. They destroyed the whole country, both corn and buildings. They afterwards proceeded to Castlemore-Costello, for the purpose of taking it. This was an impregnable fortress, for it contained provisions, and every kind of engines, the best to be found at that time in Ireland for resisting enemies, such as cannon, and all sorts of weapons. These chieftains, nevertheless, proceeded to besiege the castle; and they placed their army in order all around it, so that they did not permit any person to pass from it or towards it, until they at last took it.


On this expedition they also took the castle of Meannoda, and the castles of Cala, Baile-na-huamha, and Castlereagh, all which they demolished, after they had taken them. One of O'Donnell's men, Hugh Boy, the son of Dubhaltach O'Gallagher, was slain close to Bealach-buidhe Ballaghboy.


The castle of Leithbhir was completed by Manus O'Donnell, with its works of stone, wood, and boards, while O'Neill was at war with him. Manus commenced this work on the Wednesday before the festival of St. Brendan, in summer, and finished it in the course of the same summer.


Annal M1528


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1528. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred twenty-eight.


O'Rourke (Owen), Lord of Breifny, sustaining pillar of the hospitality, prowess, and nobility, of the race of Hugh Finn, died in the habit of St. Francis, after unction and penance.


O'Brien (Turlough, the son of Teige), who, of all the Irish in Leath Mhogha, had spent the longest time in acts of nobility and hospitality, the worthy heir of Brian Boru in maintaining war against the English, died, after unction and penance; and his son, Conor Mac Turlough, was appointed to his place.


Finola, the daughter of O'Brien (Conor-na-Srona, son of Turlough, son of Brian Catha-an-aenaigh), and wife of O'Donnell (Hugh Roe), a woman who, as regarded both body and soul, had gained more fame and renown than any of her contemporaries, having spent her life and her wealth in acts of charity and humanity, and after having been twenty-two years in the habit of St. Francis, died on the first day of Lent (which fell on the 5th of February), and was buried in the monastery of Donegal, which had been founded in her own time.


Con, the son of Niall, son of Art O'Neill, a distinguished captain, was slain on the 15th of April, by the son of Art Oge O'Neill (i.e. the O'Neill), and a party of the descendants of Hugh Maguire; and the two sons of O'Neill (Art Oge), namely, Henry and Cormac, who had been detained in captivity by the other O'Neill (i.e. Con, the son of Con), for a long time before, were given up by him to the sons of Con, son of Niall; and the sons of Con hanged them both, in revenge of their father.


Mac Dermot of Moylurg (Cormac, the son of Rory), a general supporter of hospitality and generosity, the hardiest man in Connaught in war and in battle, the defender of his territory against exterior tribes, died, after unction and penance; and his brother, Dermot, took his place.


Mac Carthy Reagh (Donnell) died.


The castle of Cuil-Maoile Colooney was taken from Mac Donough by his own brother, Murtough, the son of Donough, son of Murrough; and Mac


Donough himself and his son, Murrough, were soon afterwards taken prisoners by O'Dowda and the same Murtough; and another of Mac Donough's sons, i.e. Donough, was slain by them at that time.


An army was led by O'Donnell, accompanied by a great body of Scots, under the conduct of Alexander, the son of John Cahanagh, into Moylurg, and Bealach buidhe was cut through by them. He obtained hostages and rents from Mac Dermot, and then returned home safe to his country.


O'Mulvey, Chieftain of Teallach-Chearbhallain (Cathal, the son of Donnell, son of Owny Boy), died.


A great wind arose on the Friday before Christmas, which prostrated a great number of trees throughout Ireland, threw down many stone and wooden buildings, destroyed the Mur of the monastery of Donegal, and swept away, sank, and wrecked many vessels.

Annal M1529


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1529. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred twenty-nine.


Mac Sweeny Fanad (Donnell Oge, the son of Donnell, son of Turlough Roe), Lord of Fanad for eleven years, died, after having taken the habit of the order of the Blessed Virgin Mary.


Edmond, the son of Donnell Mac Sweeny, and Edmond Roe, his son, fell on the same day by the hand of Turlough, the son of Rory, son of Maelmurry Mac Sweeny.


Brian Ballagh, the son of Niall, son of Con O'Neill, was slain by Cormac Mac Quillin, the said Cormac having set out from Carrickfergus in company and friendship with Brian.


Cathal, the son of Owen, son of Hugh Maguire, died.


Brian Roe, the son of John Maguire, was slain by one cast of a dart, while interposing to quell a riot between the people of Coole and Machaire.



The son of Mac Dowell Mac Dugald of Scotland was slain by Hugh Boy O'Donnell with one stroke of a sword, on the threshold of the castle of Cuilmic an-treoin.


The castle of Cuil-mic-an-treoin was taken by Manus O'Donnell; and having called a council to decide on what was best to be done, he determined on demolishing the castle.


Cosnamhach, the son of Farrell, son of Donough Duv Mac Egan, the most distinguished adept in the Fenechas, poetry, and lay Brehonship, in all the Irish territories, died, and was interred at Elphin.


Mac Egan of Ormond (Donnell, the son of Hugh, son of Donnell), head of the learned of Leath-Mhogha in Feneachus and poetry, died.


Owen, the son of Felim Mac Manus, and his wife, Grainne, daughter of Conor Maguire, died.

Annal M1530


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1530. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred thirty.


The Bishop of Elphin, i.e. the Greek Bishop, died.


A chapter of the friars was held at Donegal; and it was O'Donnell (Hugh Oge) that supplied them with every thing they stood in need of; or desired, while they remained together on that occasion.


Catherine, the daughter of Mac Sweeny, and wife of O'Doherty, and Rose, the daughter of O'Kane, and wife of Felim O'Doherty, died.


Conor Oge O'Boyle, Tanist of Boylagh, was slain by the sons of O'Boyle (Niall, the son of Turlough), on the Leacach, on the 6th of January.


Felim, the son of Conor O'Boyle, was slain by the sons of O'Boyle.


Mulmurry Mac Sweeny, Constable of Tir-Baghaine, died.


Donnell, the son of Brien, son of Donnell O'Neill, went upon a predatory


excursion into Machaire-Stefanach Magherastephana, and his people seized on a prey. The people of the country assembled, and pursued them to Sliabh-Beatha, where they overtook them; but Donnell turned round on the pursuers, and defeated them with great slaughter, in which the two sons of Owen Roe O'Neill were taken prisoners, and three sons of Rory na Leargan; two sons of Manus Mac Mahon, the son of Henry, son of Brian, and Thomas of the Rock, the son of Edmond Maguire, were slain.


Gilla-Patrick, the son of Cormac, son of Art Cuile of Coole Maguire, died. He kept, for his means, the best house of hospitality of all those that were in Fermanagh in his time.


An army was led by O'Donnell into the province of Connaught; he first passed through Coillte-Chonchubhair, and from thence proceeded through the Tanist's portion of Moylurg, by the Caradh-Droma-ruisc, across the Shannon, and burned and totally desolated the territory of Muintir-Eolais; some of his people were slain around the castle of Leitrim, among whom were Manus, the son of Ferdoragh Mac Sweeny, and the son of Mac Colin (Turlough Duv). He afterwards proceeded westwards across the Shannon, into Machaire Chonnacht, to the bridge of Ath-Mogha. He destroyed and devastated by fire the territory of Clann-Conway; he also burned Glinsce and Cill-Cruain, the towns castles of Mac David; and he obtained great spoil in these countries. He afterwards burned Ballintober also, and obtained his tribute from O'Conor Roe, namely, six pence on every quarter of land in his territory. After having destroyed Moylurg, he returned home by Bealach-buidhe Ballaghboy, without sustaining any injury. He afterwards went to Breifny, where his army burned


the best wooden house in all Ireland, i.e. the house of Mac Consnava on Lough Allen. The whole of Breifny, from the mountain westwards, was destroyed and desolated by them on that expedition.


A great depredation was committed by Hugh Boy O'Donnell in Gaileanga Gallen, in the county of Mayo.


An army was led by O'Donnell, in the month of September, against Mac William Burke; and he destroyed a large portion of his country. A peace was afterwards ratified between them, and O'Donnell returned safe to his house.


The Earl of Kildare, Garrett Oge, the son of Garrett, who had been for a long time in the hands i.e. custody of the King of England, returned to Ireland, in company with an English Justiciary; and they both continued to do much injury to the Irish. They made a prisoner of O'Reilly, who had gone upon honour to visit them.


Rury, the son of Owen, son of Hugh Balbh, son of John O'Doherty, died; a great loss in his own country.


The daughter of O'Boyle, i.e. Rose, daughter of Turlough, son of Niall Roe, a charitable and truly hospitable woman, and Sile Celia, daughter of O'Fallon, and wife of Carbry, son of the Prior, a humane and beautiful woman, died.


Hugh O'Flanagan, son of the Parson of Inis-maighe-Samh, a paragon of wisdom and science, and a merry and comely man, who kept a good house of hospitality, died.