Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition
Regimen Sanitatis (Author: [unknown])

Nott let gu ruba sea hinduibh dlighear an adharc do cur maille fuiliughaidh. In cét inadh a clais cúil incinn ocus folmaighe si ona ballaibh ainmidhi ann sin ocus fóiridh tinneas in cind go háirighi ocus eslainti na súl ocus glantur (ocus) salchur na haighchi ocus do ní inadh na cuislinni ren aburtar sefalica. In dara inadh .i. itir in dá slinnen ocus folmaighe si ann sin ona ballaibh spirutalta ocus do ní comfhurtacht an disnía ocus an asma ocus an ortomia ocus do ní inadh na cuislinni renabur mediana. In treas inadh ar bunuibh in righthigh ocus folmaighe si ann sin ona lamhuibh ocus fóiridh in seregra bis inntu. In ceathramadh h'inadh itir na háirnibh ocus in leasrach ocus folmaighi si ann sin ona ballaibh oilemneacha ocus do ní inadh na cuislinni renabur basilica. In cuigedh h'inadh ar lár na sliastadh anagaidh lipra ocus brotha na sliasadh ocus brotha in cuirp go huilidhi ocus ar galardha fuail mar ata stranguria ocus an agaidh gach uile eslainti da mbia is na ballaibh ichturuca. In seiseadh inadh .i. ar lár na colpad ocus folmuighi ona {MS page/column 14/28} cosaib and sin ocus do ní inadh na cuislinni renabur sofena ocus togairmidh in fuil místa.

* .i. unsa; * .i. dragma; * .i. sgruball.

PERITISIMUS OMNIUM rerum Ipocras et cetira .i. eochair gach uile eólais Ipocras164 ocus ro-urail eólus ocus aithi báis ocus betha nan uile corp dosgríbhadh in betha degindaigh ocus a cur a comhraigh leis fein ocus d'órdaigh a cur fona cinn san alucadh ar eagla na fellsamh ele d'fhaghail dirradais a ruine ocus secired a chroidhi.

Et a cinn móirain dh'aimsir 'na dhiaidh sin tainic in t'impir .i. sesar ocus ro-fhurail an uaigh ocus in t'allucadh d'oslucadh d'iarraigh indmuis .i. óir no leag no seod mbuadha. Et as e ní do frit and bogsa cumdaidh ocus do togbadh he ocus do hosluccad he ocus is e ní fuair and cairt ina roibe dirradus Ipocrais ocus do fhurail an t'ímpire a tabairt do liagac a cuirp ocus a colla fein ocus Amustosio a ainm an leagha do chídis na pubail dó ocus do leag an cairt ocus ar na tuigsin do foillsid don ímpire gurab e dirradus ipocrais do bi ann ocus tasgelta báis ocus bethid an cuirp daena. Et do labair Ipocras ar tús do comarib báis do leth an cind. Et do raghi do bia tinnus sa cheann ocus at a pull na sróna sin galur sin bás sa ceathramh la dhég ar fhithit. Item an neach ar a bidh frenisis

p.w/o number

{MS column 29}

[The following is printed below the last MS plate.]

da mbidh a gruadh dearg maille h'atcomlacht san aigid ocus re terc dileagtha sa ghaile ...

Stranguria interpretatur guttatim urine emissio .i. is edh is stranguria ann ionnarbadh an fhuail ina bhraonaibh ni beg sen Domhnall mic bethadh do scriobh so.165



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REGIMEN SANITATIS EST TRIPLEX, that is, there are three aspects of the Regulation of the Health. Conseruatiuum, that is, guarding, or maintaining the healthy state; and Preseruatiuum, that is, fore-seeing; and Reductiuum, that is, guiding backwards restoration as Galen shows in the third Particle of his Tegni. Conseruatiuum to the healthy men, it is right. Preseruatiuum to those who are going into unhealth and to those of debility, it is a duty. And Reductiuum to such as are in illness, it is necessary. Nevertheless Seruatiuum is called Preseruatiuum sometimes as Hali says in the third Particle of his Tegni in the sixth Comment and ten and two twenties the fifty-sixth Comment. And yet I say that it is from things similar that the conservation is made, as is said in the same place, ‘Si uis conseruare crasim quam accepisti similia similibus offeras’, that is, if you wish the Complexion which thou hast taken to thee to be retained give things similar. And so, it is things similar altogether in degree and in form that should be given to the moderate abstemious body; and the body that declines by natural disposition away from moderation, things similar should be given to him according to form and not according to degree because of the desire disposition he has towards falling as Averrhoes says in the sixth book of Colleget. And if you say that inaction is not taken to him from the similars as Avicenna says in the chapter upon {MS page/column 1/2} the Signs or indications of the Complexion in the second Section of the first Book where he says that it is from tota species the members act upon the food, I say that it is from tota species of the member


the stomach that digestion is made and from the warmth heat as instrument as Averrhoes says in the fifth Book of Colleget regarding the stomach of the bird called Struccio, that more readily quickly is the time in which a big piece of iron is melted there from tota species than in the fire and so it is in this case. Or I say that similars take no effect in the things that are without life yet they may do well in the things in which there is life. Nevertheless the bodies which decline depart from moderation they should be regulated nourished by things similar according to form while they are in the moderation which is proper to them, and without being similar as regards degree, for the degree should be lower in the case of the food than in that of the body if given for its nourishment. And these people should be nourished with healing food, for it is with food that is really food the temperate Complexion should be nourished. ‘Uerbi gracia’, that is, Hali says in the third Particle of his Tegni commenting upon this text ‘Calidiora calidioribus, et cetera’, that it is necessary to cure the warm body or the body which departs from the equableness of its two degrees with things that are hot in the first degree. And these are called cold things, for the low heat is 'cold' in the mouth of the physician, and it is therefore that some say wrongly, understanding interpreting that text, that it is with cold things the hot bodies ought to be conserved, and that is a lie. Yet it may be prevented fore-seen or saved by things{MS page/column 2/3} with lower degree than the body desired to be preserved. Yet, nevertheless, the regulation or treatment which is called Reductio it is with cold things on the contrary side and in degree that it should be done carried out. Still it should be understood that it is with things hot and low that the hot bodies should be preserved, and the cold bodies with cold and low things, and the dry bodies with things dry and low — et cetera. And it is evident that those of black humors of the Melancholic temperament should be regulated with things cold, dry and low; and these are hot, moist things and not singly


but in compensation for the Complexion of black humor as says Commentator the Damascene in the second Particle and in the fifth Comment and three twenties the sixty-fifth that the wine is hot and dry yet he says that it is hot and moist in compensation for black humors and so also I say in this case. And so also regarding the cold Complexion that it should be regulated with things cold, moist and low, and these are hot, dry and low things. Yet if a Complexion of white humors of phlegmatic temperament has fallen by a hurtful fall towards coldness and moistness it should be regulated treated by hot, dry and high things — and that is the guiding towards the contrary. Further, these things ought to be studied in order to preserve the health, namely, Appetite or disposition and Quantity of food and Order and Time of year and the Time or Hour of eating and Age and Habit. And we have said concerning the appetite lately that it should be similar in degree and in form or in form only and not so in degree for as was said at first that low things are similars to the cold Complexion because low hot things are called cold by the physician and the cold is a similar to the cold thing; and also everything in which there is life it is hot [to be so classed] and it is therefore it should not be understood that the cold things are not similars to the human body but that the cold low things are, and these are hot things {MS page/column 2/4} in the mouth of the physician.


The Quantity of the Food, that is, it should be eaten when it is desired, for Aristotle says in Epistula ad Alexandrum, ‘Dum adhuc apetitus durat manum retrahe’, that is withdraw thy hand towards thee and while the appetite is yet remaining with thee. And Avicenna says in the chapter which speaks of the regulation of the things to be eaten and drunken that is Concerning Food and Drink ‘Ita comede quod sint reliquie


desiderii’, that is, you should so eat that you have a remnant of desire for more left, for it is better to multiply the times to have meals more often than a great quantity at one time. And it is better to eat a little in two times than a great deal at one time because the food that is eaten at one time in large quantity it cannot be digested and it will pervert the power of digestion of the stomach then, and the error perversion that is made in the first digestion if while it is great is not corrected in the second digestion as Commentor Damasenus says in the first Particle in the sixteenth Comment. And it is therefore that it does not nourish dutifully then. And it is for that reason that Avicenna says in the third Book that the greedy men will not grow. And also the food that is taken in unreasonable quantity it will cause constriction and that is a cause of corruption through the absence of coolness, according to Hali in the third Particle of his Tegni. And it is the sign that a person has eaten enough that there comes not from the eating of the meal any increase of the pulse or diminution in the breathing, for this will not happen but because the stomach closes presses upon the diaphragm, and it is therefore because of that the breath is small and frequent, and the need for coolness of the heart causes the pulse to increase, since there is no weakening of upon the strength. Other signs are that there is no change upon the appearance of the urine nor upon the motions and upon the bowels particularly that hypocondria {MS page/column 3/5} is not reached caused and without suffering cramps or flatulence or heaviness or weakness faintness and without sickness desire to vomit or apititus caninus dog-appetite nor falling failing of desire for food to be upon him nor laziness of mind, but that he can study after a meal as he did before it, but alone indeed while the food falls and the digestion begins, because the offensive unpraisable fumes then arise and they cause sleep and prevent study. And further he should be without sleeplessness and he should not have the taste of the food when he eructates — for if these are as we have said it shows that the


food has been moderate in quantity. Yet the habit ought to be considered here, if it is not very bad, as may be seen. And I say also regarding the drink that it should not be in that quantity that the food is a-swim in the stomach as the case is with drunkards. And it is therefore that the thing which some say that it is well to get drunk once a month is a lie, as Averrhoes shows in the second Particle of the Canticles in the third Canticle and ten over twenty the thirty-third where he says ‘assensus ebrietatis simel in mense est erroneus’, that is, it is wrong to agree to the drunkenness one time in the month, for, though of the things which more benefit the natural heat it is the wine taken in moderation and of the things that do it harm to the natural heat and to the brain and to the senses it is it, when it is taken in excess; and it is therefore he says there that the water of honey is better for those who have weak nerves, than it the wine. Yet nevertheless a little wine may give comfort to the old men as he says there in that place. Yet Avicenna says in the chapter which speaks of the regulation of the water and the wine ‘Pueris dare uinum est addere ignem igni in lignis debilibus’, that is, it is like putting fire upon the head of fire on weakly wood to give wine to youths. Nevertheless give it in moderation to the young men, and to the old man in the quantity he wishes; indeed they ought to have it in good quantity. I say that {MS page/column 3/6} the quantity he may desire should be given to the old man because of the agedness and that is the moderate old man who will desire as much only as he is able to digest and he is a very discreet man. And yet the old man from his very-agedness 166 he should not be given that much, for such people are exhausted and foolish and small is their heat for they are like a lamp ready to drown go out as is said in the first Particle of the Aphorisms and it is therefore that Galen says in the same Particle commenting upon this canon ‘Potus indigenciam soluit et cetera’ it is therefore I ask I question is it before the meal it should be given or immediately after, and it will be seen that not before the meal for


Avicenna says in the chapter which speaks of the regulation of the water and the wine ‘Sapiens debet sibi prohibere ne ieinunus uinum bibat’, that is, the wise man should spare himself from drinking wine upon first eating and it should not be given after the meal for Avicenna says in the same chapter ‘Uinum post quod libet omnium ciborum est malum’, that is, the wine is bad after every meal or, food; and he says in the chapter which regulates the thing eaten and drunken ‘Uinum post cibum est ex rebus magis impedientibus digestionenm’, that is, of the things which more greatly prevent the digestion is the wine drunk after food, because it makes the food bore pass out of the stomach before it is digested. And the wine upon the meal is not proper, according to Avicenna in the chapter which speaks of the regulation of the things eaten and drunken where he says ‘Oportet ut post comestionem bibat quis et non in hora comedendi’ it is necessary that it is after the eating a person should drink a drink and not in the time of eating. And he says a little before that ‘Non est bibendum donec cibus de stomaco descendat’, that is, a drink should not be drunk until the food falls from the stomach. In opossitum, the common custom is against this, drinking the wine with the meal and after it. I say that it{MS page/column 4/7} is not right to take the wine before the meal in the time of health. Yet it is necessary sometimes in the time of illness, that is, when there is the greatest fear of the failure of the strength the wine will not hurt — as is evident in the syncope which comes from exhaustion weakness of strength. And I say that in that time in such a condition it is right to give it before the meal and after it. And when it is made as an argument given as a reason that it should not be given upon the meal I say, according to Avicenna in the chapter which speaks of the regulation of the water and the wine, that two briala drunk with the meal will not hurt the person who has made a custom of it, and so also to the healthy man after blood-letting. Nevertheless, the ordinary practice should be observed here if it is old or if it is not very bad, and it should be forsaken


given up at that time after each other gradually and not suddenly. And, this it is, that I understand through this word briala the measure so much as is taken in one drink only, that is, as much as a person can take without change of breath, that is, without straining the breath or stopping it unwillingly. I say also that the wine is bad after every food but after until the food is digested and has fallen, except in caninus apititus where tender things should be given first and then wine, and that is necessary treatment. Nevertheless, it is not right to take wine after food from which evil humors are generated or before or at the time of eating, as Avicenna says in the same place, for it causes that evil humor to penetrate towards the exterior parts of the body and it is therefore that such people err as would desire to drink wine after evil indigestible foods in order to digest them, for it the wine goes before the digestion and it makes the body heavy.

It is therefore I say, briefly, that the wine may be given in small quantity after the meal and not in great quantity, and that it should be given to a person accustomed to it and to a person after blood-letting — and not to give it to any other person except in time of great thirst and in the other cases put stated in the chapter which speaks of the regulation of the water and the wine. And when he says that the wine is not right with the food I say {MS page/column 4/8} that it is thus the words of Avicenna should be understood when he says that it is after the meal the drink should be drunk and not upon it, that is, that it is after the mouthful bite is swallowed and not while it is in the mouth that it should be drunk, for to drink while food is eaten causes a glut — and that is what Avicenna calls quantity. The food is more effectual more nourishing by that a person should not drink upon the meal anything that puts the food in motion forces it forwards or anything that puts it too quickly in motion, otherwise it the food is separated from the stomach and it is put a-swim. Nevertheless a little may be drunk after the meal so that the food may be co-mixed and stirred about


well, and without making any very great fundament and without drinking to excess after it but rather to increase the number of times of eating, and without increasing the ordinary quantity. And it is therefore I say that there are three kinds of drinks, that is, Potus alteratiuus, that is, the alterative drink, and Potus permixtinus that is the co-mixed drink, and Potus delatiuus wash-away drink. The alterative drink, it is before the food it should be taken — such as are the syrops and the heating drinks. The co-mixed drink, it is upon the meal it should be used, a little being eaten and then a little drunk, so that the proper mixing is made. The wash-away drink, furthermore, after the meal, upon the making of the digestion after digestion, and after the falling of the food out of the stomach, it should be taken — or in the time the food is leaving it the stomach. And it is therefore that Averrhoes says in the second particle of the Canticles in the ninth Comment and twenty, as the water which is poured into a boiling vessel stops the boiling so the water or the drink that is put at the end of the food which is being digested in the stomach it will prevent the digestion and it is therefore that not much should be drunk after the meal until the digestion is completed in the stomach. But it is effectual towards the digestion to bear thirst after of {MS page/column 5/9} the meal. Nevertheless it is not possible to declare the quantity of the desirable the give-able things from proved writings as Galen says in the third Particle of his Megathegni, yet let it be done according to the judgment that is near the truth and let it be confirmed according to proofs experience and practice.


Of the Order of Diet or the Eating of Food. This is it, that is, when a person rises in the morning let him stretch first his hands arms and his chest and let him put clean clothes on and let him then expel the superfluities of the first digestion and of the second digestion and of the third digestion by the


mucus and superfluities of the nose and of the chest for these are the superfluities of the third digestion and then let him rub the body if he has proper time because of the remnants of sweat and of dust which are on the skin, for the skin is porous and it will draw towards it everything that is near it according to Galen in the first Book of Simplici Medicina. And then let him comb his head and wash his hands and his face out of cold water in the summer and out of hot water in the winter and let him wash his eyes with water which has been held in the mouth and warmed there, dipping his second finger in it, for that will drive away the veils of the eyes and it will cleanse them. And let him then rub his teeth with the leaf of the melon in the summer and with the skin of the yellow apple in the winter. And then let him say his Hail Mary or any other similar thing which he may desire. After that let him, make effort exercise and moderate walking in high elevated clean places and let his food be prepared so that he may take food the first time after that exercise what time desire begins naturally. And let him not take it the food before it the desire and let him not delay beyond the desire for Avicenna says in the chapter which speaks of the things eaten and drunken {MS page/column 5/10} that the endurance of hunger beyond habit over the usual time causes the stomach to fill from corrupt humors and there comes then a heavy fullness of red humors, drawn towards the mouth of the stomach so that the food cannot be eaten by natural desire healthy appetite though he should wish it. And a person should not eat to satiety as we have said before and only one food should be eaten at the one table that is at one time for Avicenna says in the above-mentioned place ‘Nichil deterius quam cibaria multiplicare et in eis temporibus prolongare’, that is, there is nothing worse than to eat too many different foods at one time and to prolong the time of eating, and it, is therefore that he says in the end of the chapter De regimine cibi that it sufficient for the old men to eat flesh-meat alone in the morning and bread only at


their supper, and let them not take immoderate or exceptional foods at any one time. Nevertheless if several kinds of food be eaten at one meal it is better to give the mild things first and the fat things then afterwards or the contrary of that; for when the mild food is eaten after the fat food it is quickly digested and the fat food is not, and it will be in that time seeking a way out and it cannot get it because the fat food is below; and it comes of that that the one is mixed with the other and they are all corrupted. Yet if one understood rightly how to equate the food to the stomach so much of the fat food should be given at first in proportion as the lower part of the stomach is warmer than the upper part. Yet it is not possible or not easy to do that and since you disregard what should be done incline towards the mildness the tender things as Avicenna says in the chapter upon The healing of Quartan fever in the second Particle of Regimenta Acutorum. Item, do not take raw food on {MS page/column 6/11} the top of half-cooked food. And it should be therefore understood that the food abides in the body before it is entirely digested sixteen hours as Averrhoes says in the second Particle of the Canticles and the same is said in the last chapter of the sixth Book of Colliget though nine hours are said in some books, and that is a lie, for it is possible that the scrivener found a certain number written and he did not know what it was and he made a mistake in the writing copying and it should be sixteen hours and the reason for that is because Avicenna says in the chapter De regimine cibi and Averrhoes in the Canticles that it is correct feeding to eat food three times in two days, that is, twice on some days and once on the other day. And sixteen hours should be between every two times of these that is, of taking food so that the two natural days in which there are eight hours and two twenties — 48 hours shall be divided levelly equally into three portions. And the reason for that is if a mistake was made in the day on which food, was eaten twice that it may be corrected on the morrow by eating only once, and e contrario


for every evil that is done by the filling the excess of the one day is cured by the emptiness of the next and e contrario as is said in the second Particle of the Aphorisms. Yet Avicenna says in the third Book and in the thirteenth Section and in the third Tract which speaks of the delay of the descent of the food out of the stomach ‘Remanencia equalis cibi in stomacho et egressionis eius est illud quod est inter duodecim horas et uiginti duas’, that is the usual time between the remaining from its arrival of the food in the stomach and its leaving is between twelve hours and forty through the slowness of the working of the digestive powers. And it is therefore I say that from the time fatty food goes into the stomach that it remains there six hours or in the places of the other digestions, for the chyle is tenderer than the bread and therefore it is quickly changed into red blood and red blood is quickly changed to rose in the pores of the members. And Avicenna comes with this remark namely the food digested {MS page/column 6/12} in all the members through sixteen hours so happening without being assimilated to them in that time. Still, from weakness of the stomach, and from the fatness and from the toughness of the food it will remain sometimes through as long as eighteen hours or through twenty hours as is shown in indigestion of the stomach, and when a person eats hurtful foods of some kind which remain sometimes in the pores of the stomach through a month or even through a quarter of a year as I have heard from truthful men that they vomited foods and medicine some times in the same quantity and substance as they were taken a month before then. Furthermore it needs be shown that milk and fish are not right on one table nor wine and milk for they predispose a person towards leprosy. And let not a very hot electuary be taken soon after food nor any one thing diuretic for they will pervert corrupt the food, burning it or putting it in motion too quickly. And it is therefore that the drageta made of Maratrum and of Anise and of the like is bad immediately after the meal. For it is better to rest standing or to make take


a gentle walk after the meal as Rufus says ‘Modicus incessus post prandium hoc est quod michi placet’, that is, it is agreeable to me an easy walk after the meal. Nevertheless to make great exertion after eating whether by walking or riding will corrupt the food and will prevent the digestion. But after that the meal take a moderate sleep as was said in this Canon ‘Uentres hieme et uere’ that it is well to understand the extent to which the sleep helps the digestion. Still, the sleep and the non-sleep that goes beyond moderation is wrong, as is said in the second Particle of the Aphorisms; and let it be done in the night for Hippocrates says in the first Particle of the Prognostics ‘Sompnus naturalis est qui noctem non effugit et {MS page/column 7/13} diem non impedit’, that is, the natural sleep which does not avoid the night and does not prevent the day. Nevertheless many men make day of the night; sleeping in the day and awake in the night — and that is very bad. Yet, you ought to know that it is on the right side you should at first sleep for it is so that digestion is better made because the livers are then under the stomach, and you should afterwards turn upon the left side so that the food is not drawn towards the livers before it is fully digested, and then again turn upon the right side so that the thing part which is digested in the stomach is more easily drawn towards the livers. And this may be learned from Avicenna in the chapter which speaks of the thing eaten and drunken and in the chapter that speaks of the sleep and of the sleeplessness. And he says there also that to begin by lying on the belly will give great help towards the digestion because the natural heat is retained and because it is surrounded and it is therefore it is increased. Still, a vain shallow sleep is bad and to sleep quickly after food is bad for the sight. And sleep of in the day is bad if it is not made in nearly a sitting position and that is good after the meal and in the summer but yet in that time, only a little. And it is therefore the versifier says ‘Aut breuis aut nullus sit sompnus meridianus’, that is, let the sleep of the middle of day be brief otherwise don't let it be


done. Nevertheless if it is done before the meal let it be done of a morning till sunrise according to Hippocrates in the second Particle of the Prognostics. And it should not be done and with the mouth open for fear that bad air may go in and prevent the digestion. And let the head be well raised in the sleep and let him be well covered with clothes — according to Avicenna — and that is very good for towards the digestion. ITEM, The diseases of the mind are here considered, and it is concerning this that the versifier says ‘Sit tibi mens leta labor et moderata dieta’, that is, have a cheerful mind {MS page/column 7/14} and moderate diet and take exercise. And greatly does bathing in sweet water suffice but that there is no food in the stomach. And let the supper be short or light unless the habit is against that; for regarding the digestion that is made during sleep it were better that not more or not a greater quantity were eaten at night: Yet as the sleep is made so very soon, before the food falls from the mouth of the stomach, it is therefore that too much food at night so greatly hurts the sight and it is therefore that there are many verses upon this matter on this cause. ‘Nocturna cena fit stomaco maxima pena’, that is, the supper of night is great pain to the stomach. ‘Si vis esse leuis sit tibi cena brevis’ — if you wish to be light let your supper be short. And there are two other verses upon the same thing. ‘Scena breuis uel cena leuis raro molesta’, that is, it is rarely that the short or light supper is injurious. ‘Magna nocet medicina docet; res est manefesta’, that is, the healing art teaches and it is a clear thing manifest that the large supper hurts yet more. ‘Sume cibum modice modica natura foueatur’, that is, Eat but a little food, for nature is satisfied with from a little. ‘Sic corpus refice ne mens ieiuna grauetur’ — it is so the body is known to be satisfied that the mind is not heavy not dull because of the abstinence from food [when it remains clear without food] and yet take the food from thee leave it off when the nature sooner demands it.

ITEM, let the urine and the faeces be voided expelled


and let them not for any one reason be retained beyond the time in which it is the habit to evacuate them, because they make constriction in the sides parts and singing in the ears from flatulence rising upwards antiperistalsis, or a stone in the bladder or hydropsy from the holding of the urine. That is for thee John from Hugh O'Cendainn.

{MS page/column 8/15}

‘Nec minctum retinere uelis nec cogere uentrem’, that is, do not desire to hold thy urine nor to force thy middle uentrem, that is, beyond the time in which it is right; and it is therefore that it is not well to be on the stool too long and not well to make forced squeezing. And it is therefore that the urine should be given passed six times in the day with the night for that is the whole natural day — and the evacuation of the bowel twice or thrice in the same time as these verses say. ‘In die minctura fit sexies naturali tempore bis tali uel ter sit egestio pura’.


Regarding the time, that is, the time of the year ought to be observed for something of heed should be given to the age and the country and the time as is said in the first Particle of the Aphorisms. And yet let fat food be given in full quantity in the winter because it is said in the same place ‘Uentres hieme et uere calidissimi sunt natura’, that is, the internal cavities are very hot by nature in the winter and in the spring, and the sleep will be very long. It is therefore that plenty food should be given and the times of eating should not be frequent for the heat is not short as in the summer but long great according to the extension through abundance of the spirits. Nevertheless the heat will be small in the summer taking warmth for the warm body more. ‘maior extensiue extensione raritatis sed non extensione quantitatis’. And the food should incline towards hotness in that time, and it is apparent from that what is well said regarding the heat of the young men and youth generally.

In the spring however the food should be moderate but


inclining towards a smaller quantity because of the fullness that was done in the previous winter.

Yet, in the summer the food should be mild {MS page/column 8/16} going into inclining towards coldness and that is means mild in quantity, that is, only a little should be given at one time for the substance the sum of the bodily heat will be small in that time being spent and dissipated because of the external heat. And if food mild in its substance is given it will be burned from the fiery heat. And it is therefore that Galen says in the Canon ‘Uentres hieme et cetera’ that the heat will go external in the summer to co-rejoice with the similars and it is therefore it is weakened diminished internally.

In the autumn, again, give the food in small quantity and it should be inclined towards warmth and moistness, and there are verses upon this ‘Quantam uis sume de mensa tempore brune’ eat the quantity you wish of food in the season of winter, ‘Tempore sed ueris cibo moderate frueris’ but use food moderately in the season of spring, ‘Et calor estatis dapibus nocet inmoderatis’ in summer evil is made comes of the immoderate foods. ‘Autumpni fructus extremos dant tibi luctus’ the fruits of autumn will give thee sore weeping.


The time of eating the proper time is when there is true hunger as we have said in the third chapter above. And it is better in the summer to choose the time that is cooler, that is, before sunrise and at the time of vespers — in the evening. And the time of need when it is really necessary is the time in which food should be taken, and it is therefore that Galen says in libro De regemine sanitatis that no person should be compelled to observe the Rule of Health but the person who is not prevented from following it from any other compulsory {MS page/column 9/17} cause and who has his desire choice free in every one thing a man


who is thoroughly well. Yet, in the winter, let the time that is warmer be chosen and so also of the spring and of the autumn, for these warmer times are apportioned towards the summer and towards the winter, for it is in the portions that are nearer to the summer of them that the time should be like the time of summer and the portions which are nearer the winter let the time of moderate warmth be chosen.


The habit of diet should be maintained unless it is very bad unless it disagrees or is injurious and if it is so it ought to be departed from slowly not too quickly and therefore the habit which conforms with natural things should be maintained. And if it should depart only a little from them it should still be continued. Nevertheless if the departure from nature is great it should be directed back and yet not suddenly, as we have said. And yet let those of bad regulation habit take heed to themselves for though it does not show on their countenance even if the effect is not immediately apparent it will yet show later on very effectively — they shall feel it — as Avicenna says. And therefore, those who say that they can fill themselves often with food and that no hurt comes to them let them take heed to themselves for they shall be hurt; for if God took revenge upon every one sin the first time after it was committed that is immediately there would not be a single man in life, and as is all Nature, that is, God, it is so that Nature is ordered in man, that revenge restitution is not made the first time or immediately but after a season. Item, there are some people who eat more of fruits than of other foods, and they do so wrongly, for every fruit makes {MS page/column 9/18} a watery blood unprofitable innutritious and it is corrupted. Nevertheless astringent fruits should be eaten after food if the middle intestines is relaxed — as are pears and coctanas and apples. But the roasted apples before a meal will relax those of red humors of choleric temperament, and the


raw apples are more astringent and every kind of them is greatly so, for the sweet apples are less astringent, and the sour apples are more so. Yet the bullaces and the raisins and the figs it is before the meal they should be taken as Isaac says In Dietis particularibus. Nevertheless the common custom is against this badly for this causes constriction from the milder things and it is therefore that they should be eaten with ginger for this fights against every corruption which comes of the fruits — according to Avicenna. But it is better to avoid fruits altogether. And it is therefore that Galen tells in the book upon the Regulation of Health that his own father was a hundred years in his life lived a hundred years because he did not eat fruits. Item, there are some people who prefer the tails of beasts rather than the other parts, and other people prefer the heads and other people the bones — and so of the other parts. It is therefore that this verse says ‘Pisces et mulieres sunt in Caudis meliores uel dulciores’ it is in their tails that the fishes and the wives are better or sweeter, but that only means that the fish is less cold in its tail than in the other parts of it because of its movement or activity. Nevertheless it is easier to digest the other parts as is manifest {MS page/column 10/19} regarding the belly of salmon and its like. Nevertheless, that part which is in greater motion is the part that has less superfluity that is less gross and it is therefore the better part of the animals which men eat, if all other things are equal. Therefore let the more tender part be chosen which has some motion and is of better taste, for the part that tastes best nourishes best — if other things are equal. And yet the verse says ‘Non ualet in iecore quod dulce est in oire’, that is, that thing is not good in the livers which is sweet in the mouth. And it is of simple single sweetness that is to be understood.

Nevertheless I say of the nuts here, that there is not among all the fruits, after the figs and the raisins, a any fruit that is better than them, and it is therefore the verse says ‘Dic auellanas epati semper fore sanas’, that is, say that the nuts are always healthy for the livers.


Furthermore I say, namely, that such as would desire to indulge in co-reaching should not do so with the middle stomach full but after the finishing of the first digestion and the second digestion and half of the third digestion, and I say that it should not be indulged in made often, for that greatly weakens the stomach and the whole body, and it hurts the sight very greatly for it puts the eyes into great depth it causes them to sink greatly {MS page/column 10/20} clearly.

Of the Blood-letting, indeed, it should be understood that it should not be over-practised, for Avicenna says in the chapter Of Blood-letting that the too frequent blood-letting causes apoplexy, and Galen says in the ninth chapter of his Megathegni ‘Minucio ceteris euacuacionibus uirtuti maiorem debilitatem infert’ the regulation or practice of blood-letting more greatly weakens the vitality of than all other practices, and the reason for that is that red blood is more akin to the nature of man than all other humors fluids. It is therefore that its practice in the time it is excessive most greatly weakens, unless the man is young and has a complexion of red blood has a ruddy complexion and he is resting and using of flesh meat and of other foods which nourish well for that condition demands that blood should be let more seldom less often for fear of Quinsy and internal ulcers — than would be the case in another person of different temperament. And the rule which Damascenus gives in his own Aphorisms in the second Particle and in the nine and fortieth Comment should be observed; that is, if a person in his youth practised to let blood four times a year it should only be let thrice in the year at the end of the fortieth year and once only at the end of sixty years, and after ten and three score or four score years it should not be let at all. Notwithstanding, it is the mediana vein that should be let at the end of sixty years and the basilica at the end of forty years for it is not right to let the cephalic vein {MS page/column 11/21} beyond the end of forty years at the outside, for that will blind a person and it will pervert the memory.


The chosen time of the year, indeed, for the blood-letting, that is, the spring and the autumn. But the blood-letting of the spring is the better, for there is not one thing which preserves a person against the diseases of summer as the blood-letting of the spring does, according to Avicenna. Yet it is in two portions the time of the whole year is divided according to the people, that is, the summer and the winter. And the blood-letting should not be in a very cold time nor in a very hot time. And it is therefore that those err who would wish to let blood about the feast of Stephen and about the feast of John Baptist through because of the coldness of the one time and through the heat of the other time. But it should some times be let about Christmas to save from the illnesses which come of the filling the excess accustomed to be done commonly in that season.

Concerning the side on which it should be let, indeed, the versifier says ‘Estas ver dextras, autumpnus iempusque sinistras’, that is, the right hands in the spring and in the summer, and the left hands in the autumn and in the winter. And he says also as regards the Moon thus, ‘Luna uetus ueteres iuuenes noua luna requirit’, that is it should be let for in the case of old men when the moon is old and to the young men when it is new.

Regarding the diet after blood-letting. It should be understood that great error is then often made, for there are men who would like to drink and to eat a great deal in that time to make the blood again which they have lost, and it is therefore that only a little should be drunken and eaten. Yet more of wine should be drunk in place of to make up for the less food then, or as they were accustomed to,{MS page/column 11/22} because it is easier to satisfy with drink than it is with food. Yet, avoid cheese in that time and fat flesh and salt fish and fruits and anger and exertion and be not close to a fire and do not make co-reaching and do not make but a small supper and it is therefore this verse is good ‘Prima dies uene moderacio sit tibi sene’, namely, let thy supper be moderate the first day of after


the blood-letting. Nevertheless the other verses are lying which would put one to activity and to exertion.

And if you wish to know what time begins the proper seasons of the year they are found in these verses ‘Uer petre detur estas et innde sequetur quam dabis urbano autumpnus simphoreano’, that is, the spring in at at the feast of Peter and the summer at the feast of Urban and the autumn at the feast of Simphorean. ‘Festum clementis iemis caput est orientis’, that is, the feast of Clement is the head of the beginning of winter. And this is according to the astrologers who always put the seasons to evenness who divide the seasons rigidly and not so the physicians but they call the moderate time of the year spring, and it lasts sometimes during a month, but one time it is less and another time more. The summer, indeed, it is a very hot season, and the autumn it is sometimes hot and another time cold according to different weather, and the winter is a very cold season altogether. Furthermore, namely, it should be understood that the eggs and their custard benefit such as are after blood-letting if the stomach is clean. Nevertheless, if they are got in an unclean vessel they are very easily fouled, and they are the more healthy if broken into water. Furthermore, {MS page/column 12/23} you should know that the right time to eat this pottage is at the commencement of the meal; and it is made, in the winter, of 'kale' and of mallow and of sage and of parsley or of the white heads of leeks boiled and strained and mixed with milk of almonds. And I say that the almonds are an excellent fruit eaten whole, as they are, or with the skin taken off them, and given to the men who have had blood let and to those who are wasting and to those of phthisis. In the summer, indeed, a pottage of borage and of bugloss and of violet and of mercurial and of spinache and of patience and of lettuce and of the tops of fennel and parsley with the like — is proper, and it is well to put avens into it if the stomach is cold. The pea, however, should not be eaten except with cumin; and let not beans or peas be eaten new or old except with salt and cumin; and those


who have a weak stomach and flatulence let them not eat them for any reason. Nevertheless the soup of peas is good sufficient and it relaxes, but let there not be anything of the substance the solid part of the pea be left in the soup. Furthermore, understand that the milk greatly hurts the cold stomach and but it does not hurt the hot stomach, and for that the right thing is sour milk in the summer. The butter, indeed, let it be eaten before the foods, and let it not be eaten after a drink, and let not the top of milk, cream be eaten after the supper, or curds and whey for they are, constringent and tough. {MS page/column 12/24} It should be known also that great injury is caused by the raw things such as the oysters, and the things half raw as are the birds that are badly roasted, and it is therefore that good cooking of the food and well roasting and completely throughout is little less than half the work of the internal digestion — or, to boil it well externally; and it is therefore that, those err who eat too hurriedly or greedily for they sometimes eat hurtful things before they are brought to their attention before they notice it.


The Age and the Complexion — it is almost entirely by things similar that they are regulated nourished. Nevertheless, the young men will digest more of fat things and of hard things than the old men because of their agedness and the sons or youth generally the moist things, that is, the tender or soft things, for the diet should be renewing restorative and only a little should be eaten but that frequently. And those given to study should be nourished like old people, for the studying dries them; so let them eat tender things according to their sufferance as they can bear them so that their blood is replenished quickly and well. Those who labour, however, let them eat roasted fat things for these are the things that resist the waste of labour. For though the roasted things are moister


within than the things cooked upon water from the moistness of the substance inside, yet they are dry outside and they are altogether more solid, and it is therefore that they are difficult to separate from their heat and therefore they are the more difficult to digest. The things that are cooked {MS page/column 13/25} in bread they are moist and but they are good. Nevertheless the pastil bread is bad. And it is a very broad comprehensive rule that the food which adheres to the fingers when it is being touched should be avoided, for it is tough. And the roast things kept over night are not good even with a covering upon them, nor the very tender things at the end of the meal. The moderate abstinence is a very high treatment; and it is therefore that Galen said ‘Commedo ut uiuam non uiua ut commedam’, that is, it is to be in life that I eat and not for eating that I am in life. Yet, it is said in the first Particle of the Aphorisms ‘Senes facilime ferunt ieiunium, that is, the old men more easily bear emptiness’, and these are the old men from their agedness, and then the young men, and then the youths, and then the old men from their age. And so also those of cold humors fully enjoy to suffer emptiness hunger and those of middling red blood well-blooded people but those of red humors or of black humors cannot suffer it. And yet those of black humors bear it better than those of red humors for the heat is less which they set free within them, and they spend more upon the thing or work upon which they employ themselves they have less resistance. And the versifier has put made verses upon the regulation of health ‘Si vis incolumem si uis te redere sanum curas tolle graues irasci credere profanum’, that is, if you desire to be whole put heavy sorrow from thee and believe that it is vain foolish of thee to make anger. {MS page/column 13/26} ‘Parce mero scenare caue nec sit tibi uanum pergere post epulas sompum fuge meridianum’, that is, spare wine and avoid supper, and do not think it foolish to have a walk after the meal, and avoid the sleep of the middle-day. ‘Non teneas minctum nec cogas fortiter anum’, that is, do not retain thy urine and do not constrain too strongly thy seat. And there are other verses


upon the wine ‘Dat uinum purum tibi ter tria comoda primum’ , that is, there are nine thrice three eases or comforts which the clean wine gives thee ‘Uires multiplicat et uiscera plena relaxata’ that is it multiplies increases the strength and it relaxes the full intestines. ‘Confortat stomacum ceribrum cor dat tibi letum’, that is, it strengthens the stomach and the brain, and it will give thee the light heart, and it will make give boldness courage, and it will call forth the perspiration, and it will sharpen the intellect, and it will give assistance to the friends it will promote friendship. Yet let moderation be along with it so that its working efficacy may not be perverted, for all these good effects will be undone without the moderation. And because the wine is sometimes drunk finally, remember this verse ‘Potus tarde datus multos facit cruciatus, that is, the drink that is drunk finally will give thee many pains’. Item, let cinnamon be used frequently for it will bring the mouth to sweetness and it will suffice against the cold rheum, and it will prevent the corruption of the humors in them; and it is therefore it is said ‘Non moriet homo commedens sepe {MS page/column 14/27} de cinamomo’, that is, the person who eats cinnamon frequently will not go to his death from corruption of the humors for that is prevented if the nourishment regulation is well in other respects from that outwards. And it should be understood that the water must be clean, and the air is cleaned scientifically quickly by means of a good fire, if it is not found naturally clean. And this is sufficient though a great deal more might be said here.


Make a note that it is in six positions the horn should be put in bleeding cupping. The first position — in the furrow at the back of the head, and it will empty draw from the animal parts there, and it will relieve headache especially, and diseases of the eyes, and the filth of the night upon the eyes shall be cleansed, and it will serve or deplete the region of the vein called


Cephalic. The second position, namely, between the two shoulder-blades, and it will there draw from the spiritual parts, and it will comfort dyspnoea and the asthma and the ortomia and it does controls the area of the vein called Mediana. The third position, namely, on the roots of the forearm and it will draw from the hands and it will relieve the seregra that is in them. The fourth position between the kidneys and the buttock, and it will there draw from the organs of nutrition the nutritive parts and it influences the province of the vein called Basilic. The fifth position — on the flat of the hip, against the lipra and eruption of the hip and eruption of the whole body, and against urine disease, such as stranguria, and against every disease in the parts leading thereto. The sixth position, namely, upon the flat of the calf, and that will draw from {MS page/column 14/28} the feet, and it does the area of the vein called Saphenous, and it will call forth the monthly blood.

that is Ounce; that is Dragma; that is Scruple.

PERITISIMUS OMNIUM RERUM Hippocrates et cetira, that is, the key of all knowledge is Hippocrates, and he commanded that the knowledge and the prognostics of the death and the life of all human bodies should be written at the end of his life and that this should be placed along with himself in the coffin, and he ordered that it should be put under his head in the burial, for fear the other philosophers might get his Arcanum and the secret of his heart.

At the end of much time after that, the Emperor came, that is, Caesar; and he ordered the tomb to be opened — seeking treasure, that is, gold or gems or precious jewels. And the thing he found there was a shapen box which being lifted and opened what was found in it was a document on which was the Arcanum of Hippocrates. And the Emperor ordered it to be given to the physician of his own body and flesh and Amustosio was the name of the physician. He saw the people, and he read


the document, and having understood it he pointed out to the Emperor that it was the Arcanum of Hippocrates and the prognostics of death and of life to the human body. And Hippocrates spoke first of all regarding the signs of death pertaining to the Head, and he said if there is pain in the head and swelling of the nostrils that signifies death upon the fourteen and twentieth day 34th. Item, the person on whom there is Frenzy,{MS page/column 15/29} if his cheek is red flushed with his face puffed with defect of digestion in the stomach ...

Stranguria is to be interpreted as the emission of the urine in drops and that is not a trifling small matter. Donald MacBeath wrote this.

The first post-script beginning in Col. 27 would seem to be a personal MacBeath note based upon practical experience and observation — for I have not been able to trace its origin otherwise. It would seem also to be in the same handwriting as the text, so far.

The second post-script introduced by Peritisimus omnium rerum Ipocras is in a new hand without doubt, and most probably that of one of the MacBeaths themselves. At the middle of the fourteenth line down, another and coarser hand takes the same incompleted matter up. This is almost certainly that of James MacBeath, whom we find making other additions to the manuscript in the year 1598 — and long after the O'Cendains and the O'Kearneys had finished their work — when


the book as it stands was in the family possession. From this we must learn that the Capsula Eburnea, presently to be referred to, was also, and continuously, in the hands of the MacBeaths.

In a collection of classic, medical, Latin tracts called Articella, which was, I think, first published at Venice about the middle of the fifteenth century, the piece Capsula Eburnea appears along with tracts from the works of Phylaretus, others of Hippocrates, Johannus Damascenus, Galen, Celsus, Avicenna the Cantics, and others. It is headed ‘Liber Hippocratis dictus Capsula Eburnea qui in ejus sepulchro inuentus fertur’. My edition was printed in London in the year 1519.

The Tract is introduced as follows — Peruenit ad nos quod cum Hyppocrates morti appropinquaret percepit ut uirtutes iste scripte ponerentur in capsa eburnea et poneretur capsa cum eo in sepulchro suo ne aliquis eam detegeret. Cum ergo uoluit Cesar uidere sepulchrum Hyppocratis peruenit ad ipsum: aspexit ipsum: erat aut valde percepit ipsum renouari et fabricari et corpus ejus si integrum inueniret deferri sibi quidquam foderet sepulchrum inuenta est in eo hec capsa eburnea: et in ea iste uirtutes: delata est ergo Cesari: qui in ea aspiciens: Misdos amico suo fideli traditit’’

— from which, when compared with the Gaelic rendering, it may be seen that the parallel is not very even between the two.

It would seem that the MacBeaths attached some importance to this tract; and it is surely very interesting, if its history is true, even if it is of no meaning to us in this time. There was a desire to continue it, but James was certainly not the man to do it. It has, however, been done. It was used as base for a Chapter in another Gaelic MS. which lies at the Museum (Egerton, 159), and as it must be of interest for purposes of comparison, I give here a part of it which more than covers the post-script.

‘Tionnsgainter dirydus ypo. ann so. Peritisimus omnium rerum ypocras et cetera .i. eochair gach uile eoluis ypr. rofurail


eolus ocus aithne bais ocus betha nan uile corp dosgriobadh ina bhetha deighionaigh ocus do furail a cur inn cainruigh da h'adhlacadh leis ocus a cur fona cenn aregla na fellsamh ele d'fagbail a dirraduis ocus a rúin ocus serci a chroidi ocus in tan tainig in t-empire .i. Sesair augustus a gcionn treimsi fada do furail in uadh d'oslugad d'iarraigh innmus ocus óir ocus leg loghmor ocus ocus t'séd mbuadha ocus is e ní fuair ann bogsa comduigh ocus do h'osluigedh e ocus do fuairi ann cairt ina raibhi dirradus yp. ocus do furail in t-empir a tabhairt do liaigh a cuirp ocus a colladh fein .i. Amustotio ainm in legha ocus do creidi dais daéis na popuil idir a raibh dhó ocus do leighi an cairt ocus arna tuigsin dó do foillsich don impir gurb e diorradus yp. do bi ann ocus tailsgelta báis ocus betha an cuirp daenda ocus do labair ar tús do comartha bais d'leth an cinn ocus adubairt da mbia tinnis isin cend ocus at isin adhaigh ocus cosachtach minic ocus a lamh clé ar a ucht g'minic ocus a lamh do cur com poll a tsrona go minic singalaidh in bás isin 4 la dhég ar fichid. Tuilleadh .i. i nech ara mbiadh frenisis da mbia a gruadha derg maille h'atcomall san aigaid ocus re droch dileaghtha sa gaili singalaidh bás an. x. la. Tuilleadh mata an eslainti-si maille h'allus ocus a cluas ocus a fiacla do beith fuar ocus na cuilfedhe go rengamail ocus saotur do beith arna corruibh brugad maille esbuidh eisdecht singalaidh bás isin .x. la. etc.’

The tract is translated in full (Eg. 159), but it does not follow the Latin very closely, especially in the matter of 'critical days'. The forms of the language are distinctly nearer to those of our own time, and the writing is in many respects like that of Adv. III. Both are almost certainly of the late sixteenth or the early seventeenth century.

Since I finished my work on this text, I have examined MS. Adv. LX, and I find that my note, p. 3, — 1511, must be corrected. The MS. was. written at Dunolly, Argyll, in the end


of the sixteenth century and the beginning of the seventeenth — and the signatures, which are frequent, leave no room to doubt that Maconochie or Duncan's Son cannot be equated with the Connacher who wrote this book. The signatures are always i *qbair, i conqbhair, and y *qbair — and this is one of the oldest and most famous names in the whole tradition and history of Ireland, easily contemporary with the Christian era. It is Connor now, but Connacher is much nearer to the original. The adherence to the Irish generic i and y for Irish ui and modern O' is very interesting and suggestive; and one wonders whether these men of Con-acht may not after all be the Kun-etae of Herodotus.




I here give the whole of the First Chapter from the Latin text of 1501 for purposes of comparison with the Gaelic.

Regimen Sanitatis est triplex, Conseruatiuum, Preseruatiuum et Reductiuum ut innuit Hali tertia particula Tegni can. 19. Conseruatiuum competit sanis, Preseruatiuum neutris, Reductiuum egris. Sed Preseruatiuum nominatur Conseruatiuum ut dicit Haly tertia particula Tegni (téchnés) commento 55. Dico ergo quod Conseruatio fit per similia — unde tertia particula Tegni Si vis conservare crasim qualem concepisti similia similibus offeras. Corpori ergo temporato debent dari omnia similia in gradu et forma. Sed corpori lapso lapsu naturali debent dari similia in forma sed non in gradu propter inclinationem quam habent ad lapsum ut dicit Auicen. 6.o Colliget ultra medium lib. cap. de regimine complexionum malarum. Si dicas similia non patiuntur a similibus sibi dicit Auicen. libro primo, fen 2.a capitu de signis complexionis Dico quod membra agunt a tota specie in cibum et ideo dico quod digestio fit a toto specie membri per calidum tanquam per instrumentum sicut dicit Auer. 5.o Colliget de stomacho structionis quod in minori tempore dissolvitur ferrum quam in igne a toto specie. Sic dico in proposito vel dico quod a similia non fit passio in rebus inanimatis sed in rebus animatis bene potest fieri. Corpora ergo lapsa regantur cum similibus in forma quando ipsa sunt in temperamento eis debito sed non in gradu quia gradus debet esse remissior in cibo quam in corpore nutriendo. Et debit talis regi per cibum medicinalem quia per cibum absolute complexio temperata absolute regi debet dicit Haly tertia particula Tegni in commento illius Calidiora calidioribus indigent adjutoriis quod lapsum corpus vel calidum ab equalitate per duos gradus debet regi cum calidis in primo gradu vocat frigidum, quia calidum remisse frigidum est in ore medici. Et ideo aliqui errando dicunt ex Haly quod calida debent conservari


cum frigidis; hoc est falsum. Tamen preservari possunt cum frigidis remissis et in gradu remissioribus quam sit corpus preservandum. Sed reductio debet esse perfecte in opposito latere in eodem gradu. Hic tamen sciendum quod calida debent regi per remisse calida et frigida per remisse frigida et sicca per remisse sicca, etcetera. Sicut melancolica cum remisse frigidis et siccis remisse et hoc est cum calidis et humidis non absolute sed respectu complexionis melancolice. Sicut Commentator Dama. particula quinta asso. commento 67 quod vinum est calidum et siccum tamen respectu melancolie est calidum et humidum. Sic dico in proposito quod ita complexio flegmatica debet regi per frigida remisse et humida et hoc est per calida et sicca remisse. Si tamen complexio flegmatica sit lapsa lapsu accidentali ad frigitatem et humiditatem tunc debet regi per calida et sicca intensa et hoc est reducere. Consideranda tamen sunt in regimine sanitatis, qualitas, quantitas, ordo, tempus anni, hora prandendi, consuetudo, et etas. De qualitate cibi iam dictum est quia debet esse similis vel in gradu et forma vel in forma licet non in gradu quia ut dixi prius remisse calidum vocatur frigidum a medico et simile est frigidum frigido. Et cum hoc vinum omne calidum et ideo non est intelligendum quod frigida sint similia corpori humano nisi frigida in remisso gradu, quae sunt calida in ore medici.