Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition

Background details and bibliographic information

An Liagh i n-Eirinn i n-allod. II

Author: [unknown]

File Description

Winifred Wulff

Electronic edition compiled and proof-read by Beatrix Färber

Funded by School of History, University College, Cork

1. First draft.

Extent of text: 4045 words


CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College, Cork
College Road, Cork, Ireland—


Distributed by CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.
Text ID Number: G600023

Availability [RESTRICTED]

Available with prior consent of the CELT project for purposes of academic research and teaching only. More information about Winifred Wulff's Life and Work is available on the CELT website at


    Manuscript sources
  1. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, MS 23 K 42. Paper. "The Book of the O'Shiels, 17th century, is a compendium of medical treatises, written by Pádruic Gruamdha Ó Siadhail, a native of Ibh Eathach (Iveagh) at various locations, 1657–1658. It contains the Aphorisms and Prognostica of Hippocrates, Aegidius' De urinis, Bernard of Gordon's Lilium Medicine, particula prima, on fevers, with extracts from Valescus de Taranta (1382–1417), interspersed by extracts from Galen and Avicenna." ( Digital scans of this manuscript are available on the ISOS Project, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, see:
  2. Dublin, Trinity College Library, H. 3. 5.
  3. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, MS 23 O 23 (458). 15th cent. ? Vellum. Scribe unknown; place or date not indicated. Digital scans of this manuscript are available on the ISOS Project, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, see:
    Select bibliography
  1. Paul Diepgen, Geschichte der Medizin. II Mittelalter. (Berlin and Leipzig 1914).
  2. James J. Walsh, Medieval medicine (London: Black 1920).
  3. Karl Sudhoff, Geschichte der Medizin (Berlin 1922).
  4. Max Neuburger, History of Medicine, translated by Ernest Playfair, M.B., M.R.C.P. Vol. II. (Oxford 1925).
  5. Theodor Meyer-Steineg und Karl Sudhoff, Geschichte der Medizin im Überblick (Jena 1931). Available at
  6. John D. Comrie, History of Scottish medicine (London, published for the Wellcome historical medical museum by Baillière, Tindall & Cox 1932).
  7. C. H. Talbot, Medicine in Medieval England (London/New York 1967).
  8. Dietlinde Goltz, Mittelalterliche Pharmazie und Medizin (Stuttgart 1976).
  9. J. Fleetwood, The History of Medicine in Ireland (Dublin: Skellig Press 1983).
  10. Nessa Ní Shéaghda, 'Translations and Adaptations in Irish' (Statutory Lecture 1984, School of Celtic Studies), Dublin, Institute for Advanced Studies 1984.
  11. Nancy G. Siraisi, Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine (London: Univ. of Chicago Press 1990).
  12. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Irish medical manuscripts', Irish Pharmacy Journal 69/5 (May 1991) 201–2.
  13. Sheila Campbell, Bert Hall, David Klausner (eds), Health, disease and healing in medieval culture (London: Macmillan 1992).
  14. Margaret R. Schleissner (ed), Manuscript sources of medieval medicine: a book of essays (New York: Garland 1995).
  15. Lawrence I. Conrad, Michael Neve, Vivian Nutton, Roy Porter, Andrew Wear (eds), The Western medical tradition: 800 BC to AD 1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1995).
  16. Tony Hunt, Anglo-Norman Medicine. 2 vols. (Cambridge 1994–97).
  17. Mirko D. Grmek, Bernardino Fantini, (eds) Western Medical Thought from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. [Translated from the Italian by Anthony Shuugar.] (Cambridge, Massachussetts: Harvard University Press 1999).
  18. Fergus Kelly, 'Medicine and Early Irish Law', in: J. B. Lyons (ed), Two thousand years of Irish medicine (Dublin 1999) 15–19. Reprinted in Irish Journal of Medical Science vol. 170 no. 1 (January–March 2001) 73–6.
  19. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Medical writing in Irish', in: J. B. Lyons (ed), Two thousand years of Irish medicine (Dublin 1999) 21–26. Published also in Irish Journal of Medical Science 169/3 (July-September 2000) 217–20 (available online at
  20. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Winifred Wulff (1895–1946): beatha agus saothar', in: Léachtaí Cholm Cille 35 (Maigh Nuad [Maynooth]: An Sagart 2005) 191–250.
  21. Luke Demaitre, Medieval Medicine: the art of healing, from head to toe. Praeger Series on the Middle Ages (Santa Barbara, California 2013).
  22. Peter Wyse Jackson, Ireland's generous nature: the past and present uses of wild plants in Ireland (St. Louis, Missouri 2013).
  23. Liam P. Ó Murchú (ed) Rosa Anglica: Reassessments, Irish Texts Society. Subsidiary Series, 28 (London: Irish Texts Society, 2016).
  24. Whitley Stokes, Lord Crawford's Medical Manuscript, fol. 117a1–118 a1 has similar items. For a first description of this MS see The Academy May 16, 1896, pp 405–407. The manuscript is now kept in Manchester, John Rylands University Library, MS Irish 35 and described in N. R. Ker, 'Medieval manuscripts in British libraries' (Oxford 1983) pp. 456–58.
    The edition used in the digital edition
  1. Winifred Wulff (Úna de Bhulbh), An Liagh i n-Eirinn i n-allod. II in Lia Fáil, Ed. Douglas Hyde (Dubhglas de hÍde). , Dublin (Baile Átha Cliath), Educational Company of Ireland (Comhlucht Oideachais na h-Éireann) (1927) volume 2 page 229–234


Project Description

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

Sampling Declaration

The present text represents pp. 229–234.

Editorial Declaration


Text has been checked and proofread twice. All corrections and supplied text are tagged. Corrections to the text made by the editor to the original text are marked corr sic resp="WW". The apparatus has been constructed from the variants selected by the editor.


The electronic text represents the edited text, to which some normalization, marked sup resp="BF", was applied. Missing silent f was restored, apostrophs were added to such forms as d', 'ga, 'na. In words with a vowel or s in anlaut, h- and t- were hyphenated off. In the manuscript, long vowels are indicated only rarely and were left unmarked by the editor. Text supplied by the editor is marked sup resp="WW". Where mentioned in the edition, the source for the supplied text is indicated. The hardcopy uses italics to denote expansions; in the digital text ex tags are used instead.


Quotations are rendered q.


Hyphenation was introduced (see under Normalization.) Soft hyphens are silently removed. Words containing a hard or soft hyphen crossing a page-break or line-break have been placed on the line on which they start.


div0=the whole text; div1=the individual part published in each issue; , page-breaks are marked pb n=""/; milestones are marked mls unit="MS fo" n=""/.

Standard Values

Dates are standardized in the ISO form yyyy-mm-dd.


Medical and botanical terms, many of which are Latin loanwords (or Latin in the disguise of Irish spelling) have been tagged.

Canonical References

This text uses the DIV1 element to represent the part.

Profile Description

Created: Written by Pádruic Gruamdha Ó Siadhail. Date range: 1657–1658.

Use of language

Language: [GA] The text and footnotes are in (Early) Modern Irish.
Language: [EN] The front matter is in English.
Language: [LA] Some words and phrases are in Latin.

Revision History

Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition: G600023

An Liagh i n-Eirinn i n-allod. II: Author: [unknown]


An liaigh i n-Erinn I n-allod. II.

THE following five extracts are from RIA 23 K 42, a paper MS. in the RIA. The treatise on Materia Medica occupies pp. 332–444, and breaks off at the word ‘Gladiolus’ (heading of next article). It discusses the healing properties of various plants, trees, metals, gums, stones, animals, etc., etc., in accordance with the common stock of European knowledge in the 14th and 15th centuries. Similar mediaeval tracts on materia medica are found in most European languages. Usually the Latin name comes first, followed by the name and uses, etc., in the vernacular. These tracts are nearly always taken from originals written in Latin — the common language of educated Europe at the time. This treatise seems to have been popular in Ireland, as several copies are known to exist in different stages of perfection. I supply variants from TCD, H. 3. 5. RIA 23 O 23 (458) is a vellum MS. of the same in a very imperfect condition, and seems to belong to a much earlier date than RIA 23 K 42. The latter is known as The Book of the O'Shiels, and was written by Pádraic Gruamdha O'Shiel in the years 1657 and 1658. The O'Shiels were hereditary physicians to the Mac Coghlans of Delvin in Ossory, and also to the Mac Mahons of Oriel. There is a modern transcript of the whole book, 3 A 36, copied 1870, by Joseph O'Longan and his son, Michael.

The MS. is interesting apart from the subject matter, as Pádraic breaks into lamentations every now and then, and the whole book is full of these little personal touches. On the fly-leaf is the following note in an 18th century hand: ‘Leabhar Phadraic oig i Shiaghail. Et da racha se ar seachran benacht Dia et na heaglaise don te doberadh do fen é.’ On page 126 is the following interesting announcement: — ‘As maith ata fuil an mhil muighe mar dhubh againn 18 Augusti, 1657.’ On page 184 is the date ‘Novembris xi[ordm ], 1657.’ On page 211: ‘Ataim tuirseach gan chodladh — I n-Druim Scuabach1 dhamh anocht — Nouembr. 26, 1657. Patr: Shyell.’

Again: ‘Agsin duit, a Phadruig óig I Shiaghuail od sheisi & od bhrathair ionmhuin Padruic gruamdha O Siaghuil, & Dia mór dar ttoghairm ar áon as an choigcrichsi iona bhfuilmid, i gCoigeadh Ol nEgmhocht, dochum ar nduthchuis atharrdha


& sinnsiordha .i. go h-Ibh Eathach: Isin Choill Laguigh dhamh anocht láimh re Cruachan Gaileang. Decembris 15, 1657. Laus Deo.’ p. 262. On page 340 he breaks out again: ‘As tuirseach ataimsi a niogh i g-Cartun an Bhrugaidh, i sgeamhghal na ngarlach isin tighsi amuigh dom bhuaidhreadh, i gan sgéla o Ibh Eathach agum.’ Again: ‘I n-Ocham Bhaile i Edhra dhamh aniu, xxi. Octob 1658. Patr. Shyell,’ p. 379. On page 396: ‘I g-Cúil Iorra dhamh anocht Oidhche Fheile Martain, 1658. Misi Padruic gruamdha O Siaghail: tabhradh gach áon leighfeas so a bheannacht ar mh'anmuin.’ And on page 444 this: ‘Sum tuirrseach i gCartún an Bhrughaidh, 9vemb. xx., 1658.’


.i. tri hanmanna an uormont2 & ata in luibh so teasaidhi sa cedceim & tirim sa 2 ceim3. Et adeir Avicenna an luibhsi do bearbadh ar uisge, & a siothlodh go maith, & deoch dhol de arna mharach & foiridh, gontach na bronn & teinis an gaile & comhfurtachtuigh an bhrigh thochlaighthech & an brigh dhileaghtech. Et bristear an luibhsi & cuimilter ar leamhnacht bó, & siothoiltear go maith, & eabur bog, & marbaid peste an gaile .i. lumbrici. Item bristear an luibh cetna maille re finegra & faisgter go maith tre édach lín, & cumuilter don aghaidh, & ni urcoidighid cuile na mioltoga dhuit an la sin. Item cuirter an luibh cetna ar uisge & dentur urbhruithe dhe & fóiridh buidhre na ccluas. Item bristear an luibhsi maille re mil, & faiscter tre bhréid lín & tabhair dha ól, & fóiridh greim na gcon gconfaidh, & gac uile ainmhidhe nimhe. Item bristear an luibhsi maille re mil, & faiscter tre bhréid lín, & cuirter bog isin cluais enbhraen de, & foiridh siledh & salcur na ccluas, & foghnaidh an sugh cetna do chumuilt don aghaidh ar a mbí guirme o bhualadh, no o thuitim, & do bheir dath mhaith uirre. Item dentur ceirin don luibh cetna & do mhil, & foiridh squinantia. Item berbhtur an luibhsi ar uisge, & ionnailter ass an ball ara mbí bruth no gearba, & icidh. Cumuilter an luibhsi ar fhíon, & eabur re ndol ar fairrge, & ni sgeithionn, & ni dhén muirghalar olc dho. Cuirter an luibhsi a n-adhart an easláin, & toghairmidh an codladh.


Bristear an luibhsi & domblas ae daimh & faiscter tre bhréid lín, & cuirter enbhainne isin chluais de, & fóiridh buidhre & torman na gcluas. Item an luibhsi do cur a leaptachuibh no i n-éduighibh, & ni crutuighter crumha no leomuinn ionnta.4 Dentur ceirin don luibhsi & do mhil, & cuirter ar dhruim na seilge, no ar druim an maclaigh & fóiridh iad ona ccruas & ona tteinis. Da gcumuilter sugh na luibhesi do phulsadaibh5 na lamh & na gcos, coisgidh aixis & rigor fiabhrais interpolata. Item gabh sugh na luibhesi, & sugh endivia, comtrom de gach ni dibh & eabhar a n-aghaidh na buidheachaire & cruais na n-ae noch tig o linn ruadh. Gabh sugh na luibhsi & siucra & uisge bog, & eabar ar cedlongadh, & foiridh suffocatio matricis. Item bearbhtur an luibhsi ar fhíon, & brister go maith, & cuirter ceirin de ar druim na n-ae & na seilge, & foiridh a ccruas. Item gabh sugh na luibhesi & mil, & pudar cuimin, & cumuiscter trit a cheile, & cuirter amhail ceirin ar in mball teid a ngurma no a ndrochdhath, & fóiridh é [...] Et adeir Galen a leabhar na gCepneann6 go bfuil folmugadh lenna ruaidh go hoiridha, & lenna find go tanaiste innte, & go hairighe o bhél an gaile & ona haeibh. Item adearar annsa n-ionadh cetna go bfuilid dha bhrigh contrardha isin luibhsi .i. brigh fhastaightach, & brigh lactach .i. an tan theagmus na lenna neamdhileghta annsa gaile o chaitheamh na luibhesi, folmuighter iad,7 reamhraighter uair eile, & méduighter an dilegadh on bhrigh stipicdha ata innte, & folmuighidh linn ruadh ona cuisleannuibh re n-abur miseraciae uena, & calmuighidh an tochlughadh ata go heasbadhach o iomurcaigh lenna ruaidh do bheith annsa gaile. Et as amhlaidh do bearar í .i. sugh na luibhesi tri dhi, & do shiucra gheal, cumuisgter go maith & tucthur lan leithe8 dha ól dhe ar cedlongadh.


.i. anmanna an shamhaidh, & adeirid na doctuiridhe an luibhsi do bheith fuar isin cedcheim & tirim isin .ii. ceim. Et as mór fhoghnas a n-aghaidh na teine Dhia9, & a brisedh & & eagailteach (?) trit a ceile & a cur uirre {ms page 331} mur cheirin. Item brister an luibh cetna, i sugh na n-ubhall trit a cheile,


& a cur ar in chrecht a mbí aillsi & icidh. An luibli cetna do bhriseadh, & gealan uighe trithe, & fóiridh at & tesbach na súl. A briseadh go min & a cur mur ceirin ar in mball loisgter o theinidh no o uisge & icidh. Sugh na luibhe cetna do chumusc maille re plur mine eorna, & icidh an podagra an t-artetica tig o teasaidecht. Sugh na luibhesi do chumusg maille re holaidh na roisi & a cur mur ceirin ar in chend & icidh a teinis an tan tig o teasaidecht. An leibh cetna do berbadh maille re fion dearg & a caitheamh & icidh flux bronn. An luibh cetna do thabhairt a n-aghaidh peste na n-inneadh, & marbaidh iad gan fhuireach.

As maith a caitheamh a n-aghaidh neimhe & uilc na mban & na bpiseog, & gac uile neimhe eile. Furtachtuigh an radharc, & coimhedaidh an t-shlainte ona gnathughadh. Et foghnaidh a n-aghaidh urchoide na mbech & na bhfoitheadh & na gcon gconfaidh & na neimhe fén. Item aonbhainne do shugh na luibhe cetna do cur isin chluais, & fóiridh gac uile bhuidhre.


.i. ubhla10 dhuilleabhuir na darach & ataid fuar sa .ii. ceim & tirim sa .iii. ceim. Et as amhlaidh as maith iad, a mbeith trom reamur gan puill ionnta; & ata gne eile dibh noch do gabar annsa n-Asia, & ann sa n-Affraic, & as beg an ghne sin, & ni bhid puill ionnta. Et ata brigh fhostuightech, choirtightech ionnta ar áon. Et adeir Platearius pudar do ghenamh dhibh so & a cumusc maille re finegra, & re gealan ugh cerc, & a cur ara n-imliocan, & ar na dubhanaibh, & fóiridh flux na bronn & fliuchaidecht an fuail & na n-aronn. A11 mbearbadh ar uisge fearthanna, & urbruith do ghénamh dhibh [...] & foiridh flux dissinteria & emoroydes. A mbriseadh & a mbearbadh ar shiosan eorna & clistir do dhéunamh dhibh, & fóiridh stranguria. Item bearbhtur na hubhla cetna ar fhinegra & ar uisge fairrge, & an tan bhias ag fiuchadh cuirter farcan ann & cuirter ar bhél an gaile & fóiridh gac uile sgeathrach tig o anbfhainne na brighe. [...] Item {ms page 342} pudar do ghéunamh dhibh, & a chumusc le gealan uighi circi, & a cur amhail ceirin ar na hairgibh & fóiridh an flux12 cetna.


An pudar cetna do cur annsna cneadhuiph, & cneasuighidh iad. Item madh ail an folt do dhubhadh, gabh chugad galla ann nach beid puill, & bhias trom iomlán, & bearbh ar olaidh iad no go n-ataid & go reamhraighid isin olaidh, & a ttirmughadh as a haithle idir eduighibh lín, & pudar mín do ghénamh dhibh, maille re croicend no re duillebar na g-cno bhfrangcach, & a cumusc maille re huisge fearthana, & a mbearbadh d'éntáoibh, & a folt no an fhesóg do nighe as, & bidh dubh dha eisi, & nighter an folt as a haithle a huisge bhog deagla an croiceann do mhilleadh.

{ms page 371}


.i. meacain tua, & adeir Avicenna gurub mor fhoghnus freamh na luibhesi a n-aghaidh na neimhe & go marbhann na h-aitreacha neimhe; & adeir fós gibe choimlius sugh na luibhesi dhe, ni choilgid beacha naid aithreacha nimhe an la sin é. Sugh na luibhesi do congbáil annsa bhél, & daingnighidh na fiacla. Freamh na luibhesi do bearbadh ar fhíon, & foiridh disinteria. Freamh na luibhesi do chaitheamh & coisgidh an seile fola. Siol na luibhesi do bearbadh ar fhion, & brisidh na clocha fuail. An luibh {ms page 372} idir freimh & dhuilleabur do bhriseadh, & blonuc do chur trithe, & brisidh & aipidhidh na nescoidi.

{ms page 374} Borax .i. guim croinn, ata te tirim annsa .iiii. ceim, & ata brigh dhiosgaoiltech, athtairringthech, chnaoitech, coimhcheangailteach ann. Et as leis cheangluid na ceardagha na miotail da cheile, & as amhlaidh as maith é a bheith: geal, cruaidh. Cuirthear borax, & gealan uighe, & blonuc circe, & mil, & uisge rois trit a cheile, & glanaidh an aghaidh ona brice, & ona salchar. d'uisge rois, & tri do bhorax do cumusc, & a cumuilt don aghaidh, & glanaidh í.

Márta, 1927.

  1. Aillsi, a canker.
  2. Aixis, a paroxysm.
  3. Airgibh, dpl. of ara a temple.
  4. Aithreacha = naithreacha, snakes, cf, an adder, for a nadder.
  5. Bél an gaile, the pit of the stomach.
  6. Brice, freckledness.
  7. Brigh athtairringteach, attractive force.
  8. Brigh cnaoiteach, consuming force.
  9. Brigh coimheheangnilteach, binding, constipating force.
  10. Brigh dhiosgaoilteach, dispersive force.
  11. Brigh dhileghtheach, digestive force.
  12. Brigh tastadach, restraining force.
  13. Brigh lagthach, laxative force.
  14. Brigh thochlaightheach, appetite.
  15. Bru, bronn, the belly. Flux bronn, diarrhoea.
  16. Buidheachair, jaundice.
  17. Bruth, itch.
  18. Ceirin, a poultice.
  19. Clocha fuail, gall stones.
  20. Cno frangcach, a walnut.
  21. Comhfurtachtuighim, I comfort.
  22. Comfaidh, mad.
  23. Domblas ae, bile.
  24. Dubhan, a kidney.
  25. Eabhur, pres. sub. pass. of ibhim, I drink, i.e., let it be drunk.
  26. Eagailteach, ?
  27. Farcan = a knot in wood, fungus.
  28. Finegra, vinegar.
  29. Foithe, foiche = a wasp.
  30. Folmhughadh, an evacuation; vn. of foimhuighim, I empty.
  31. Gearba, a scab.
  32. Icaim, I heal.
  33. Imliocan, the navel.
  34. Iomailtear, pres. subj. pass. of iomlaighim, I wash.
  35. Léithi, gen. of leath, a measure, a 'half-un.'
  36. Leomhun, a moth.
  37. Lionn fuar, phleghm; lionn ruadh, choler — two of the four humours of which the body is composed, according to the ancients.
  38. Machlach, the womb.
  39. Meacan tua, great common burdock.
  40. Meseóid, a boil.
  41. Oiridha, principal (adj.).
  42. Podagra, artetica, forms of gout.
  43. Sealg, seilge, the spleen.
  44. Siosan, tissane, Lat. ptisana.
  45. Siothlodh, a straining, vn. of siothlaim, I strain.
  46. Squinantia, quinsy.
  47. Teine Dhia, ignis sacer, erysipelas.
  48. Tochlugad, cf. tothlughadh, appetite.
  49. Uormont, wormwood.
  50. Urbruithe, a stupe, a dry bath.
  51. Baile i Edhra, Baile úi Eaghra, Ballyhara, in barony Leyny, Co. Sligo.
  52. Cartún an Bhrughaidh?
  53. Coill Lagaidh, near Cruachan Gaileng, q.v.
  54. Cruachan Gaileng, Croachan, parish Killaser, barony Gallen, Co. Mayo.
  55. Cuigeadh nOl nEgmhocht, Ol nEcmacht, Connacht.
  56. Cúl lorra, Cúl Irra, coextensive with Killaspugbrone, in barony Carbury, Co. Sligo.
  57. Druim Scuabach, Druim Scuaba, Drumscoba in barony Attymas, Co. Mayo.
  58. Ibh Eathach, Ui Eachach, Iveagh, Co. Down? Co. Armagh?