Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition
The Discovery and Recovery of Ireland with the Author's Apology (Author: Thomas Lee)

Part 2

The Recovery

{folio 1}{An imitacion of a skillfull churgian. The state resembleth the head, and the English Pale the harte.} In this treatise of Recoverye (right Honourable) I hould it good to deale with Ireland as a carefull chirugan ys accustomed to deale with a bodye full of dangerous festered woundes: that is to applie medicines to those which are nearest to the head, and the hart, before he doe practise upon the rest of the members. Even in lyke sorte will I begin to handle the Recoverie of Leinster, because there is the States Residence beinge the head, and the English Pale which I liken to the hart: and in that province have I beene most often and most specially imployed. And therein is alsoe is my house and land though the Rebells have lefte me nothing els. {Connaught as the bellye or somewhat lower, Mounster as an arme and Ulster as a legge full of Canker and Corruption.} Then will I proceede to Connaught as to the bulke of the body contayninge the bowells (etc). Leavinge Mounster on the one side as an Armie easely cured. And Ulster on the other seid as a legge or such a remote member full of foull canker and other grosse diseases, which lymme in fitte tyme and place I purpose to handle indeed lyke the Surgeon, who applieth defensative medecynes betwixt the body and that infected parte: that neyther the humors of the body may have passage into yt to feede the maladye:{A necessarie caution.} nor the venome thereof may have recourse into the body to infect the hart and fume up to the brayne,{Saw it of and seare it that no more grow on the stompe.} then if medicines applied will not cure the disease the next and best remedye is to cutt it {folio 2} off from the rest. Againe I take this course the rather to beginne with Leynster and Connaught:{They do nearlye resemble eche other.} because their state and condicion standeth soe equall and indifferent, that one and the same Generall or cheife commaunder and proporcion of power will serve to reduce and recover over both those provinces in convenient tyme, as by probable reasons I will purpose manyfest.

{One Chife Commander of the forces for Leinster and Connaught sufficient.} My opinion is that one chiefe Commaunder may manage the service in both those Provinces of Leynster and Connaught, yf he be a man of experience valiant and industrious havinge no greater a proportion of men under his command than imeadiatlie here I purpose to sett downe.

{In Leinster 3 places for speciall service.} In Leinster there are three speciall places where service must be done: Namelie the fort in Lease, the fort in Ophalye and the Glynnes in the country of the Bernes.

{The forces equallye devided for service.} Six hundred foote and fiftie horsemen apoynted to everie of these places are souldiers sufficient. So that the whole number to recover Leinster and to end the warre there, is eighteene hundredth foote and one hundredth and fiftie horse.

{No pollecye to hold a Armye in gross together in Ireland.} These souldiers must not bee held together in grosse any longer than places can be fortified and made wardable wherein to disperse, and garrison them alongst the skirtes and borders of the Enemies countries:{This order of garrisoninge good.} which nevertheless must be within such a Circuite as the Cheefe commaunder may be able uppon any sodayne occasion to drawe {folio 3} them to on head, and to doe service at his pleasure.

{A good proviso for the subjects.} The forces being thus disposed and settled for a tyme: yf then the good subjectes doe loose anie of their goodes by the Rebells, and the same not rescued by the souldiers, or the Traytors not taken or slayne, yea though hee bee gotten to his strongest fastnes. The Commaunders, Captaynes and souldiers are then worthie to answere the same out of their entertaynment, except they shall do their indevor to prosecute the traytors to the uttermoste of their power.

{There can be noe more required.} By the placinge of the forces in this sorte her Majestie may be well served, the subjects well defended, and the Traytors much annoyed.

For yf the Commaunders and souldiers perceive that whatsoever the subject looseth (through their necligence) must bee answered out of their pay, if it rest with the traytor: it will make the Commaunder carefull,{A good meane to make a Captaine Carefull.} the souldiers vigilant and sturringe and the subjects willinge to doe all duties.

{An honourable president.} Yf your Honour should be the aucthor of this imposition to be layd upon the Commaunders and souldiers it weare a worke worthie your honourable countenance. {Objection} Although I doubt not but some will allreadye that to inforce the souldiers to answare the subjectes losses were verie hard; for yf there were never soe many souldiers the subjectes may be spoyled; which I graunt. But how?

{folio 4}{Answer.} Yf there bee but a fewe souldiers readie for rescue and the subject who is damaged do followe the tract of the stealth (for otherwise the fault is in himself) and these fewe souldiers provident and hardie; either the pray wilbe presentlie restored, or the next night recovered, {Valor and industrye may effect this and more.} or at least the Rebell shall never make benefitt of the pray, by reason of the present pursute and immediate good service which must needes be don uppon him: And doinge this the Commaunders and souldiers shall discharge their duties.{It is not unlyke and may be verie true.} Otherwise I hould them (as before in the discoverie) Cowardes, Idle or frends to the traytors. As I feare manye of them are, els would they not soe slouthfully consume the Queenes entertaynment to her Majesties disadvantage and their owne discredit.

{The division of Leinster.} Leynster is devided into two partes (as they terme it in Ireland) low Leinster and upper Leinster.

{The Counties of Low Leynster.} Low Leinster hath in it four sheires, Dublin, Kildare, Catherlough and Wexford.

{The Counties of Upper Leinster.} Upper Leinster hath three Sheires, Kilkeny, the Queenes Countye and the Kinges Countye.

{The traytors named the Moores of Lease and the Connors of Ophaly.} These two latter are (for the most part) possessed by traytors the Moores, and the Conners and are to be recovered at her Majesties charge.

{Barrowe a River which runneth downe to Waterford.} Betweene this upper and lower Leynster runeth the river of the Barrowe devidinge the upper from the lower.

{folio 5}{Low Leinster soone recovered.} Low Leinster (the garrisons beinge once well placed) is to be recovered as well in ten or twelve mounthes as in a hundredth yeeres yea in suche sorte {Once well and ever well.} as there shall never be anie Rebellion raysed hereafter by any of those Irish Septs which have dwelt in that part of Leinster tyme out of mind, namely the Tooles, the Bernes and the Cavanaughes.

{A Curbe for certaine ill disposed Irish.} Because these are ever readie to enter into any Action of Rebellion, let there bee speciall order sent from her Majestie to the Lord Deputie, that immediately uppon their depressinge noe man of those three Septs bee ever suffered to beare anny armes savinge such as shall assist the Governoer in her Majesties service, where he shall thincke fitt to imploy them.

During the prosecution of those traytors of low Leinster, let this be all the burthen which the subjects of the foure Sheires therein mencioned shall beare, viz.

{Inhabitants of everie Countie to provide vittals accordinge to their owne composition.} Everie sheire to provide to victuall a hundredth souldiers for ready mony at the rates already sett down by their owne agreement, for Beeffes muttons, wheat and mault. And lett them carie the same upon their charges to every place of garrison layd for their owne defence. And if they bee not defended after twoe mounthes when the garrisones are once placed {A resonable proviso.} (provided themselves doe follow the tract of the pray taken from them) {folio 6} then lett the Governors Captaynes and souldiers entertaynment answere the same as aforesaid, except it be well knowne that they pursue the traytors to the uttermost.{No reason then to Charge them with restitucion.}

It is alsoe expedient a certaine proportion of victuales be generallie taken up in everie sheire and charged as well uppon the free land, and spirituall land, as uppon the ordynarie sessed land, for then the Charge and burthen in raising these victials welbe easie.{A generall burthen more easy then a perticuler.}

{Horsemen necessarie to attend everie Sheriffe.} Lett there bee also a generall charge imposed uppon these Counties for the finding of twelve horse men to attend the Sheriffe of everie Countie for his safetie that hee may the better travaile upp and downe to see these provisions sent into every appoynted garrison. {Martiall law convenyent for a Sheriffe to use.} And lett this Sheriffe have aucthoritie to execute martiall Lawe uppon all stragling traytors, run away souldiers, and idle vagorants that shalbe founde within the compasse of the said marshall law.

{What a Sheriffe ought to be.} Lett the Sheriffe in everie sheare bee a man well knowen of abilitie of honestie and well affected towards the Common wealth of his Countrie and a man covetous or scrapinge, or apt to take occasion uppon everie light quarrel to cheat poore men of their goode; noe briber oppressor nor extorcioner such as many have bene, by whose corruption many a poore man hath bene undone.

{What punishment the abuse of martiall law requireth.} And if anie Sheriffe to whome martiall lawe is committed, to punish malefacters within the compasse of the same, shalbe founde or knowen to have taken a traytor or offender {folio 7} and for bribe or favour to let him escape. Let that sheriffe (who shalbe found culpable in such a matter) be brought to his tryall by the lawes, and under goe the same measure of punishment which the malifactours should have endured.{Such a faulte punished would cause few faults to be committed.} For the executing of some Sheriffe for his briberie and other corrupt dealinge wilbe a better example then the cuttinge of a hundredth base traytors.

{Good for the subjects good for the soldiers.} This exercise of martiall law (is in my opnion) fitt to bee continued to everie Sheriffe of the sheires with aucthoritie to take upp victuales in the Countrie to supplie the Garrisons soe longe as the souldiers shall pay for the same and the warres be Continewed at her Majesties chardge in Leinster. But the warres beinge once indeed, and the Rebells either slayne, banished or brought to true obedience in such sorte that they shall geve unto the Lord Deputie or their Governor such good assurance as shalbe by them demaunded, for their after loyaltie, and sitt quietlie downe in their Contrye uppon such condicions as shalbe thought convenient for them;{Leinster recovered and reformed her Majesties charge may cease.} Then let her Majesties charge cease, and the same bee layd uppon every Sheir in the said province of Leinster sithence it shalbe for their owne defence, and that their losses (if there happen any by the souldiers default) are to bee answered out of their entertaynment which souldiers nowe to defend everie sheire (over and above the twelve horsemen allowed and appoynted to attend every Sheriffe){An 100 footemen at the charge of everie Countye will kepe Leinster in quiett.} must be only one Hundreth foote under the Commaund of the Lieutenant to be appoynted in every sheire who in regarde of his travayle and vigellance, is worthie to have a noble sterling per diem over and above his Captains {folio 8} pay.

{Lieutenants of Counties after the English fashion necessarie.} For (matters beinge brought to this passe) it shalbe expedient to place a lieutenant over every sheire, after the manner of England, which Lieutenant ought to be a man of such integritie that he may alsoe be trusted with the execution of martiall lawe as well as the Sheriffe. And let this lieutenant have (as I say) the command and leading of a hundredth foote, to be garrisoned in the fittest place of everie Countie for the defence of the subject and offence of the Traytor if annie therebee; And if the subject happen to be spoyled (the fault beinge in the lieutenant and his souldiers) then let the entertainment of the said lieutenant and souldiers be stayed by the Sheriffe {Necessarye orders.} untill the partie greeved shalbe satisfield, if the Sheriffe shall stay in his handes soe much of the lieutenants and souldiers pay as should content the subject and not see him satisfied, then lett the said Sheriffe not onlye loose his office but indure punishment at the Lord Deputies pleasure, and yet be compelled to aunsware the poore subject duble damages.

{Lieutenants to have martiall law in their power.} Lett it bee likewise included in everie lieutenants Patents that he shall have power to execute martiall lawe uppon his owne souldiers if they shall use extortion, either in the Countie wherein the are garrisoned, or in their travell (if they shall happen to bee drawen forth uppon anny service els where). The lieutenant havinge this aucthoritie over his souldiers, if there happen anny extortion, or other disorder (within his jurisdiction) {folio 9} there is none to be blamed but himselfe.

{A meane to repayre the lieutenants company with good soldiers.} This cth (100) men, under the lieutenant of every sheire, beinge charged uppon the Contrey are to be mustered by the Sheriffe as oft as he shall thincke fitt. And if the saide Lieutenant shall at anny tyme chaunce to lose anny souldiers either in service, by naturall death, or by runninge away, uppon notice given thereof unto the sheriffe of the Countie. Let the said Sheriffe have warrant from the Lord Deputie to supplie the said Lieutenants band, with the substantiallest mennes sonnes within the same sheire. And if the Sheriffe shalbee founde to spare anie for favour or for bribe (as usuallie they have done) lett him be punished in manner before mencioned. Soe shall the Lieutenant have good men, the Country shalbee well defended, and her Majestie exceedinglie well served.

{A necessarye order.} For the furnishinge of every Lieutenant and his souldiers, with powder, lead and Armes (the countee bearinge the charge) let them buy it out of her Majesties store, and not elswhere, soe shall the proportion be trulie knowen, and her Majestie shall receave double profitt.

Another burthen is also to bee layd uppon everie sheire for the great benefit and saftie of the same, both duringe the tyme that the souldiers shalbe uppon her Majesties chardge, and afterwards when they shalbe uppon the Countreies charge. {xxtie Laborers for everie Countie of Low Leinster.} That is, that there bee in everie Countie of lowe Leinster xxtie stronge, able and sufficient Laborers chosen for dayly wages and an overseere of their labours with allowance to him of xijd sterling per diem. To {folio 10} fortefie first places wherein to garrison the souldiers, then to fortifie upon the Barrowe side, that all fordes may bee stopped, and made unpassablie either for horse or man soe that there may bee noe passage over the said river, save only at the three bridges of Leighlin, Catherlough and Athy: {Cotes are boats made lyke throughs of on peece of timber.} And furthermore that all the cottes may be taken out of every manes possession whatsoever, and that none be suffered to have anny Cott uppon the whole river of the Barrowe upon payne of death. And all those cottes which are knowen to be uppon the said River to bee either burned or turned to some other use, excepte it be some fewe to remayne in the custodie of speciall men for speciall good purposes. Alsoe those great boates which serve for portage of Commodities from place to place to be kept under lock and key especiallie at night, and not then to be permitted to stir with marchandiz or otherwise upon the like paine before mencioned.{Noe boats to stirr in the night for feare of ferrieng over Enemyes.}

{A good rule against the entercourse of traitors.} This course being taken with the Barrow it is not possible for the traytors of the upper parte of Leinster which are the Moores, the Conners and their partakers to joyne with the traytors of Lowe Lynster, which are the Tooles, the Bernes and the Cavanaghs, there are Geraldine traytors on both sides, but their power devided is the easelier overthrowen.

{How longe the Laborers ar to be imployed.} These laborers aforesaid are to be imployed from Candlemas untill Michelmas, and somewhat after, at which tyme the dayes growing {folio 11} short, they will scarselie earne their wages which the countrie shall give them.

{One spetiall use of the laborers.} And the labour of these labourers in another speciall busines is also to be used which is the cutting downe of paces and makinge passages through the woods and difficult places to passe, that the way may be made open, and to cast downe trenches, and such lyke as the Rebells have fortified.

{As the lower is used soe must the upper Leinster be.} When lowe Leynster shalbe once thus ordered, the lyke course is to be taken with the three Contries of upper Leinster, viz. Kilkenny, the Queenes Countie and the Kinges Countie and the same rule sett downe and observed for the River of Shanon that is here sett downe for the River of Barrowe; And soe the lyke methoode for Lieutenants, Sheriffes and souldiers.{The Generall of the forces of Leinster to passe into Connaught with the same power.} The whole province of Leinster thus reformed, the same generall is to passe over into Connaught with the same proporcion of men and noe more (uppon her Majesties Northe Counteries further chardge) vz. 1800 Foote, and 150 horsemen which served to settle Leynster.

{Reason why it should be the same Generall.} My reasons why it shoulde be the same man are these, first for his partes before noted vs. that he must be valiant, bountifull, skilfull in armes well experienced in those warres, of good meanes in that countrie, and well beloved, and furnished with speciall Instruments to worke by in both those provinces, or in anny other place of {folio 12} that kingdome, {Good use to be made of reduced Rebells.} and next for that in the reducinge of Leinster he shall finde many who are now traytors there that will come unto him, absolutlie forsaking their confederates and become good subjectes and speciall servitors to assist him in the province of Connaught who will not willinglie followe another of whome they have had noe triall.

When he shall have recovered Connaught as there is noe doubt, but with this Forces, his owne meanes, and other supplies that he shall daylie finde, he may in convenient tyme: let him have aucthoritie from her Majestie (with the Lord Deputies liking and assent) to reward the well deserving souldiers{A good waye to winn them and hold them firme.} (who shall pass with him out of Leynster) with such landes as shall fall to her Majestie by the overthrowe of the Rebells in Connaught which will greatlye encouradge both them and others (seeing them so well dealt withall) to be faithfull and dilligent in doinge good service, of which lands her Majestie now reapeth noe Commoditie but they serve for her traytors mayntenaunce onelye; in whose handes they now are, and ever have been.

{When all is safe behind a man may the boldier goe forward.} Another reason why it should be the same man is for that knowinge howe secure Lynster is lefte, hee may the bouldlier passe forward, and goe through the whole service of Connaught in the shorter tyme using alsoe that side of the Shanon which is in Connaught as he hath the other side thereof in Leynster.

And that the province of Leynster may appeare and bee indeede in everie respect safe, this in my opinion shalbe a meane to settle the estate thereof when it is quieted. Let those men whom this Commaunder shall {folio 13} {A good encouragement to servitors.} chuse to be his deputie in the 2 fortes in Lease and Ophaly bee lieutenants of the same and have for their faithfull and carefull keepinge of the fortes. x s. a peece per diem allowed them as other beefore have once had in tyme of peace, and if they shalbe desirous to have any landes it may please her Majestie for the better encouragement of them and others to bestowe uppon them some of the Traytors neere adjoyninge lands to them and to their heires they paying such rentes as the Irish did or ought to have done for the same.

{A soldier should have some preheminence more than an ordynary subject.} Another speciall thinge would bee observed in the bestowinge of lands uppon the well deservinge souldiers that they should render all rentes, royalties and services to her Majestie what soever, And beare their partes of the generall chardge of the Shiere to the Sheriffes, souldiers, labourers, and such like, soe should they bee free from all compositions and usinge out to the generall Hostinges. And yet when there is anie cause to take annie of the souldiers lefte upon the chardge of the subjectes in the province of Leinster, into anie other Province for her Majesties service, it is reason that Leinster (or any other Province beinge reformed){A resonable motion.} bee eased of the dyet of soe many souldiers, as shalbee imployed els where and the same souldiers (duringe their service abroade) to be either upon her Majesties or the Provinces chardge whereunto they are appoynted.

{Fresh matter for Coanaught.} Now to speake speciallie agayne of Connaught her Majestie (in my opinion) needeth not to bee any further chardged (during the prosecution of those warres in Leynster) than to keepe up those companies of foote which are allready there under the command of the Earle of Clanrickard {folio 14} sonnes, and the Erles of Thomond and Clanrickard. And lett the said Erles be joyned in commission to defend the Countie of Gallway and to lay their forces on the out borders of the Counties of Gallway, Rosecommon and Mayo.{A preservative for the Province.} The disposing the service of these two Erles in this sorte beinge (as they are both) men of great aucthoritie; shall keepe the Countye of Galway saffe. And in defending of that, Toomond is saffe alsoe.

For the uphouldinge of these Forces, and the defendinge of those two Counties, lett there bee one Sheriffe appoynted to serve Toomond and another for Galway;{Lyke allowance to the sheriffs of Connaught as to those of Leinster.} And lett them have allowed out of either Shier twelve horsemen and some footemen at the Countries chardge in entertaynment to followe either sheriffe with aucthoritie to use martiall lawe, as is afore mencioned for Leinster.

Let the forces under the Erle of Toomond bee provided for by the inhabitantes of Toomond the Erle paying for their victualles after the usuall rates.{There had need to be such an officer.} And lett their be such Sheriffes chosen as will not fayle to take the two Erles ticketes that the poore people of either Countie maye bee payed for their provision; otherwise they will impose the finding of the soldiers uppon the Countrie, the pay shalbee kept from the souldiers for the same, and yet the Countrie shalbee left unsatisfied.

{Theyr faithfull assistance will much further the service.} And lett these two Erles bee appoynted to assist the governors that shalbe sent theither with the Forces aforesaid to see the River of Shanon fortified, and kept accordinge {folio 15} to the order prescribed for the River of Barrowe; soe shall not the Traytors of Connaught passe either into Mounster or Leinster neither those of Leinster and Mounster shall have passage into Connaught as nowe they have.{A good Caveat} Before all for the speciall good of that province let present order bee taken for the puttinge in of a stronge ward into the Castle of Athlone for feare of some Treacherie to be used by them, who nowe have credit and yet purpose (I feare) to revoult uppon the taking of that castle.

The whole number and proporcion of souldiers to recover Leinster and Connaught (besides those that are under the command of the Erles of Thomond and Clanrickard and his sonnes) are 1800 foote and 150 horsemen.{1800 foote and 150 horsemen are Inough to recover Connaught and Leinster.}

{Repetition of the partes which ought to be in that Generall.} What man whome her Majestie shall appoynt the cheefe Commaunder to followe those services in both those provinces of Leinster and Connaught ought to bee; I have formerlie noted namelie a man valiant, honest, bountifull, paynfull of great experience in the service of Ireland, familiarlie acquaynted with both the provinces, having instruments by whome to worke both within and without. And by his owne knowledge able to garrison his souldiers in such places. As the traytors for his liffe shall not be able to offend the subject but with his great perill.{The soldiers well disposed shall defeate the traitor.}

{Objection.} Some will peradventure aleady that the proportion of souldiers here sett downe for the recoverie of both those Provinces is to small. I graunt it is a great deale to smale for an unmeete man who knoweth not the service. {Answer.} But if a man be chosen who is furnished with those partes (or the moste of them) which before I have noted, hee will both undertake it and quicklie performe it, and will handle {folio 16} the warres uppon the Traytors in such places whereas others have not gone, and such a one will devide these 1800 foote and 150 Horsemen into divers and serverall places and yet in six houres warninge he will drawe off from each place as manie as hee shall thincke fitt, to one head to effect any stratageme.{So must a skilfull Commaunder manage the forces.}

Yf anie (either for the slenderness of the Forces or difficultie of the performance will refuse to effect the service in those two Provinces in forme aforesaid, youe shall asssurdlie finde them that will undertake,{Though there be few yet some will undertake yt.} and by gods grace with that strength performe this service in shorter tyme, then may generally be expected. I doe not right Honourable yntimate this as desyrous to bee imployed, as if I were a man accomplished with all the qualities by me heretofore mencioned. But as one earnestlie zealious for the true proceedinge of her Majesties service and the speedie and sounde recoverie of her poore distressed kingdome and people of Ireland and clearinge such doubtes as have bene too readile received as men.{Without all doubt the service may be performed.} And as one who am perswaded and assured that by the wayes I have sett downe the same may be effected whereof to give your Honour the greater light I wilbee bould to sett downe meanes whereby I am perswaded infallible it may as (I say) bee compassed.

{Athye or nere it is the fittest place for the chief Commaunder of Leynster to be resident in.} First Athy is the fittest place for him to be resident in, who shall handle this Action. There is noe Rebell inhabitinge that Province of Leynster but he may in one nightes warninge doe service uppon him. The Forte in Lease is within aleaven myles thereof. That in Ophaly is within twelve myles. And the Castle of Athlone in Connaught {folio 17} is but xxx myles of. All men can testifie (who doe knowe Ireland and mee) that no man in that Relme hath either more or better instruments there to worke uppon than I have,{Noe more affirmed then is true.} both within amongst the subjectes and without amongst the traytors to name them all were needless, because the moste of them are to your Honour by name unknowne. But some of note (of whom it may bee youe have perticularlie heard) I wilbee boulde to nominate. Nowe in that same Province are two who are out in action and conjoyned with the Rebelles, whome I do not doubt but to reduce to obedience, yea, (and before their cominge in) to doe some speciall peece of service worthye rewarde when they are come.{Two fitt instruments by whom to worke in Connaught named.} These two are Redmond Bourke and Feriough macc Hugh O Kelly whome (as I said) I doe rest assured I shall bringe in, soe as they {Men will doe service if they may be sure of reward.} may be sure (at their cominge in) to have her Majesties entertaynment for them and their followers when they shall doe her Highness good service. {A story of an unnatural brother.} This Bourke is nephue to the Erle of Clanrickard whose father the Earle (being his owne brother) murdered. And the said Redmond Bourke (beinge then yonge) hath bene ever since kept from his landes by the greatnes of his unckle, and the troublesomes of the tyme. And (which is yet more lamentable) he hath been following the state there for these manie yeares for Justice and could never obtayne it.{Justice by nature is never partiall.} It is (in my oppinion) a hard case when the state either cannot, or will not give one subject right against another but if this Readmond had his right in possession he durst and would keepe it, except the Erle either by lawe or at the Counsell {But possession they say is xj points of the law.} {folio 18} table could evict him out of it. In the meane seasone he is (as I have said by meanes of that discontentment) a man in Action of Rebellion; not for mislyke of the government (though hee can get noe Justice). But to revenge his fathers blood uppon his unckle the Erle of Clanrickard who murdered him, and to recover some footing into his landes if he can.{An indirect course to content his owne humore.}

That other aforenamed man Ferio Mac Hugh is a fellowe of such generall note and credite with the Traytors that by him I have noe doubt to effect some speciall good service and this Ferio as all men knowe will trust noe man nor come to manie men but my self, yet happily by mee hee wilbee ruled, but not unless hee see me have power to doe him good.{This fellowe will never trust any man who hath ever broken his word.} There are allsoe manie other who if they were sure to be rewarded with the landes of those traytors whome they could cutt of, whould adventure to doe service uppon none of the meanest in hope to bee not meanelie preferred by it.{Great service deserveth great recompence.}

{The Chief Commaunder of these forces had neede to make choyce of good Captaines.} Whatsoever he bee who shalbe thought worthie to bee imployed in this service, it is verie expedient and necessarie, that he have the choice of all the Captaynes who shall followe him in these here mencioned warres: to the end he may select paynfull and valiant leaders: And to enable him to doe good service indeede lett him make request that everie Captein commaundinge 150 Foote should furnish twentie of his band{A matter of spetiall moment.} to be shott, on horsebacke for the which he should receave xij d. sterling per diem a piece as other Horsemen have which is but {folio 19} iiij d. more then the footemans pay and yet her Majesties chardge for the same not augmented.

{A thing so chargeable requireth some allowance beinge no charge to the Queene.} Towardes the Capteins chardge in furnishinge these xxti horses it were reason he should have allowance of ten dead payes over and above his ordinarie dead payes, to beare iiij d. per diem towards the shott on horsebacke over and above the ordinary viii d. And soe hee which leadeth a cth foote and furnisheth in his bande then shott on horsebacke to have allowance of feive dead paynes accordinglie.

{Honorable to the Author and profitable for the service.} If it would please youe to be the founder and furtherer of this kind of discipline it would much redound unto your honour and bee exceedinglie available in all services there for by these shott on Horsebacke manie sodayne and speedie stratagems might bee performed, besides it would bee a preservation to the rest of the souldiers on Foote. And this is my oppinion for the recoverie of Leynster and Connaught.

{Birds all of one feather} Forasmuch as all the Irish, as well the seeminge subject as the open Rebell doe soe firmelie hould the Romish Religion, and soe stedfastlie stand for their holie father the Pope, accountinge her Majesties and all us her subjectes noe better then Heritickes: And seeing the generall chardge before noted for the defence of the subjects (in the severall Sheires of the two Provinces) is to be layed cheefely upon the poore Tennauntes whereof though my selfe shall beare a great porcion{In for a share.} noe one man in that part {folio 20} of Leinster more, and other English Inhabitants shalbe taxed to their uttermost value as well uppon free land as otherwise, and the Irish that are lordes of the soyles, will beare nothinge but cut it uppon the Tenauntes.{Landlords will parte from nothing so long as the tennants will pay all.} Since (I say) they scape soe scotfree in this, as their nature is, if they may to shunne all manner of chardge I hold it (under correction) a verie necessarie and reasonable course (that the sicke hurt and maymed souldiers, may bee hereafter the better provided for) and not suffered to die in the streets in suche pittifull sorte as now they doe. That ghest houses be erected in divers cities and Townes that shalbe thought moste convenient: and that the third parte of every Recusantes livinge may be deducted to the mayntenance of the same,{Whilist they refuse to pray with us lett them pay to us} untill they shall conforme themselves to her Majesties lawes to goe to church to receave the sacraments and to bee sworne to the supremacie, both they and their families: In which tyme the warres of Ireland wilbe finished, the Relme reformed, and her Majestie shall have landes inoughe by the attainder of Traytors to relive her maymed impotent and Aged souldiers royally for I hold it in Conscience a matter of sinne to spare such men as publicklie oppose themselves against her Majesties proceedinges because they wish unto her Highnes and to her forces noe good success.{It is a pittie to spare theyr purses who love not the Queenes proceedinges.} But will (untill this or the lyke course be taken) secretlie support this Rebellion nowe on foote: where (by this imposicion and narrowe {folio 21} lookinge unto) theire frugallitie is such as they would become more sparinge of their bountie to the traytors by which meanes these traytors warres would soone come to an end.{A pampred Jade must be ridden with double girths.}

If any man shall object against this that this were to dayngerouslie to exasperate them who nowe hould for the Queene for defence of their conscience to joyne in rebellion with the rest: I answere, it were better they were all out then some onlie coulorablie in, whereby they thrive under the state, thereby to be better able secretlie to assist the Rebells.{An open enemye is less daungerous than a secret.}

{Seek a new way to the wood for the old is stark naught.} If the generall course of those Irish warres be not better handled than it is and better choyse made of Capteins and other Commaunders yf her Majestie had all the kinge of


Spayne his treasure and thrise as many mines in England as there are in the East and West Indies, these warres of Ireland would spend her treasure, spoyle her men, and consume her victualles, and yet never end the warres: For it is not the holding of the forces togeather in grosse nor walkinge upp and downe the Countrey nor lying Idle in the best Townes of the English Pale that can ever effect it.{Forces farre doe threaten but hurt not.} But they are placed in garrisons neere bordering uppon the Enemye, and victualed in the chief place, fittinge the proporcion of the Forces, the same to bee where the cheefe Commaunder of the said Forces shall thincke moste fitt to make his resiaunce which is moste convenient to bee in the midst havinge his forces garrisoned on either side.{They must break theyr sleepe who will do good service in Ireland.} And soe to be stirring in the night rather than in the day to enter {folio 22} into the Traytors fastnes; For it is the night service (by good observation of spies and guides) which must end the warres of Ireland. And not fightinge with them in the day tyme by fittes, or allmost not at all, but even when there is noe other remedie;{Fightinge by fitts is lyke fever a good day and a bad.} For the traytors have not yet bene followed, nor their strength and fastnes entered, since hee who is now cheife commaunder had the chardge.{They never came yet where it grew.}

This beinge moste true (as I will prove it) I leave it to your Honours Judgment how these warres can bee fineshed.

{Famine would doe it if we could kepe it from ourselves.} I heare some say who have great places of commaunde that a great famine will end those warres. I graunt, so as it may onely fall uppon the traytors, but if the warres bee followed in such idle manner as they are now, the famine is more like to fall uppon the good subject and souldier then uppon the Rebell, wherefore I add that such a Commaunder or Generall doth well deserve to dye who suffereth the souldier to be idle, and the Traytor insolent, when by his vigilance and industrie the subject may bee defended, the souldier mayntayned and the Rebell destroyed:{A Generall who suffereth soldiers to be Idle is lyke a Cutler who suffereth his blades to rust.} For if the Commaunders and souldiers bee paynfull, and the garrisones well placed, then the traytors can take nothing but what he must fight for.

{Short cessations verie hurtfull.} Concerninge those short Cessations from Armes that are often concluded for some short tyme (as the like will custome hath been many yeares observed) I hold them evill and verie dishonourable because they undoe both the subject and the souldier, hinder her Majesties {folio 23} service, and fortefie the traitor.

{The harmes described that such truces procure.} The subjects are damnified by the souldiers lying and staying in garrisons in the hart of the Pale, where they doe not onlie devoure that which the Queene doth allowe them, but alsoe consume whatsoever the poore subject hath, and cannot spare but to his great damage.{The subject a looser.} And yet for the moste part, the poore subject can gett little or noe payement for the same, and yet all this tyme the Traytor is not offended.

{The souldier a looser.} The souldier is undone because hee is not stirringe uppon the traytors to take somethinge from him. And yet this is not the greatest reason of the souldiers damage; but this:{The Enemye a gayner.} In the tyme of such cessation the Traytors have trafficke and entercourse to and with the Inhabitantes of the Pale in Countrie, Citie, and Towne, to furnish themselves with all necessaries which they want, as Broages, Frize and Mantles, yea and with Armor if it bee to bee gott, thus are the Traytors furnished and the souldiers when they shall happen to want anie of these necessaries cannot obtayne them for mony whereby many a tall souldier doth lose his lyfe,{The Rebells leave nothinge for the soldiers.} when sicknes or hurte in service taketh hould uppon him, for how can a souldier live to followe the warres, when in tyme of rest he cannot have that which should keepe him warme. Beseides the traytors are not only supplied with these aforenoted necessaries, but by this intermissive cessation they gayne accesse to their frendes who seeme perchaunce subjects in all partes to strengthen {The traytors make double benefite of the sessation.} {folio 24} their Combinacion and make their faction the more firme, consultinge together how they may steede one another in the next ensuinge warres. This beeinge moste true I leave it to your Honours consideration to note how hurtefull these short cessations are which bee admitted for a mounth or two. And yet I must confesse if this kinde of peace for a mounth or two were used as it ought to bee the Rebells should reape little or noe benefite by it in this sort.

{Good use of short truce.} Lett every traytor (duringe the tyme of this cessation) be confined within his owne Countrie ther to spend uppon himself and lett him fortifie himself as well there as he can and spare not; But if he bee founde traffickinge or tradinge with any of her Majesties subjectes then lett it bee lawfull for any man to kill him.

{It will prevent many mischiefes.} And soe likewise if any subjecte shalbe taken in the Enemies Countrie, lett it be death to him alsoe. Except he be sent by the Generall or Cheefe Commaunder of her Majesties Forces.

{Though messengers were not exempted, yet such a messenger is not worth the stayinge.} And on the other side if the Principall traytor with whome the said treatie of peace is held shall send any messenger with his saffe conduct, lett the said messenger come and goe saffe duringe the tyme of the peace, soe as hee buy nothinge to carrie to the traytors for anie use.

{The best Comoditye that wee may make of these cessations.} The speciall advantage that wee are to take of such truces for the tyme is this. That the chiefe Commaunder in this tymes doe bethincke himself what places are moste necessarie to lodge and garrison souldiers in that they {folio 25} {This referred to everie chief commaunders discretion.} may bee nere to the traytors greatest strength and lett him not laye above a hundredth in one place, to the end, that he may, as it were pale; or wall in the subjects; that (when the peace is broken) the Traytors shalbee able to take nothinge from them, but what they must fetch in great daynger because he must then of necessitie come neere some one of those forteifed places.

These garrisons soe planted, and the Capteins and leaders knowen to bee valiant, let the Enemie come never soe strongelie.{A few may hurt many upon an advantage.} Yet even with these fewe souldiers they may anoy him in such sorte, that he shall pay verie deare for that which hee shall fetch from the subject because these garrisons must bee laied within six miles at the moste one from another, that they may ever bee readie to assist each other as occasion shall serve.{Nere Neighbours maye ever help one another.}

{Captaines who queitt4 to do service must live with theyr Compaynes.} The companies soe placed, the Capteines must not (as nowe they doe) lye drinckinge of wine and tobacco dyeing and surfetinge in townes and never live with their souldiers, if they doe the souldiers will doe nothing.{Such Captaine, such souldier.} For such as is the Captein such is the souldier, if the Captein bee industrious, soe will the souldier bee, yf the Captayn fare hardlie in his kinde, soe will the souldier in his kinde. Yf the Captayn be an extortioner soe will his officers and his souldiers bee;{Everie man for himself.} and to say truth why should the souldier forbeare to serve his owne turne havinge smallest meanes when the Captein shall exact uppon the subject havinge greater meanes;{It is too much for the bad and too litle for the good.} although I confesse with all my hart that the meanes are smale enough for a well deservinge Captein.

{Such indeed should be chosen.} Therefore the Captaynes should bee chosen specially, men of experience and good partes, who might be trusted to parle with the {folio 26} traytors at their discretion and to have aucthoritie to use conference and meanes to discover the enemies practises.

{Such maye bee trusted with Martiall lawe.} Such Captens alsoe shoulde (in my poore Judgment) have commission to exercise martiall lawe uppon any vagrant or straglinge Rebell whome they shoulde apprehend, yea and uppon their owne souldiers (that shall offend) to keepe the rest in due obedience, which discipline will much strengthen these bordering forces.{The use of a thing is all.} A tyme of Cessation used to plant garrisons after this manner and to this purpose wilbe exceedinglie avayleable to her Majesties service. And what Captein soever should have this trust and aucthoritie, and should not then save the subject, and doe service (uppon every occasion) against the Enemie were worthie to be disarmed and another put in his place.{He is worthie to be disgraced who hath noe grace to do service.}

Yf Governors would employ themselves and their {The faulte is in the Governors yf cessations do harme.} Forces after this manner and Conclud their peace uppon these Condicions those warres would soone be ended, for the Rebels should bee enforced to submitt to her Majesties pleasure in all thinges. But as matters are nowe used (pardon mee I beseech ye) what a dishonour is it to soe great and absolute a Prince as is her Majestie{A question under correction.} and to such an honourable Counsell as your Honour and the rest, that a sorte of base Traytor shalbe suffered to make their owne peace at their owne pleasure, and that all the Queenes Armie shalbe drawen to such disgracefull meetinges whose endes are allwayes tendinge to the good of the Rebells and discomoditie of the subjectes. For what reason is there to yeld to their requestes when if bordering garrisons were placed they would not come to annoy the subjectes,{Truce will turne to peace by placing garrisons well.} for they have allready taken all that the neere inhabitants had and to venture further in for that little which the souldiers have lefte the subjectes, I knowe they {folio 27} dare not, because they must pas through many straites and places where if there were thrice as many as our souldeirs they shalbe sure to pay deere for the pray they come for.

{So they should be whatsoever they are.} Moreover (right Honourable) her Majestie hath many forren Enemies (for those I account domesticall being as they ought to bee her owne vassalles) which Enemies when they shall understand by many reportes and letters that those savage Rebells of Ireland,{Such scandall maye arise.} (proceed at their pleasure and are permitted to make what Compostion they list) wilbe incouraged not onely to give them assistance,{Our remissnes maye encourage our Enemyes.} but to annoy us, as much as in them lyeth otherwise. And in the meane space they will curse themselves when they perceive it was their owne Cowardice and not any valor or worth in our nation that hath compassed and performed any action upon them sence they see us soe basely beaten by a sorte of naked savages wherefore (under favour) mee thinckes your Honour{It were well some better course were taken.} and the rest should be incited to move her Majestie to take some course which may Honourablye prevayle agaynst theose base Traytors which may bee easelie done if it may please youe but to observe what I have here written.

And because there are many Servitors who stand for preferment, lett everie one of them as well Governors as other sett downe in writing,{Every man sett downe what he is able to doe.} unto the Generall how they purpose to imploy all their Forces in every place to the end he may understand how the subjectes where they shalbe resident shalbe defended and the rebelles cutt of, And what Governor or other Commaunder soever that stands for preferment, and will not undertake either to defend or offend or both {folio 28} is (in my opinion) unworthie of the same,{He that hath cost the Queene much and can do her litle service is nothing worth.} speciallie if hee bee one that can describe twentie yeares experience and imployment in Ireland at her Majesties great chardge. For everie straunger that was never in that countrie will say that yf hee were imployed{Self conceit deceived.} hee will not doubt to doe good service and soe I thincke he woulde if hee knewe howe. But it is a shame for a Commaunder, a Captein or any man in other place that hath been chargablie mayntayned uppon her Majesties purse (for manie yeares) if hee cannot sett downe a plot whereby her Highnes{A man expert and valiant can give assurance of his service.} and your Honours may bee assured of the service that he will performe her Majestie enablinge him with all the meanes fitting such an action as hee shall undertake: Hee I say that is not able to doe this is (in my poore Judgment) unworthie of ymployment.

{Zeale provoketh but reason restrayneth.} I have much a do in this place to forbeare settinge downe my opinion concerninge everie particular province because I am famylierly acquayted in ech of them, where to place souldiers in garrison both to deffend and offend. {It were expedient} But of purpose I will spare that labour for that I wish everie Governor and other Commaunder and great officer should be commaunded to shew their sundrye censures for the rest of the Provinces, as I have done myne for the recoverie of Leinster and Connaught which I will make more manifest when I shall see others to have decleared their knowledge: In the meane space I am assured that if Leinster and Connaught be once reduced to obedience, Mounster wilbe easely reclaymed.{Who knoweth how to do it.} The meanes and manner how, I leave to his experience and skill who is, made Chief Governor there, as it is fitt.

Concerninge Ulster I wilbe bold to discover {folio 29} my opinion, which is, That if her Majesties Forces were disposed in such places{This is yet but by the way.} as I could appoint those Northern Rebells would quicklie curse the tyme that ever they were Traytors especially Tyrone whome the Irish now call ONeale. For yf the Queenes Forces were well imployed to offend him and other great Traytors.{When our forces shall prevayle, his frends will fall away.} I do knowe there is a stronge parte in Ulster which would then Joyne themselves with her Majesties Armye and assist the same soe as the Forces were layde where they might offend the Archrebells and defend such as would come in when they had don great service even uppon the saide Chief Traytor Tyrone.

{An accidentall discourse.} For when I was last with him there came many men of the best sort that appertayne unto him and sayde unto mee thus: why dost thou seeke to perswade ONeale to submit himself to the Queene when thou seeth him growne soe proude by having us soe firme and constant unto him, as now he hath: for indeede none of us dare forsake him though wee be weary of this kinde of life. And although he doe love thee, and (as it hath bene thought) thou hast loved him, yet will he not be ruled by thee to make and conclude a peace; therefore gett thee away and tell the state yf the Queene were for herself then wee would bee for her and until that tyme let her looke for, noe peace, soe long as this ONeale doth live; and those whome she doth now trust, who are his frendes; For there is nothinge determined for his hurt, butt hee doth quicklie know it. Yett not withstandinge when we shall once see that the Queene is for herself,{That is when her forces shall prosecute him thoroughlye.} then will we be for her alsoe, yea and the first that shall doe her great service. This (uppon my credit) is most true and beinge {folio 30} soe what can these Rebells doe otherwise then as nowe they doe, be adherents to Tyrone who though they be Lordes of great territories, yet of themselves are a greate deale too weake to contend with that mightie Traytor.{They follow him more for feare than for love.}

I do knowe there are many opionions delivered to your Honour for the prosecution of those warres especiallye agaynst that Arch traytor Tyrone. Yet because I have been greatly wronged both to her sacred Majestie and to your Honour that in my regarde of my love towards him, I would not willingly doe service upon him.{Bad construction wrongs good meaninge.} To clear that suspition this is my offer, that if ever I be imployed that way, there is noe man shall doe him such harme as I will.{An offer in true zeale.} In the meane Ceason I will bee bould to shew my opinion, how her Majestie may prevayle greatly against him and that in short tyme.

Yf her Majesties Forces may bee bestowed as I shall here sett downe, Tyrone and his shalbe not onlye constrayned to live of themselves, and spend onlye of their owne but her Majesties good subjectes shalbe defended and preserved.

First it is necessary to prevent all the causes which have overthrowne all the deputies actions, who have hitherto gone with great Armyes against him of which Hunger both to horse and man hath bene one speciall,{An Armye must feele no famyne.} wherefore to offend him and to be free from this and other lyke miseries this is my opinion.

For this yeare those forces which her Majestie purposeth to mayntayne for prosecution of the warrs there (everie province having {folio 31} their proporcion of horse and foote) let them bee thus disposed.{How to dispose the forces for this yeare.}

{Two Armyes to stirre together.} Those which are appointed for the North and those for Connaught lett them stirre together aboute the beginning of marche and not passe the midst of that moneth.

{Let this report shadow the purpose.} Let it be given out that the Armye of Connaught goeth to take Ballishanon and that other for Ulster to fortefye the Blackwater, and to keepe the passage of that Ryver; and the fortification bruted abroade to be on the further side.

These Armyes stirringe soe together will cause ODonnell and Tyrone to drawe their forces together longe before their accustomed tyme;{This is to great purpose.} which will greatlie anoy them. And inflict greater myserie upon them than can fall upon her Majesties forces. Soe as there be a great proportion of vittuales layde in at Carlingford and the Newyre.{A speciall place for the staple of vittayls.}

{Ardmaugh must be refortified.} Lett the Armye that goeth upon Tyrone goe noe further than Ardmaugh, and to fortifie that place as it was, which done then leave such a proportion of horse and foote{Horsemen must be stirringe.} there as may be stronge inough to keep Tyrone still busied betwixt that and the Blackwater. And soe soone as the Armye shall come unto Ardmaugh to leave it to be fortified by the forces which shall there bee in garrison.{Garrison to fortifie Blacke Water.}

{Parte of the Armye to retyre.} Then let the rest of the Armye fall presently backe towardes the Newrye. And when they shall come to a place there cauled the viijt mile Churche in the midway betwixt Armaugh and the Newrye then let{A forte at the viij myle Church.} {folio 32} them fortifie agayne. And garrison there such strength of horse and foote as shalbe thought sufficient.

{These garrisons must not be Idle} Lett them not bee ydle but stirringe as opportunitie shall serve them. And lett their speciall chardge bee to keepe all wast aboute them. {that is unfed by any Cattell.} And their chiefest care to command all such grounds (neere them) as they shall finde fitt for meadow to yeld them hay for their horses against winter.{Horsemeat for winter.}

{One maye help another.} These two garrisons thus placed (with the help of the garrison of the Newrye) shalbe able to fetch their meanes at all tymes from the Newrye: And to strengthen themselves at their pleasure. And by their stirringe in March, Aprill and Maye: there wilbe great plenty of grasse about the midst of June, at which {Good tyme for grasse growinge.} tyme (and not before) it would be fitt for the Lord Deputie to stir if he should stirre at all.

{The Lord Deputye need not stirre that way.} But were my opinion of power to perswade he should not stirre that way at all. But there should be a Lord President appoynted for that Province of Ulster as there is for Mounster.{A lord President for Ulster.} And in June let this armye be made stronge both of horse and foote: And soe goe forwarde to tak in Blackwater and to fortefie it.

{On which side the river Blackwater is to be fortefied.} The fortification thereof were but to be on this side of that River untill the Fort shalbe made. And then they shalbe able without losse to gayne the further side of the water even at pleasure.

{Men must stirr that horses may live.} And yf the souldiers at Ardmaugh will bestirred themselves lyke men, there wilbe plenty of grasse (growen in the tyme before mentioned) betwixt that and the Blackwater for their horses.

{folio 33}{At the Commaunders discretion.} The fewer horses will serve when the foote come to the river. But they maye remayne at Ardmaugh and some of them be still stirringe betwixt that and the Black Water

{Safe conveyance for vittayles.} The staple of vittayles beinge at the Newrye soe much thereof as shalbe needful may be conveyed to the Blackwater in great safetie, the garrisons being placed according to these directions.

{The benefite of the spring must by all meanes be apprehended.} But yf the opportunytie of this beginninge of the yere be lett slippe and these thinges unperformed, there wilbe noe meanes left in Julye or August for the Armye to feed one horse or Beeffe about Ardmaugh and the Blackwater.{The traytors do never want good intelligence.} Because the Traytors who have good intelligence at all tymes what is intended towards them (long before the forces shall stir that way) will drawe all their cowes and Garrans theither to devour all their grasse thereabout which cannot be prevented but by the meanes here sett downe.

{Yf there be a Lord President appointed for Ulster his best place of residence is Ardmagh.} Yf it shall pleasure her Majestie to appoint a Lord President of that great Province of Ulster lett him be resident at Ardmaugh; And when he hath forteified the Blackwater (or whilst that is in doing) with some convenient forces repayre towardes Monohan.{Monohan the Countrey where the Macc Mahouns do inhabite.} And at the end of six myles which is the first halfwaye betwixt Ardmaugh and Monohan where he shall fynde fittest place, lett him fortefye and leave a competent number of horse and foote to garrison.

{Garrison at Monohan.} When he cometh to Monohan lett him alsoe fortefie and leave a stronge garrison both of horsemen and footmen there.

{Fortification betwixt Cloonys and Monohan.} From Monohan let his passe onto the Abbey of Cloonys which is alsoe xij myles from Monohan. And in the mid way let him alsoe fortefie and garrison.

{folio 34}{A strong garrison at Cloonys needfull.} Att Cloonys lett him not fayle to fortefie and Garrison verie stronglie, because it is a speciall place by which those Northern Traytors are accustomed to passe when they will venture into the Pale. And soe are other of the former recyted garrison places.

{All these garrisons must be strong in horse.} Yf all the garrisons be strong in Horsemen the Traytors will not dare to stir because the countrey is all Champayne from the Newrye to everie of those aforesaid places of garrisons and soe unto Cloonys exceptinge a few paces not worthy the speakinge of: for with the troupes of Horsemen, they may at all tymes goe one to another.{Paces are wayes that are heawne through woods.}

{Safe passage from garrison to garrison.} In the lyke manner may they passe from Cloonys (unto Kells and not be troubled with any pace savinge one) and that is verie nere Cloonys

{A staple of vittayles att Kells.} Att Kells it were fitt a staple of vittayles should be provided to serve the garrison at Cloonys and those in the way thither.

{The distance of Kells from Cloonys.} From Kells unto Cloonies is thirtye miles wherefoe at the end of everie tenne myles a Fort for rest and rescue would be made and mayntayned.{One newe forte will serve in that 30 myles.} And the makinge one onlye (in the xxxtie myles) will serve and be sufficient which must be at the ten miles and next unto Kells for at the end of xij myles and within viij myles of Cloonys, there is a stronge Castle which standes firme and fast for the Queene. And is in the Custodie of Capten Reylie. There shall neede noe more Companyne to remayne at Kells upon her Majesties charge than just soe many as shalbe needfull to attend the vittayles.{A few to attend vittayles; men inough at Kells.}

The Countrie there about may well inough {folio 35} looke to their owne saftie, for ife theye wilbe provident they can loose nothinge after the garrison be once placed as aforesaid.{That Country will be secured by the garrisons.}

{2 septs of Rebells wilbe brought to obedience.} Moreover the OReylies and the MacMahons wilbe thereby soune brought unto obedience upon whatsoever Condicions her Majestie shalbe pleased to impose.

{This half brother of Tyrone will forsake him.} Then will Terloe Mac Henrye Joyne with her Majesties Forces and before his Cominge in, he will (upon my knowlidg) give a great blowe to some about Tyrone.

{Longford a good place for a garrison against ORourke and the OFarralls.} In OFarrall his countrie called the Countie of Longford even in the Shiere towne, Longford (which is neere the countrie of ORourke) lett there be a stronge Garrison placed both of horse and foote, which may not onelye commaunde all the OFarralls who for the most parte are all Traytors. But it will likewise offend ORowrk in such sort as (if the Chiefe Commaunder of Connaught be a man that will be stirringe) hee may suppresse him and his at his pleasure.

{It maye doe good upon some in Connaught.} Besides, this Garrison layd at Longford is soe neare the Shanon as it may often tymes doe service upon the Traytors of Connaught which remayne in the Countie of Roscoman because it is the next adjoyning to this Countie of Longford.

{A bridle for braynsicke Jades.} These bordering garrisons once placed alongest Tyrone and at Longford in the beginning of this springe, wilbe such a curbe unto the Northerne Traytors as will restrayne them from runninge into Leinster as now they doe.

This Garrison at Cloonis must of necessitie be strong both in horse and foote {folio 36} because they lye in the chiefest strength both of the Mac Mahouns and Maguier, and uppon Cormack Macc Baron brother to Tyrone.{Proud traitors A divelish traytor.}

This Garrison settled at Cloonis this sommer and enhabled in winter to be stronge agaynst the next Springe then will it be fitt for them to goe with those forces to Loughfoyle and Ballishanan. And they have but one pace to passe into those two places which pace is neere unto Cloonis.{Cloonis a good restinge place for the forces of Loughfoyle and Ballishanin.}

I doubt not but many will say that it is noe stirringe of an Armye in March.{Objection} True it is, if the necessitie of the service did not urdge expedition; {Aunswer.} But as the case standeth, the solduers must needes indure some hardnes, and better were they to undergoe it in the beginning of the yere when Sommer and warme weather is approchinge then when Sommer is spent, and foule coulde stormes of winter draw on.

The greater matter that can be aleadged against the stirrringe of an Armye in March is the want of horsemeat, which must be thus holpen. As there is a great proporcion of vittayles sent to the Newry for men soe must there be provision of Oates made there for horses to serve the Armye untill grasse be growne.{As foode for men soe Oates for horses must be provided.}

{Tyrone's brother in law and his frends cutt of from him by this garrison.} Dundroume is likewise a verie necessarie place for a garrison of horse and foote, who (yf they wilbe stirringe) maye greatlie offend Maggennis and Macharte and others thereabout and defende Lecale in such sorte as in shorte tyme they wilbe able to live upon the Queenes entertaynment having meanes in the Island to relieve them.{After a while.}

{folio 37}{Better at Belfast than at Knockfergus.} It were expedient alsoe that some Companyes of horse and foote were layde att Belfast and none at Knockfergus savinge those which are allowed to keepe the Abbey and the Castle for the layinge of men in Knockfergus (as hereto hath been accustomed) is to noe purpose: for they can neither offend the Enemy nor keepe anythinge to relieve themselves: Yet Knockfergus is to be respected for a place of store.{A good receptacle for vittayles.} But laying them at Belfast they shalbe able everie day to doe a great service. And to command both the great and the little Ardes even to the River of Strangford{The Ardes may be Comaunded.} , soe as there be three Fortes buylded upon the River{3 new Fortes to be builded.} which incompasseth the Ardes which may be easely done and kept. And yf the Captains of the same be paynfull servitors they may command the Lord of the great Arde as they please.

{A good place for a Garrison.} There maye be alsoe a garrison at Edenduff Carick nere Lough Sydney. And they are easely to be vittayled from Knockfergus.

{Two places in the woods.} When the garrisons of Belfast are stronglie fortefied and made masters of Kyluto and Kylwarlen. Then with the strength of Edenduff Carick they may goe as they thincke best to the Roote towardes the Bande, and plague the Scotts which are never true.{Borderers upon that water.} And there to fortefye upon the Band.

{Therefor it were pittye to lose oportunitye.} If all these garrisons be thus placed this yere (and the Commaunders thereof doe their duties) Tyrone shalbe more offended this next sommer and the next winter {folio 38} than he hath bene in all these sixe yeres past. But leavinge this undone, lett mee lose my credit if he sustayne much damage.

I know there wilbe manie opinions and reasons yelded for the placinge of Garrisons at Loughfoyle and Ballishanon which I am content to approve soe as they be sent in fitt tyme; and stronglie and safelie landed there.{Theyr opinion allowable with conditons.}

{The tyme expressed for fitt sendinge to Loughfoyle & Ballishanon.} Because your Honour may knowe when that fitt tyme is. It shalbe best to send them to Loughfoyle and Ballishanon when her Majesties forces shall prevayle against the Traytors of the North as they doe now agaynst her Armye and her subjectes; makinge us quitt one place after another which have bene fortified to her Majesties{It were well this were not true.} great chardge and to retyre ourselves unto good Townes.

When her Majesties Forces shall in like sort prosecute them, drivinge them still before us as they doe us now and wee followinge and beatinge them in their strongest fastnes, and sitting downe by them in the places aforesaid.{Noe more haste then good speed.} Then the next Springe after that: lett Loughfoyle and Ballishanon be undertaken, and not before for yf they be sent now, smale service wilbe done.

All the service they shalbe able to doe this sommer and the next winter wilbe but to sett themselves downe and to expect the great famyne that is lyke to fall upon them.{Slender service.}

And because your Honour may judge it must {folio 39} needes be soe, it may please you to observe what forces of her Majesties have lyen at the Newyre and Dundalke, and alongst the countrie of Tyrone,{Things Compared make truth aparant.} and to note what service they have done and how they have offended the Traytors and defended the subjectes. Yf they have done neither of these but have bene layed amongst her Highnes good subjectes (who have in a manner given them all they have had) and they never rescued any prey taken from the subjectes,{This is noe wonder for all the service hath bene such.} nor adventured to fetch any bootye from the Enemye what can be sayed yett to garrison them{It may dow well but it is unlike.} where no inhabitants are to succour them nor any defence for them, but what they must fight for the buyldinge of.

The garrisons of the Newrye and Dundalke have bene two thowsand horse and foote, and xij hundredth at the least yet have not all they kept the way passable from garrison to garrison,{Eyther doubt or daunger or both did hinder it.} that men might travell safelie, nor defended so much ground about them as would sustayne any cattle or beare corne, or other substance to relieve themselves upon any extremetie, but have depended onlye upon the meanes from her Majestie which have bene, are, and wilbe, impossible to uphold them;{And many more in other places.} and thousands of her souldiers in the Newrye and Dundalke have (in my knowledge) perished for want of vittayles.

{Either they could not or they would not help it.} When these garrisons were at the strongest, the Traytors have still kept their dwellings nere to either of them in peace without molestacion.

{folio 40}This beinge moste true, your Honour may judge what lykelihood of good service it carrieth to send a Company of poore unskilfull men to those remote places of Loughfoyle and Ballishanon,{Such as are Commonly sent over.} before her Majesties Forces shall drive the Traytors before them, and garrison (as I have noted) in lykely and possible places upon them, confrontinge the Traytors in the borders of their owne countrie, and (as it were) wallinge or Palinge in the the subjectes with those fronteringe Garrisons which beinge once done the warres may be as soone ended as those twoe harde garrisons planted.{The damage of the traytor is the safetye of the subject.}

One thinge there is which I could wish were put in proffer.{This were a good way to discover his frends.} There are manye in her Majesties entertaynment who are thought to affect Tyrone; To discover therefore what affection they beare unto him; mee thinckes it were not amisse to imploy their service speciallie upon him, placing them in some of the commaundes that I have here mentioned; then if their service be not extraordynary havinge sufficient meanes from her Majestie.{They wilbe ashamed to be soe.} They shall shew themselves to be either notorious Cowardes, verie idle, or the Traytors frendes. But I am perswaded yf this Course be taken, they who are thought his greatest frendes will shew themselves his moste assured foes and one of them will doe her Majestie more good service,{So sayd and so done had ended the matter.} than all those who have been talkinge there many yeres of killinge him, yet never did hurt him.

{folio 41}{This Armye and that in Ulster must kepe tyme lyke Musitians.} Concerninge the Armye for Connaught (which is to stirre alsoe at this instant and both together to keepe the stronge Traytors busye in both places). Lett them for this sommer and the next winter sett downe at Slygoe and at the Abbeye of Boyle betweene which two lett there be placed a stronge garrison at the Governors discretion.{Good places for Garrisons.}

{A small proporcion for Athlone.} At Athlone there shall not neede anye stronger garrison than may well be able to defend that passage.

{A Convenient place for the Lord Deputye to lye att.} This Athlone is (without exception) the most convenient place in all Ireland for the Lord Deputie his Resydance for the moste parte because it is scituate in the midst of the Realme by which meanes he may be ready to assist the service in which of the Provinces soever he shall have neede.

{Spoken by reporte.} I am crediblye enformed that the proporcion of souldiers appoynted for Ireland (which her Majestie do the purpose to mayntayne) is 12,000 foote and 2,220 horse, which forces as I here are to be thus imployed.5

{The Forces distributed.} Three thousand foote and two hundredeth and fiftie horsemen for Mounster, For the Queenes and Kinges Countye vz. Lease and Ophaly 200 foote.

For the Newrye 300 foote and 50 horsemen.

For Curlingford one hundredth foote.

For Knockfergus 600 foote and 50 horsemen.

For Loughfoyle 3000 foote and 200 horsemen.

For Ballishanon 1000 foote and 100 horsemen.

For Connaught 1000 foote and 100 horsemen.

For Kells and Dondalke 1200 foote and 150 horsemen.

{As familierlye knowe as Dunstable waye.} All these places are unto me (generallie and specially both by name and nature) familierlie {folio 42} knowne, therefore (under your Honours pardon) I beseech ye it may be noe offence for me to sett downe my opinion what service these Forces thus devided can do whereof her Majestie and your Honur to her grief and yours I feare shall have experience.{God turne yt to better.}

And whosover are the Authors of this Complott. Although I dare sweare they doe hate Tyrone and all the rest of those and all other Traytors (for if they should not theye were worst than devills) yet in settinge downe that proporcion of men for Lease and Ophalye,{They have shewed good will but smale skill in this.} they shew themselves as good frendes to the Moores and Conners as if they were their fathers. For eyther those two hundredeth souldiers are over many or over few, and this is my reason.{Soe the number is not equall.} They are too few to handle anye service, for a dozen men in either forte (with the wards {A reason for the insufficiencye of the nomber.} already there allowed) are inough to kepe them. And the rest are too many to be there to noe purpose.

{This spoken butt by the waye.} And it were better to quitt those 2 places since the Moores and the Conners shall possesse the Englishmens landes in peace both in Lease and Ophalye.

{A question under correction.} Why should her Majestie be at the chardge of foure thousande poundes by the yere to keepe two Fortes amongst a company of Traytors and laye 200 poore souldiers in them who shallbe often tymes in daunger of starvinge, unless the whole Armye shalbe stirred to vittalye them.

{Appelation to Judgment.} This beinge true I appeale to your Honour whether it wre better to quitt them than to put her Majestie to such a needles charge when soe small a proporcion of men shalbe {folio 43} unable either to offend the Traytors or defend the subjectes or succour themselves.

{A supposition.} Suppose the worst, that by quittinge the Fortes the Traytors raze and breake their towne to the ground. It shall be lesse damage to her Majestie when six monthes Entertaynment of that which those pettie garrisons shall Idlye there consume, will buyld at all tymes two new Fortes as good.

{A retraction of the premises.} Not withstandinge this argument of myne, that yt were better to quitt those Fortes than to keepe them with soe slender a proporcion of men, yet God forbid it should be soe.{A commendacion of the buildiers intent.} Because they were moste providentlie builded in those places by her Majesties predecessors to keepe those Moores and Conners in obedience, or at the least in Awe. And althoughe her Majestie have been exceedinglie abused there in her service,{A competent number may doe convenient service.} yet might it please her Highnes to apporcionate that competent number of men by me sett downe in the beginninge of the treatise of Recoverye for the reducinge of Leinster and particularly those two places. Yf then the Commaunder of those Forces doe not either banish or kill those Moores and Conners or bringe them to obedience,{The sentence is but equall to the merite.} let him suffer death, for he doth well deserve it. But if this or the like be not affected all her Majesties poore subjectes borderinge upon Lease and Ophalye,{If there be noe other remedye it must needes be soe.} must of necessitye forgoe their dwellings and loose their lyvinges or become bondslaves to Traytors whereunto they shall be enforced when her Majestie doth not defend them. And this is my simple opinion concerninge those 200 foote appoynted to the two fortes in Lease and Ophalye.

The Forces which are now to be sent to {folio 44} {Little trouble and lesse harme.} Loughfoyle and Ballishanon I am perswaded will doe verie smale hurte to Tyrone (although for a tyme they may troble him a little).{God make the feare frustrate.} But I feare they will offend her Majestie greatlie both for the losse of her expences and her people, as to your Honour hereafter wilbe made manifest.

Those Forces for Mounster are verie great and sufficient to reforme it to her Majesties pleasure, though all that whole Province were out in Rebellion For those of Mounster are the most Cowardlie Traytors of all Ireland.{The forces and the governor are both sufficient.} And there is noe doubte but the Lord President will doe her Majestie great service though they were otherwise; for with that power, he may both suppresse the Rebells and sustayne the souldiers because he hathe there good meanes.

Now touching the garrisons appoyted for {Garrisons too farre to do anye good.} Kells and Dundalke, they lye to farre of to doe any service. To prove it soe lett the service be examyned which they have done alreadye (when the number of horse and foote was farr greater than is now allotted). And if they have not alwayes left the Traytor unoffended and the subject undefended, then I speake without truth or Judgment.

{These as insufficient as those for the 2 fortes.} For that propocion assigned to the Newrye and Carlingford I hold the same opinion that I doe for the 2 Fortes in Lease and Ophalye.

{A competent proporcion for those parts.} The Forces allowed for the upper and nether Clannye Boyes which are assigned for Knockfergus may doe her Majestie great service there. Yea and (be the Traytors never soe stronge) bringe them all to obedience in a few yeres; after which it may be held without any chardge unto her Majestie yf {folio 45} {Cowardes do commonly make bootie of both sydes.} he that shall Commaund there, be not a corrupt man, to live uppon her Majesties entertaynment and upon the subjectes there alsoe, both which he will doe if he be a coward. But if he be such a one, then let his lyfe answer it, the example of which Justice will teach other beware.

{Another note concerninge those 2 places.} Once agayne to those appoynted for Loughfoyle and Ballishanon, yf they doe goe now at this springe, soe as the other garrisons by mee formerly spoken of be undertaken at the same instant, I meane the Black Water, Ardmaugh and the rest. And that the two Armies (that in Connaught that in the Southeast parte of Ulster, and those Forces at Loughfoyle and Ballishanon) be all stirringe at one tyme then their goinge thither is lykelie to prevayle and and doe good.{Fitt tyme and meanes maye avayle this service.} Otherwise yf they be sent thither to trust onelie to themselves without the others approchinge the Enemyes countrie to kepe him busied: their service wilbe smale and their dainger may be great and her Majesties Charge (assuredlie) exceeding.{They shalbe lesse able to serve att their landing.} For they must be sent thither by sea because (the Traytors standing soe stronglie as now theye do) they shall not be able to make their passage by land.

{What those forces must expect before they can be setled.} When they shall arrive at Loughfoyle and at Ballishanon first they must provide to fight for the ground where they purpose to sitt downe. That obtayned they are to expect daylie assaultes and practises whilst they are in fortefyinge. This beinge past and theye there setled. It may be they shall gaine as much ground (without their garrisons) as will suffize (pardone I pray youe a homely comparison) to tether or feede a pigge upon.{A smale gaine for soe great a venture.} And yett that seelie beast not then safe, but soe soone as he is fatt if he bee {folio 46} but left without their guardes the Rebells by one meanes or other will fetch him from thence. And to preserve but soe much ground as the soldiers must needes have to sitt downe upon at both those places will cost the Queene fortye thousand poundes by the yere.{A great charge for smale service.} And the service which the souldiers will moste attend wilbe to pray unto God to deliver them from those miseries which are like to afflict them there.{Well may they serve God, for they shall not be able to serve the Queene.} And to curse those who advysed your Honour of the Counsell to send them thither in a tyme soe farre unfit. My lyfe be the wager against his estate (yf he be not a Begger who layed this project){The wager is not soe vaine as is the project.} that this will be all those souldiers wilbe able to doe, yf Blackwater and the other places be not undertaken before their goinge to Loughfoyle and Ballishanon.

{They must be nere and bad neighbours that shall annoye Tryone.} Some reasons I have alleaged before to which I add this: Yf Tyrone have noe garrysons layde nerer unto him than the Newrye, Dundalke and Kells; he will leave but a few to attend them (which wilbe sufficient) and drawinge his owne and ODonells Forces together wilbe of that great strength that the Queenes souldiers there garrisoned I meane at Loughfoyle and Ballishanon shall not be able to stirr out of their Fortiffied places but to exceedinge disadvantage and hazard.{The daunger and the chardge wilbe much alike.} Besides what a charge it will be to relieve them in their distresses I leave to your Honours most discreete consideracion; wishing the successe of our Forces might fall out otherwise, that youe might have just cause to reprove my Opinion.

The best meanes that can be devised to helpe this and to effect some speciall {folio 47} service in setlinge these garrisons and to hold the Enemye on all seides busied, ys to deveid that Armie of Ulster into two partes;{This is a sure remedy to prevent a certain mischife.} The one to undertake Ardmaugh and the other for Cloonis; And both to be stirringe upon their Journey together. That power that is to goe for Clonys must take the way to Kells.

There ought to be small difference in the strength of either.{A good reason why those 2 Armyes should be equall in strength.} For althoughe Tyrone be held to be the stronger Enemye who will withstand those Forces for Ardmaugh and Blackwater: yet the other wilbe founde as stronge with whom those of Cloonys shall have to deale, if not the stronger of both.{All these unyted ar as stronge as Tyrone.} For unto that will ODonnell, ORourke, Maguires the Mac Mahounes, the OReylies and Cormac Macc Baran draw all their forces; Because all these and all the other great Traytors of the north wilbe loth to suffer the Queenes Forces to possess that strait of Cloonys;{Indeede they are loth the Queene should have anye place.} for that it will prejudice their passages towares the Pale, and alsoe offend them exceedinglye in their owne habitacions.

Then shall Tyrone be dryven to trust unto his owne forces, because the assistaunce of the other wilbe withdrawne from him to resist the Armye at Cloonys.{Manye smale partes withdrawne will weaken the whole.} And he shall want the ayde of his frendes the Mac Charthens and all the woode men Kilulto and Kilwarden and his allyance Magennis, and other great men of those partes by reason that they shall have inough to doe to defend themselves against the garrisons of Lecale, Doundromme, Belfast and the rest appoynted in those partes.{Who have much busines of their owne can hardly helpe their frends.}

{folio 48}Nothwithstandinge these two Armyes of Connaught and Ulster (and that of Ulster devided) yet, if the proporcion sett downe in the first beginninge of the Recoverie for Leinster and Connaught which are 1800 foote and 150 horse be allowed of.{Some of these few may be spared to helpe at a pinch.} These may (if neede soe require) be spared 600 foote and 50 horse to help to strengthen those Armyes in Ulster, towardes Loughfoyle and Ballishanon duringe the somer service; soe they may be returned unto Leinster againe, against winter to follow the service there.

{Those forces well Imployed are verie sufficient.} The forces assigned for Connaught are most sufficient to reforme that, though all the whole Province were out in action. Soe as the Chiefe Commaunder be willinge, he may ther with such an Armye doe what service he pleaseth be he a native of that Country or whatsoever els (havinge good experience in the warrs in Ireland) he may soone end those warres of Connaught, Recover and reforme the Province,{There need no more and there ought to be no less.} hold the people in obedyence ever afterward, yea and within a few yeres, doe all this without anny charge unto her Majestie. Or els his life is worthie to annswer the wastinge of her Highnes treasure and her men.

{Better without than within for their defence.} Such souldiers as shoulde be garrisoned in the Townes of Dondalke and Anelye might more fittlye be placed without those Townes than within them.

{One garrison devyded into three and the place where.} Those appoynted for Dundalke to be devided in there places verie nere adjoyninge: vz: at Balliemoscanlon which towne and castle was sometymes the dwelling place of Tyrone but is now in the {folio 49} possession of Sir Edwarde Moore, and is able to receive one third part of the soldiers assigned for Dondalke.

{The second garrison.} The second company may be planted in a Towne of Captain Richard Hovendens, two myles from Balliemoscanlon where there is a castle to receive and rescue the souldiers.

{The third garrison.} The third Company, in a Towne of Sir John Bedlowes called Roche Castle which is not two myles from that of Captein Hovendes. And all those three garrisons shall lye uppon the borders of the Fewes and skirtes of the mountaynes.{The service is the reason of thus so placing.} And by the placinge of the garrisons after this manner, there can noe Traytors stirre out of those mountaynes to offend anny subject betwixt them and the Pale but the are sure to be beaten. Yf the Captains and souldiers of those garrisons be men of any worth.

Lett the chiefest strength of foote lye att Baillemoscanlon for that is the greatest place of fastnes (as thinges stand nowe){The stoppinge of this passage will helpe to pyne the traytors.} because it is scituate nere the straite of that passage where the Traytors doe now use to goe over either to offend the subjectes or to fetch provision from Droedagh or from their bordering frendes thereaboute.

{Horsemen most needfull in those 3 Garrisons.} It is verie needfull that all those three garrisons which are to be on the outside of Dundalk should be stronge in horses, because horsemen must thereabout doe the best service.

{4 myles of the Countrye preserved by chaunginge the garrison place and better service like to ensue.} Now for the Forces appointed for Ardye lett them be garrisoned at Louthe which is within foure myles of the same.

{folio 50}{A woodland on the borders of Tyrone.} This garrison shall border likewise uppon the Fewes and ought in like sorte to be stronge in horsemen.

{Speciall choice is to be made of two Commaunders of those garrisons.} When all these garrysons shalbe once thus placed, it shalbe convenyent to make choyce of such commaunders as shalbe well knowne to be men of good worth both in worldlie fortunes and warlike knowledge and such as are verie well acquaynted with the Countryes. And if I were worthie to nominate them knowinge all the men of note (both in that kingdome and of that kingdome) these followinge should without all question be speciallye selected to commaunde those places.

{A meete man Nominated.} The meetest man to be generall Commaunder of all those 4 garrisons last mentioned, is Sir Garrat Moore: who, (although he have bene thought to favour Tyrone) will (upon my lyfe) not onely defend the Queenes {He will discharge as much as is undertaken.} subjectes in better manner than moste men of Ireland can doe: but he will alsoe doe her Majestie other great service.

{So please it her Majestie and her Counsell.} And because he may be the better able soe to doe, let him have to his horsemen (now in her Majesties pay) one hundredth footemen allowed him. Lett him alsoe be made Lieutenant of the Countye of Louthe and receive of the Countrye for his fee a noble a day.{He will deserve both the Entertaynment and the trust.} Let him be likewise Captein of a hundred foote at the charge of the Contrye performinge such condicions as ar before mentioned in the recoverie of Leinster and have the choice of the Sheriffe for that County of Louth; and let not the Lord Deputye for the tyme fayle to use his opinion concerninge the service in those partes.

{Another valiant gentleman.} Ther is Captein Fleminge who hath a Company of horse in her Majestie pay, he lyeth upon the borders of Fewgh his Country where {folio 51} he doth noe service. But (his mother havinge many poore kinsfolks) all his care now is to uphold their beggerlie husbandrye and tillage to feede himself and her and them.{This is good but service were better.} This man is valiant and able to doe a good service upon the North: because all his owne landes doe border upon the same. And there be all his kinsmen of his name. Let him have (beseides his horsemen) one hundredth footemen in her Majesties pay:{Good for him, and for the Queenes service.} And let him be appointed to remayne upon his owne lyvinge, and devide his men to such places as he shall thincke moste fitt. And for his better inhablinge let him have the Lieutenantshippe of Eastmeithe: And his opinion used for the choice of a Sheriffe for that countye to assist him.

{A third valiant servitor.} There is alsoe another valiant gentleman fitt to be employed upon the northern border who lyvinge now in Leinster doth very smale service savinge that by keepinge fayre quarter with the Rebells he doth upholde his owne and his kindredes husbandry, though other subjectes landes nere about him doe lye utterlye waste,{He saves so much as his Neigbours do lose.} and their goodes are many tymes driven through his possessions unrescued. His name is Capteine Greymes who if (with his troope of horsemen) he were removed northward and appointed to live uppon some of the Traytors landes in those partes which border upon Tyrone and commaunded here to sett downe his dwellinge,{Wynne it and weare it.} and to garrison his horsemen as to him should seeme best, he might (as he is able) do excellent service.

{A Gentleman of good parts.} To have the command and the Lieutenantship of the Countie of Westmieth Fraunces Shane who is a moste honest religious talle gentleman is the fittest man. And Mollingar a stronge Towne in the said Countie is a {folio 52} convenient place for a storehouse of victailes to serve the garrisons of Longford and Athlone if neede be.

{His owne Castle is well situate for service.} For the Countye of Cavane. Let Captein Reylie command there, and be appoynted to live at his owne Castle, which is neere the garrison of Cloonys: Let him dispose of his forces as he shall thincke best. Soe that he fortfie and place some of his companie in the midwaye betwixt his Castle and Kells.{One Forte to be made betwixt his house and Kells.}

{A Gentleman of note and fitt for that Commaunde.} Captein St Laurence is the speciall man of imployment to command the Forces appoynted for Cloonis and to assist him that shall goe to Ballishanon who may rest at Cloonys with him until fitt tyme be to goe to that place. The reason why St Lawrence is the fittest is because he is well furnished with frendes and meanes.

{Theyr brotherly amytie will strengthen ech other for he is brother to St Laurence by Mariage.} Captein William Eustace his broher in law maye be fittlye placed as Lieutenant of the Brenye and be garrisoned with Captain Relye and lye with him at his Castle, betwixt which two gentlemen great service may be done.{The union likewise will sort to good service.} And the same shalbe a convenient place for such a garrison, because it standeth with viij myles of Cloonys.

The command of Monohan both the Forces and the Countie cannot be better bestowed than upon Sir William Warren whose experience and knowledge in those partes may doe her Majestie verie great service.{He can there doe the best service.}

{A fitt man and full of practises.} No man may better command the Blackwater than Captain Thomas Williams who hath kept that forte heretofore, and is a man noted, and hated by the Northern Rebells for his pollecyes and strategems: wherefore {folio 53} they being fearfull of him, hee may the better doe service upon them.

{Their power and pollecyes and conjoined may prevayle.} With him may be lodged the Commaunder of the forces for Loughfoyle that by their assistinge one another they may dayle be gayninge places in the Enemyes strength, as noe doubt they knowe both to gett and to keepe. Not gayninge a place today,{They must hold when they have it.} and quittinge it by and by, and fighting for it agayne tomorrow; But to winne a place, and by power and pollecye to keepe it.

{As he is cheeife man, so is that the chiefe place.} The Marshall himself cannot (in my opinion) be better seated there at Ardmaugh in regard his command and Entertaynments are great. And there is the best place to make provision for horsemeate against winter.

{Good service is to be hoped of all, assuredlye of this one.} These gentlemen thus imployed, her Majestie shall have verie speciall good service effected by them. For Sir Garrett Moore I dare gage my lyfe, he will performe as much as I have here undertaken for him. And soe I am pereswaded of the rest. {To their utter discredite.} Otherwise they will discover them selves to be (as in my former discourse I have noted them) either Idle or Cowardes, or great frendes to the Traytors.

It may be some will take exceptions to the Gentlemen by mee here named alleadging that Lordes of Countryes were the meetest men to have such great Commaunds:{The exception is allowed upon the condicions followinge.} which I willinglie graunt, soe as they woulde be painfull therein, lovinge to our nation, and agree with us in one selfe Religion. But in that whole kingdome, I know but three who will goe with us to Church.{3 are but a few amoungst so manye.} And it is a question whether two of them do it in love of Religion, or in pollecye to holde {folio 54} {The matter is doubtfull.} their Credit with the State, Yf I shoulde speake my conscience I thincke it be for pollecye. Otherwise they could perswade some of the better sorte who depend upon them, to accompanye them to Church.{They who love the Church well, love to see companye there.} And not winke at their Recusancye and bee attended but by a few of their owne servauntes, and those but a few.

Besides lett but all the services which those Lords have done for that great entertaynment which they have of her Majestie be surveyed.{Measure their service by their Enterteynment and the latter is the larger.} And that shall sufficiently discover their zeale to her Armyes good successe, and the care they have, for the speedie suppression of this Rebellion, and Reformacion of their native countrie which will lykewise be manifest in them, thus.

{They spare the Rebells for sparinge them and theyrs.} They doe never seeke to cutt of or annoye any Traytors: except such a one as hath either endamaged them or some respected frend of theirs. And him will they persecutre and prosecute.

Otherwise lett the Rebells praye upon anye man whom they affect nott, be he never soe good a subject (especiallie an Englishman){God helpe the English for they will never help them.} and though they utterlye undoe him and leave him not worth one groat. These Lordes will never stirr to ayde him, moreover to shew what affection they beare to our nation, there is not one Lord in all Ireland that would ever suffer any Englishman that could enable himself to manure his land to be his farmer, but he had rather let his land lye waste after the example of that great personage of whom I have made some mention in the begininge of my discoverye.{This is noted in the Discoverie.}

{folio 55}{To note all their faultes requireth a large margent.} There is yett another note worthie observation, when an Englishman hath had land of the Queene which hath bene nere unto them, have they not suffred him to be preyed and spoyled, yea and driven from the said lande, and from his dwellinge. And they never have stirred to assist or helpe him.

These thinges being apparently true I humble referre to your Judgment whither it be fitter to trust these great lordes or those gentlemen whose frends are great,{The best approved are best to be trusted.} whose loyaltie is undoubted, and their sufficiencye approved, with the commaunde of those forces by me formerly plotted.

{These lords could have been contented to have bene forgotten in both places.} I have (I remember) in my discoverie noted certeen lordes who beinge bound by affinytie to Traytors do either stand alouffe or secretlie assist them, Now to cause all those Traytors to repent and curse the tyme that ever they ranne out in Rebellion.{It is tyme they were gaimsters; they have bene lookers on too longe.} And to enforce either them or their abettors to doe service, or at least to be guydes unto Capteins and serviters to direct their Actions, and to quallifie the merrye conceits of such great lordes (I meane seeminge subjectes) as now doe but stand and looke one,{Let them laugh a while.} and laugh at our simplicitye, who cannot finde out their subtell practises, whereby her Majestie is abused, and her souldiers beaten by the Traytors, would (unto some Judments) seeme a worke worthie notinge which to doe in verie deede is nothinge.{They maske but in a nett.}

For might it but please her Highnes under her owne hand to sett downe, that noe principale Traytor (especiallie those of Mounster){This would marre theyr mirth.} shall have any pardon or find anye favour except he shall simplye come {folio 56} in unto the Lord Deputye, submittinge himself in all humblnes to her Majesties mercye, and truly discoveringe the Combynacion of this Rebellion. And lett that principall Traytor whom they call the Earle of Desmond be the first.{One after another and serve all alyke.} Then the White Knight alias Edmond Macc Gibbon, Piers Lacye, the Knight of Kerrye and the Lord Fitz Morris. These are the principall Traytors who have lands.{One occasion is too much and one pardon too manye.} Yf these or anye of these shall refuse to come in in manner aforesaid because all those doe take but one self occasion of Rebellion, and have received many pardons. Then lett proclamation be made that whosoever shall take or kill anye of these Traytors lands and hould them in the same sorte that the Traytors did. Yea though he be a Traytor and a leader of men amongst Traytors{Give the Devill his due yf he do a good turne.} that shall happen to doe this service. Let him not only have the landes of that Traytor whom he shall kill. But above her Majesties entertaynment for himself as a Captein, and pay for his souldiers and men that shall follow him to doe her Highnes further service.

It will llykewise greatlie further the generall proceedinge and helpe to end all those warres in Ireland,{Such proclamations are to good purpose.} yf there be proclamacions made of head moneye; which is reward for everie principall Traytors head (in everie Province) that is he that carrieth the name of Chief and is leader of the rest. Although as proclamacions nowe are made they will scarse gett a poore churles head to be cutt of) yet when the warres shalbe soe handled that her Majesties Forces are lyke to prevayle.

{folio 57}And that all the Traytors meanes shalbe taken from them, savinge such as remayneth amongst themselves (whereof they shall not be sure neither because the soldiors wilbe still taking from them as well as themselves spending) when the warres (I saye) shalbe thus ordered, and matters brought to this passe.{It were well that all the Traytors heads stood upon one paire of shoulders.} Then upon the makinge of these Proclamacions, I doubt not but there wilbe good store of bad heades cut off, for although such as shall use this prodition will not merelie for the head money, or other reward (because they will not seeme to be treacherous) execute it themselves, yet upon faire promises and performance of benefites, they will direct some speciall commaunders which way they shall effect great matters, wherefoe if this course be followed your Honur shall soone perceive great service don even in shorte tyme, especiallie if they shall once pereceve her Majesties Forces throughlie to prevayll against the Traytors.

Concerning the Lordes of Countryes who are now but lookers on, and stand as it were indifferent, whether parte prevayle. Lett them be either Actors or guydes at least to the Captaynes and souldiers to prosecute the Traytors.{They will do service befoe they will be brought to answer Justice.} Or els lett them be committed (yf they will doe neither of these, which uppon my owne knowledge they canne verie well effect if they will) and it shalbe but Justice soe to deale with them, nay let say further, yf they were executed, they should be but Justlie dealt with all considering besides that there may be matter inough proved against them (by law) to cutt them of, if they should be brought in question.

{folio 58}{The best service which the best men of Ireland can doe for her Majesties and their owne benefite.} And the moste speciall service which the best and noblest subjectes of Ireland can doe for her Majestie and their owne future benefitt were, if her highness and your honours of the Counsell would be pleased to commaunde all the noblemen and Gentlemen of Ireland of what place or callinge soever to make their undelayed repayre unto their borderinge Landes, there to inhabitt and be resiant themselves in person, or some (at the least) of the next in blood and account to themselves to remayne upon those borderinge landes especiallie when these be castlels and places which may be held of great defence.{It is of importance and requireth expedition.} And for asmuch as this important matter is worthy of expedicion, yet may please her Majestie (after her pleasure herein signified unto them) to commaunde their repayre to be speedy even within fourtine dayes, or a month at the furtherest upon payne of her displeasure, and forfeyture of those their landes to her Majestie yf she shalbe enforsed to fortefie upon them; which landes (yf she shall be charged){This will make them looke about them.} she purposeth to bestow upon those Commaunders and Captaeins whose service shalbe there imployed yf they shall survive to see those troubles ended and peace setled.

{Playne dealinge were better than points of law.} I know that the Owners of those landes will stand upon points of law that her Majestie cannot by law take and dispose those landes from them,{There is a statute in Ireland for this allredy.} though they live not upon the same themselves at all, I have noe skill in law, but I knowe reason. And I thincke (when they have most baselye left and quitt their Castels without any manner of enforcement) yt is noe {folio 59} reason that her Majestie should upon (the proper charge) fight to recover and defend that land, which her noble progenitors gave to them and their Auncestors upon condicion they should defend the same.{Given upon condition.} But if her Majestie by her meanes be to fight for all to recover all, and be at all the charge,{Conditions are broken therefore they are hers agayne.} I hold it great reason that she (by her princlie prerogative) should dispose of all.

But because they may have care to defend their landes themselves, in forme as I have here sett downe, or as her Majestie and your Honour shall seeme more convenient,{Accept good meaning instead of advise.} I do (in my simple skill) hold it necessarie that such an Ordynance should goe immediatelie from her Majestie and not to be referred to the Lord Deputye and Counsell there, for then they will presume to have that strict course{Which is common in Ireland.} through their importunate suite and other meanes) soone altered. But when it is determined once by her Majestie and Counsell here, they will have great care to performe all that shall be sett downe.{For bribes cannot helpe them.} And when the same shalbe determined (pardon me I beseech youe, to Deliver my opinion) I should thincke it verie good the same should be signed with her highness owne hand, that the Lord Deputie maye have one in Leinster to show. And the serverall Governors of ech Province may have the like.

{Theyr backes are broken with bearinge already.} God forbid that this should extend soe farre as to hurt any Englishman, who have lost their blood and their lives, and have bene planted there to enhabite since her Majesties owne tyme; for they have bene most pittifullye betrayed by the auntient dwellers in Ireland{They who are worse do recken us no better.} who do account all those which came theither in her Majesties tyme {folio 60} noe better than heretickes.

{Let them pay for their popery or alter their opinion.} Since therefore they are soe constant to their holye father the Pope lett but that imposition be layed upon them whereof, I have already spoken, and then I am perswaded your Honour shall shortlie here that some of them will change their Opinions.

{This digression is necessarie.} Happelye some will thincke that I have digressed verie much, whilst, I have bene declaring what service those Lords and great men of Ireland may doe her Majestie by lyinge upon their borderinge landes, but if it please them to note what a comfortt and strength their residence there would be unto her Majestie Forces (cheeflie to the garrisons confronting the Enemyes Countryes) if they should (upon anye occasion){Everie little helpeth.} lend them but the least assistance; they shall finde this digression falleth fitt to my purpose, which is, that by reason of the garrisons and{United power is stronge.} the dwelling of these great men upon the borders, noe Traytors shalbe able to annoy the good subject butt to his disadvantage.

{He that climbeth a steepe rock must goe by degrees.} The garrisons then placed as I have here noted, and the strengthes about the Blackwater and Cloonys mastred; then may an army of one thousand (beying stronge in horsemen) passe to Loughfoyle and Ballishanon: whereas now (thinges beinge as they are) they cannot goe with lesse than foure thousand foote beseydes horse. My reason is, why they should be strong of horse. For that (when {folio 61} they are once but foure myles from either of these garrisons of Cloonys and Blackwater) they have no one pace to passe, nor scarcelie anye bushes untill they come to Loughfoyle and Ballishanon.{A pace is a passage through a wood.}

And for the more safetie of those forces which shalbe ymployed upon Tyrone: Let those two (whereof mention is made to be devyded, the one for Cloonys the other for Ardmaugh){They must be as brethren or as true frends.} bee ready to assist ech other to withstand the violence of the enemye duringe the tyume of their fortyficacion, which beinge once done, they may sitt downe in their garrysons the more securalie.

{Cloonys quickly fortefied.} That at Cloonys may (in two dayes) be made soe wardable, that twentie men may keepe yt against all the North, because there are many good walles yet not broken downe. Besydes there is a church that may soone be fortified. But this purpose must be kept verie secreat {Prevention will be used yf Councell be not kept.} for feare the Enemye should gett intellingence and prevent the Queenes Armye of that Fortyficacion by rasying downe those remaynes of buildinge to the grounde, both at Cloonys and Ardmaugh.

{Follow the best to prevent the worst.} Yf this course be neglected, and that followed which by other mens advice is sett downe, theye shall neither defend the subject nor offend the Traytors but have ynough to doe to defend themselves.

{A simile of a great tree.} For as yt is impossible to cutt downe a great Oake, growinge in the midest of many thicke bushes and prickinge thornes, untill those thornes and bushes be shred away, and the place made playne round about yt. So ys yt unlyklie to overthrow Tyrone, until (by borderinge garrisons round about him) the way be heawen out nearer and neerer his strength and some places therein mastred;{When a tree stand naked stormes have power over him.} which ones effected he standes not longe after.

{folio 62}{Where God is served the princes service doth prosper.} And that these affaires maye prosper and succeede the better. It is requiste for the service of God that there be a Minister apoynted in everye garrison, with such competent allowance, as shalbe though convenyent for him.

{Objection.} Some will say (peradventure) yt is not possible to vittaill these garrisons.

{Answer.} Yf there be sufficient store of vittayles provided att the Newrye and the commaunders of the garrisons know not how to fetch them, havinge nothinge but playnes untill they come to the furthest place which is Cloonys and at every sixe myles or tenne myles end a place fortefied for rescue and safetie: The Commaunders (yf any soldieors should starve through want of foode) are worthie to suffer death for the same; synce they may fetch yt without any daunger. And that garrison of Cloonys may be relieved from Kells as conveniently as the other.{Answer.} {He that may have foode for fetchinge who will pittye him yf he pyne.} Yf the Commaunders and soulddiors (haveinge faire playnes and places of rescue) will not fetch their vittayles, what pittie is yt yf they fast.

{Not by heresay butt by experience.} I doe not speake by gesse, as some have done here of late, who havinge been but in one or two partes of Ireland yet will take upon them to sett downe plottes and projects how to handle all the service in Everie place of that kingdome;{Nimble witts will flie before they can goe.} which is impossible for them to doe. But I deliver my opinion for the settling of those aforesaid garrisons, as he who hath seene them all and doth know them all to be the onely places that may most offend those Northren Traytors.

{But after a better maner.} Nor doe I take upon me the Managing of these warres against those Northeren Rebells, as Commaunders and Capteins have {folio 63} done heretofore, who never went into the Traytors strength to handle service upon them; But when with her Majesties Armye they have mett to fight with the Rebells have like tall soldiers be taken them to their heeles,{One payre of heeles worth 2 payre of hands.} thinkinge they have done good service in saving themselves; and yet such actions have upholden the Creditt of such men.

{Soe should Commaunders and captains doe} But my opinion for this action, is like unto an honourable Commanunder and worthie Captain who hath ever beaten the Traytors in all places, and prevented all their purposes. And yett the credit of such honourable and worthie servitors hath hitherto bene commonlye depressed.

{As are named alreadye.} Nevertheless yf these aforesaid garrisons be furnished with such garrisons and Captaines they will gayne as great creditt as ever did any, and doe her Majestie (in short tyme) speciall good service upon Tyrone, which is the reason that I have named divers gentlemen and Capteynes, as fittest to Commaund these places of garrison, and not as if I would presume to direct or appoint but onlye yeld my opinion,{Not direction but opinion grounded upon knowledge.} because I know if such be soe placed and be well disposed to be industrious and carefull, they are able to doe her Majestie farre better service (in those partes) than any other, in regarde they have great meanes and knowlidg how to effect it.

{The traytors may be overthrowne and yet not slayne.} For they know the way the Traytors may be overthrowne, although the souldiers should not kill one of them. Because youe breake the harte of an Irish Traytor yf youe enforce him to live and to keepe his cattell within his strength which he shalbe constrayned to doe, if her Highnes Forces doe but master the playnes: The accomplishment whereof must be by the strength of horsemen.

Now for the footemen, although it do not {folio 64} {A man may speake though he instruct not;} become me to instruct or direct Commaunders and Capteyns how to behave themselves in handlinge the service, yett out of my long experience I wilbe bould to deliver my opinion, which is this.{for the footemen.}

{An imitation of the Owle.} The Commaunders and souldiers (of those devided garrisons) must imitate the Owle, who seeketh her pray in the night for yf she stirr in the day, she is sure to be beaten. Soe must they be stirringe in the night and place themselves in such streyte or passage, where through the Traytors are accustomed to passe to endamage the subjects. {An advantage by close lyinge.} These lyinge close (upon their guard) though theye be but few, and the Traytors many, yett may they greatlie annoy them. As may be judged.{Sodyne assaults will terrefy traytors.} For when the Traytors shalbe sodainely assayled, beinge, uncertayne of the nomber of the assaylants (as they will imagine, that a smale number dare not undertake them) it will soe amaze them, as they will not be able to make anye speedy resistance. But suppose they should, Those few souldiers may (in the night) fall of at pleasure.{Prettie and approved pollecyes.} And the Traytors dare not prosecute them, for feare of Ambuscadoes layd to intrapp them. But admitt they durst and should, Those few might scatter themselves, and slippe home to their garrison.{All these are likely suppositions.} The traytors uncertayne, of which garrison they are, will cease to pursue them. And to venture further to fetch their pray from the subjects, they will hold it noe pollecye for soe they maye doubt to be sett upon in their returne.

{A note how a few men may doe good service.} Now for a few men to do good service in the day when they perceive a stronge Enemye in the Countrie, spoylinge the subjects, then are theye to hasten unto {folio 65} some streyt or pace whereof necessities the traytors must passe, there settinge upon them, they shall soe indamage them as either they shall enforce them to leave the pray behinde them, or at least soe knocke them as they shall have smale encouragement to adventure the like where now they fetch what they please from the poore subjects and are seldome or nevere prosecuted.{As bouldly as yf all were theirs.}

Thus I saye (by my owne experience) must Capteins and Commaunders deale, yf they will defend the subjects.

{Though the traitors be manye they cannot live together in grosse.} For although the Traytors be often tymes over stronge for the souldiers, yett in respect they are not able to keepe their strength (for any tyme) together, a Commaunder who hath skill and courage to goe where service may be done (leavinge but the fourth man that the Enemye is able to make upon his gatheringe) will beat them out of their Countrie, dispossessinge them of their dwellinges, yea and (by lying in their greatest strength will hinder them from plowinge, take away their prey, and even debarre them from their fyering,{The traitors may be kept from plowing and fyering.} which to your Honour may hapelie seem strange, that the Traytors should be kept from their fier, which they are accustomed to have plentyfullye by reason of their great store of woodes. But to make the reason apparent thus it is.

{Fyre by night is seen a farr of therfore the Rebells will make none.} The warre beinge followed as it ought to be, they dare make noe fyers in the night (especiallie in their greatest strength) for feare of beinge discovered soe farre of that anye well disposed servitors (with their third man of theirs) maye and will {folio 66} draw himself soe covertlie upon them, that he will endanger the killing of manye of them, or at least inforce them to leave their furniture, which is to them as great an overthrow as the losse of many of their men. Soe that by prosecutinge them (after this manner) they will not dare to make anye fyers in the night: Yet fier of necessitie they must needs have otherwise they cannot live, yett will they indure much; This then will be their shift.

{Fiers in the daye.} In the daye tyme to make great fiers even in abundant manner; because in the day tyme the fier is not seene, and a great smoke (by day) doth shew lyke to a cloude.{Coales of the dayes burninge serve for night warminge.} The coales of these great fiers made in the daye tyme must then serve to warme them att night. And yf the idle traytor have occasion to goe forth in the night to provide for himself and for those of his charge of whome he taketh care, then those coales must serve his wyfe, children, aged parents, his familye and frends, to comfort them untill he returne with other relief.{He leaveth his famulye by the fier whilst he goeth to filtche.} But coales of greene wood especiallie cannot last half a winters night, therefore through could must manye of them of necessitie perish.

{This is one issue of diligent service} So to this miserye shall those savage Traytors of Ireland soone be brought, yf the warres maye be but once followed in such manner as were expedient.

{Hold them to horse meat.} And let the souldiers be soe placed that the traytors maye be enforced to feede {folio 67} upon themselves, and take nothinge from the subjects but what they must fight for; the warres will soone be finished and the Rebells confounded especiallie yf the souldiers be somtyme takinge from them, that (as the traytors be feeding, and the souldiers by preying) their store may quickelye be spent.{Yf the Rebells feede and the soldiers take of their store all will be quickly spent.}

{A simile of subtill thieves though the comparison hold not.} To offend the Traytors yet further in their places of strength and fastnes (as they terme yt). The Governors and Capteins must deale as subtell thieves are accustomed, send out their spyes into the Traytors strengths to escrye how they live and where they use to lodge. The spye and some few souldiers must make many Idle Journeys into the Traytors countrye. And all {Lyke goodsbyes.} the day tyme they must lye close in some place of advantage to view and note how the Traytors behave themselves all the daye tyme and how they bestow themselves at night. Soe by often using of this practise they shall become expert guydes in the Enemyes Countrey yea better than many of the Traytors themselves.{As the olde proverbe, use maketh perfite.}

{After good observation prosecute service.} This being advisedlie looked into they may undertake the service and be ever anone galling the Enemyes with out damage to themselves. And come upn them in the night and slea them lyinge fast asleepe.

{Labour conquereth where rest cankereth.} The souldiers beinge thus valiant and strirringe and gatheringe themselves into the traytors strength, were the Traytors five hundredth and the souldiers but two hundredth they would nightlie be taking {folio 68} away the Rebells goods, and in verie short tyme beat them quyght out of their fastnes.

{The Rebells may beat the souldiers by the same observations.} Contrarywise yf the souldiers lye still in their dennes and fight but by fittes, the Traytors have the same advantage of the souldiers which I have here made manifest, for the souldiers to take of them. Insoemuch that by the same observation the Traytors understandinge when the souldiers come abroade they will with one hundredth beat five hundredth of ours, I will say noe more for shame; Soe that it is not the day service which is but now and then but stirringe in the night (and that often){Night walkers are allwayes dangerous.} which shall make our souldiers both expert and which by the spoyles they take of the Traytors and in short tyme Impoverish the Rebells, and uttrerlie roote them out. And this (out of my experience) is the Course yf over youe will have any service effected.

{Another objection} Whosoever shall object that it is necessarie to garrison souldiers in the Townes which border upon the Rebelles Countrie let him be answered thus:

{The answer.} Although Dundalke and Ardye do border neere the most strong and daungerous Enemye Tyrone especiallie Dundalke,{Dundalke noted speciallie.} yet by setlinge the garrisons (as heretofore I have mentioned){How the townes may be safe without souldiers lyinge in them.} they shall both be so secured as they may be well eased of garrisons and reserved to relive the poore hurt and sicke soldiers for the better recoveringe of whom,{For pheisick and surgerye.} it were necessarie a Phesition, a Surgion, and an Apottecarie should be mayntayned in either of them, and likewise in dyvers other townes at her Majesties and your Honours of the Counsells pleasure which neede not be anye charge to her Highnes, but to the Recusantes of the said Townes, and Countries nere adjoininge.{The Recusants may defray the Charge.}

{folio 69}{A speciall proviso for Dundalke.} And for that Dundalke shall not hereafter secretlie harbour and relieve Traytors as it hath done and daylie doth. It were expedient a captain should be appooynted to lye in the strongest castle or hold of the same (as there are many of reasonable good strength) and to have twentie men allowed to ward the Castle,{A Captain of that towne verye needfull to hinder the secreat access of traytors.} and to guard his person when he shall have occasion to stir in the Townes, to search for Traytors that maye secretlie creepe to their frendes, or to visite the hurt and sicke soldiors and to see them carefullie provided,{The office of a good Captaine.} both for lodginge, diet, and attendance by the Phisition, Suregeon and Apottecarye which course taken wilbe a great encouraginge to men to goe to serve in Ireland when they shall understand what provision is there made for them to lodg them in the houses of the best and moste able men of those Townes and not amongst the poore who are not able to yeld them any succour as the custome hath bene, and now is.{The best would not, the rest could not.}

{Many townes may be spared for this use, that doe no other good.} Me thinckes alsoe it were not amisse to spare manie other great Townes to stand in steed of ghest houses for reliefe of hurt and sicke souldiers untill they might be better provided for, than now they are: For it is a pittifull thing to see poore men sterve and dye (who are there hurt and sicke) and noe care taken for theme, nor regarde had of them.

{The prayers of the poore are effectuall.} Yf your Honour would vouchsafe to be the author of soe good a worke yet would bynd a great number of poore men to pray for youe.

{The service is sure to be accomplished by these meanes.} All these services (or so many of them as to her Majestie and your Honour shall seeme most necessarie) wilbe the better and sooner {folio 70} putt in execution and performed, yf it may please youe to be a meane, that the Lord Deputie may have absolute Authoritye and power to dispose of all landes, states of inheritaunce, and other Casualties which shall fall unto her Majestie by this Rebellion in Ireland: Reservinge all rents and revenues which her Majestie or her progenitors have or ought to have had.

{Checks converted use.} And that all the checks for insufficiency of Companyes, may alsoe rest at his disposing. Soe may he be able (on what nomber soe ever her Majesties Forces shall consist) to add unto the Lyst a fourth part more (by erectinge new Capteins and Comanyes as he shall see occasion to strengthen the Armey) and yet her Majestie to be noe further charged.

{What Checks cannot, lands may.} Yf the saide checkes will not beare it, yet his Lordship (havinge the absolute disposition of all lands, Offices and escheats whatsoever) shall have meanes thereby to satisfy all his extraordynaries,{Such men doe expect such benefitts.} and to give Contentment to all governors of Provinces, Captaynes and well deservinge souldiers without the which men will have noe more spirit to drudg and toyle in those Irish warrs than a Beare hath to be drawne to a stake, where he is sure of an yll turne, and hath noe hope of any good; for even soe it fareth with the Capteins that serve in Ireland.{They fight with small courage, whoe hope for noe commoditye.}

I am alsoe of opinion that it were verie needfull the like allowance were given to everye Governor of everie province namelie all the checks which shalbe imposed upon the Captains and Companies within his Jurisdiction, to be at his disposing, towardes the manytenance of manye Bonnotes (of the Irish){Bonnets are voluntarye soldiors of the reduced Irish by whom much good service may be donn.} whome as speciall Instruments and servitors he shall have occasion to imploy; by whose {folio 71} meanes divers exploytes might be accomplished. For whosoever shall have the managing of the aforesaide service of Leinster may (no doubt) induce many of them to Joyne with him for the cutting of the rest of the obstinate Traytors.

And whereas I have apporcioned for the Recoverie of Lenister and Connaught, but onlie xixten hundredth and fiftie souldiers horse and foote; (1950){In divers good respects.} Yet would I wish him who shalbe appointed chief to follow that service to putt uppon the List six or seaven other to be Capteins who should (amongst them) have the leadinge of six or seaven hundredth men in the Queenes pay and yet should her Majestie be not further charged than with the pay of the 1900 and 50 aforenamed save onlely that the Checks of those Companyes should defray that charge of the new erection of the reduced Irish.

{The benefit that such allowance would bringe.} Yf this were allowed unto everie Governor for this and the lyke purposes in everie Province yt would cause the Governor to looke carefullie to the sufficiencye of everie Capteins band. And when the Capteins should soe that the Checks (for insufficiencye) were putt to use for payment of present charges (where of them selves must needes be eye witnesses){The expence is less grievous when men see the bestowinge.} then everie Captein would keepe his Companye full and strong, nay more, for his pay onlie for a hundredth from her Majestie, he would keepe vj xx (120) at the least.{An industrious Captain may better kepe six score than he that is idle can kepe sixtie.} For since the paye would not beare yt; he would be more paynfull and more forward upon the Enemye than now he is, to defraye the charge of his surplassages. And that Captein which is industrious and forwarde upon the Enemye shall gaine more by keepinge xltie above his number, than he that is idle shall doe by keepinge xxtie fewer. I know that by experience, and therefore I dare avouch yt.

{He that is most forward deserveth the first and best payment.} The Captein therefore which is soe carefull and adventurous deserveth to be well payd {folio 72} that which is her Majesties allowance: Yea and (me thinckes) thee should be a difference in the payment of Captaynes; that the painfull and forward Captayne should (as he well meriteth) be payde before him that lyeth still and doth nothing: of which kinde I ame sorye to knowe soe many as I doe.

When the Captains shall take this Course, her Majestie shall have noe benefytt by Cheques (and she were better want checks than good service).{Better noe Checks than no service.} The Governors shall not be benefited by checks wherewith to pay his extraordinary Captaynes:{Yf Companyes were strong Checques would be weake.} he must then (yf he will not charge her Majestie) be thincke himself of some other meanes within his Commaunde to satisfie them withall: Even by the spoyle of the traytors which by their owne valor and industrye (with the souldiers assistance) must be atchieved,{First take the spoyles then judg of the worth.} which spoyles (how smale soever they may seeme) will suffize to content manye extraordinary Captaynes if the warres be well followed and the severall garrisons once placed as aforesaid.

{A Commaunder resembled to a good Gardiner.} Then must everie Captein and Commaunder in chief in everie Province, doe like a good gardiner who soe soone as he seeth but one weede put up his head, cutts yt imediatlie of, and when weather doth serve, plucketh all the rest up by the rootes, otherwise shoulde he have noe gardeyne of herbes, but a wilderness of weedes; whereof it would be longe before he could be able to purge his grounde though he should have great helpe. Even in lyke sorte must the Commanunder and Captein be stirringe to cut of Traytors when they are taken stragling or but peepinge out of their strength. And when they shall have understanding of anny place that uphold them with livinge (as in their strength are many who mayntayne them) the {folio 73} Captein and souldiors must never give over that place untill they have destroyed man, woman and childe: the onelye readye waye to finish those rebellious warres.{Yf the seede be spared the weed will grow againe.}

{The hanging of one dissembling frend is better than killing xxtie open foes.} And as I have often sayde before the executing of one dissembling subject within (which is a sure frend to some Traytor abrode) relieving him, instructing him, and mayntayinge himn in his villany is a greater service than the killing of twentye base Traytors. For, take their frendes awaye who live within amongst us; the Traytors without are quicklie confounded.

{What her Majestie may challenge by givinge this Authoritie.} But yf this shall not be thought fitt to be allowed to the Governors of Provinces yet for the Lord deputie yt were moste necessarie; For havinge this absolute power her Majestie may justlie taxe him yf he performe not great service.

{Though the Lord Deputie lacke power it is pitty good servitors should lacke preferment.} But yf he shall fayle of this absolute Authoritie and prerogative, yet me thinckes it reason that Capteins should be aswell dealt withall as Traytors who often tymes have their pardons and great lands bestowed upon them after they have bene Traytors. Then insteade of pardons which are usuall to traytors for noe desert; Lett the good servitor (in recompence of his service) reape reward, and be raysed in Reputacion. And (for the better enabling him to lyve and sytt downe by the Action he shall undertake). Lett him have the landes of anye Traytor whome he shall banish or cutt of by his paynfull indevors bestowed upon him by her Majestie, by your Honours meanes, and the rest of the Lords.{For the incouragement of him and other.}

{Some traytors may be pardoned and some Captains preferred.} I do not thereby debarre some Traytors from beinge pardoned, such (I meane) as shall {folio 74} unfaynedlie submitt, and before their cominge in shall doe some speciall service deserveing reward.

Your Honour by procuringe soe large a Commission for the Lord Deputie, and such reward and respect to the good servitors shall inlarge your owne Honour and cause all the martiall men of Ireland faithfullee to honour and love youe.{Martiall men do honor those that advaunce them.}

{Feare of tediousness hasteneth an end.} I know I have bene over tedious in this treatise of Recoverye pardon (I beseech you) my zeale, which hath carried mee beyond the bent of my purpose. And yet have I omitted many thinges both necessarie and noteworthie for want of tyme, though I confesse I have bene longer about it than I thought I should have bene;{From recovery to Reformation.} neverthelesse I must not slippe by any meanes those speciall pointes of reformation following: which I suppose pertynentlie to depend upon the Recovery.

{An allusion to the body of man.} For as a bodie cannot be sayd to be soundlie recovered from a feaver, soe done as the fittes doe cease, untill by good phisicke and holesome dyett the same be brought to his former state of health: Noe more can a common welt untill the Enormyties be purged and the same reformed by good orders and disciplyne.

{A remembrance of a promise in the discoverye.} Againe I should breake my promise made in the Discoverie, if I should not show my opinion how Ireland recovered may be in many thinges reformed; and there imediatelie ensuing are some of them.

{Where officers are corrupt Enormyties abounde.} To reforme manye Enormityes growne by the greatnes and Aucthoritye of such corrupt Officers (some of them Counselors) whom I have spoken of in the discovery it were convenient (I thincke) to remove them from their high offices, and to leave {folio 75} {He that hath well scraped may live of the scrapps.} them to live upon that which they have scraped together: yea and (if he can be soe farre touched) to make an example in Justice of some one of them.

{Lawyers to their bookes soldiers to their blades.} Let the Lawyers be left unto their profession onlie; since neither their lawe nor opinions can doe her Majestie service, nor steade her Subjects there, especiallie in any martiall matter. And lett him that is knowne worthiest of them all, hold both the chief place of Justice and Conscience.{The justest man is worthy of both.} Soe shall the poore subjects of Ireland have the benefite of Equite in both these Courtes of Justice, and of Conscience. For as the case now standeth Conscience is there bought and sould, even as a Beast in a markett; He that giveth the best, shall the least.{The marke of Conscience.}

Whereas the Bishoppes of that land (who are Counsellors) by their Counsell and opinion neither have done nor doe further her Majesties service in martiall matters, noe nor get in other causes of state.{Their heavenly bookes layed by for worldly busines.} And that the Gospel (wheither by their secular imployment or their neglect) hath hitherto had noe better successe (noe not in the tymes of peace).{More Masses than sermons where the state is held.} And that for everie Sermon preached in Dublyn there be six masses suffered at the least: And that when some of the massing Priests are taken and commytted, they are for bribes sett at libertye: As I have seee to many of that sorte of men so enlarged: mee thinkes it weare not amisse to disburden them of all the burthen of State affayres, and to leave them to their profession and function.{Everie one to his function.} In followinge whereof carefullie and as they ought they shall finde busines inough to imploy their tyme in, although they shall never {folio 76} trouble their heads with state matters at all, yf they will performe their ecclesiasticall dutyes as they ought.

{There are questions too hard for them to aunswer.} And yf her Majesties pleasure shalbe (att any tyme) to call them into question for their corruption, I will manifestlie produce sufficient matter to take away the goodes and (perchaunce) the lyfe of the best of the them.

{The fittest counsellors to assist the Lord Deputy.} To assist the Lord Deputie in matters of that state (the same beinge well considered) such martiall men whose Actions and experience are knowne to be great in that kingdome, are the fittest to be of that Counsell. And yf such men were soe placed, youe should see her Majesties service goe forwarde in a better manner and with more speed than hitherto it hath done.

{Shuch will performe whatsoever they propound.} Yf men of such kinde and qualletye were of the Counsell, yf anye of them should propose any matter of Action which should be thought verie difficult to effect: he would take it upon him and performe yt himself, or els lose his lyfe therein.

Againe yf he should yeld his opinion concerninge anye matter of Commoditie which might growe to her Majestie and her kingdome he would in like sorte take upon him to rayse her highness profitt, without damage to her subjectes or els he would lose this Reputacion which (to an honest and honourable mynde) is worse than death.{Death is less than losse of Reputation.}

Yf yt might please youe to be a meane that men of Action should be thus graced, your Honour should rayse those who have bene over longe depressed, whom {folio 77} youe shall finde to be both profitable stewards and valiant servitors for her Majesties honour and commoditie, and your Honours assured in all true service and love.{Such know how to save as well as spend the Queenes treasure.}

{No more of that makinge.} But to make Counsellors now (as the custome hath bene here before) of such as are knowne notorious cowards, who never in their lyfe did strike one stroke with their swords either to defend their owne reputaction (when they have had good cause) or to cutt of anny Traytor, what hope can therebe of them to performe anye service to her Majesties honour and profitt? I am sorrie in my haste to see soe many (of this kinde and qualetie) counsellors alreadye.{But sorrowe will not help it.}

This shalbe one speciall meane both to recover and reforme Ireland, if neither Bishopp, Laweor, nor Captein be admitted but such as are knowne of sound Conscience and integritie: soe shall God, the Queene, and Common wilt be well served.

Pertayning unto this and the rest of the requisite partes of the Recoverie of Ireland, there is a speciall peece of Reformacion to be put in practise, namelie this following.

{Neither God served nor honesty sustayned.} There are in everie provynce divers Bishoprickes, the worse whereof is yerelie worth a c li. Yett is not the word of God trulie preached, nor the Sacramentes dulie ministred in any of their diocesses. Because the Bishoppes (as moste of them) are knowne and noted to be drunckardes and dishonest persones{Notable prelates.} wherefore (in my opinion) yt were a thinge verie necessarye (until such tyme as Ireland should be brought unto a better Course) that their lyvinges should be sequestered and bestowed upon the erecting and mayntayninge{Converted to this use} {folio 78} of her scholes in everie Shire, which scholes in everie Province and shire wilbe a good meane to bringe all those people unto a better understandinge both of their dutyes towardes God, and towardes their Prynce.{For yet they knowe neither.}

{All men will be willinge to sett their sonnes to schooles.} Now to induce all men to sett their children to learninge at the saide schooles, the teachers wherof muste be chosen such as are of a sound Religion and honest behaviour (not papistes and lewde fellowes as now most of them are).{Better teachers must be provided.} Let this order be taken and Authenticklye sett downe and observed on payne of Death: That not anye one borne in that Realme (either of English or Irish parentes) shall ever weare anye weapon, savinge such as can speake good English and will goe unto the Church accordinge to her Majesties lawes.{Teach them to do good or restrain them from hurt.} This penaltye sett downe and dilligentlie looked unto, wilbe a motive to stirre them up as well the poore as the rich to put their children to schole, be yt but onelie to learne the English tongue.

{Helpe for hurt soldiers without charge to the Queene.} And whereas (heretofore) I have delivered my opinion how the hurt and sicke souldiers may be relieved, and in this place how free scholes maye be erected, and mayntayned; and both without any charge unto her Majestie.{An example to Recusants.} Because the Recusantes shall see that I wilbe as forward and readie to beare parte of that burthen my selfe, to the furtherance of soe good a worke as any of them; this is my offer which I will willinglie performe.

The Towne of Athye standeth in the midest of all Leynster, in which provyence my dwellinge is.{A fitt place for a ghest house.} In respect therefore of the situation Athye is the fittest place, whereinto buyld a ghest house to relieve the hurt and sicke souldiers of that Province, which ghest house maye be the more {folio 79} easelie there builded because of the great store of stone which is there in readynes.{Good furtherance to a good worke.}

{A generall contribution.} Lett this ghest house be buylded at the Charge of the whole province: towardes the contynuall mayntenance whereof I will yearly give xx li.{A guifte to the ghest house.} And for performance of the same I will give assurance out of all my landes and lyinge lying in that Towne of Athye and nere adjoyninge, that the said twenty poundes may be yearlie payed out of my rentes to that ghest house forever.

Furthermore because those late mentioned Bishopps, shall well understand that it is not for anye mallice I beare to their persons {Not for mallice but for reformation.} (though I mislike of their condicions) that I would have their lyvings (whereof they are most unworthie) sequestered into the Queenes hands, and so to remayne, untill there be a thorough and perfect Reformacion in Ireland; I will be bound to give (towardes the mayntenance of a free schole in Athye){A private guift for a publique schole} fortye poundes by the year for ever, and to buyld the schole house att myne owne proper cost and charges. And to put them out of doubt that I meane as I say, I will assure the Abbey of St Johns in Athye which is myne, with all the landes about the same, and all that I hold of her Majestie by purchace (for many yeares) to that use. And whether those Bishoprickes shalbe bestowed to that good purpose or not, or still remayne in the handes of those drunken and bad persons, as now they doe yet (soe that this ghest house may be buylded){To procure it to be built.} I will not onlie give that yearlie towardes the building thereof. Butt I will be bounde to buyld and mayntayne the said free schole in Athye at the said Abbey of St Johnes with the allowance and aforesaide at my owne proper charge.{A soldiers myte.}

{folio 80}And untill this or the lyke Course shalbe taken, thowsandes of poore souldiers shalbe lost, as now they are, and the people shall contynue barbarous and savage which might easelye be reformed. For (in my owne knowledge) everie begger is willinge to have his childe taught to speake English.{Therefore it were pittye but redress should be found.}

Next unto this part of Reformation may follow another, that ys, whereas Jesuites, Semynaryes, massinge Priests, fryers, and other religious Romanistes,{These are the fosterfathers of Rebellion.} doe generallie great harme throughout all Ireland; especiallie in the Cittyes and Borough Townes whereunto ys the greatest resort and concourse of people; Seeing that imprisonment is to them noe punishment, because that (for bribes) they doe soone obtayne their liberty.{Bribes are picklockes to let them out of prison.} It were fitt (in my opinion) that this course were held with them when any Jesuites, Seminarye, Priest or Fryer shalbe taken in anye Cittye or Borough Towne, where there is a Mayor, Bayleffe, Portrieve or Soveraigne (as they terme it in Ireland){Names of Majistrats used in Ireland.} or anye other such officer. Let the same Jesuite, Seminary, Priest or frier together with the partie in whose house he is taken be ymprisoned, duringe the pleasure of the State. And then sett at libertye both he and his host who gave him Entertaynment. But at the tyme of his enlargement, lett this be his punishment: to be branded in the face with a hott yron, that all men maye knowe him by that marke what he is.{A marke for a masse monger.} And yf afterward the same Jesuite, Semynarye, Priest or Frier, or other religious Romanist whatsoever soe taken and marked shall happen to be apprehended in anye Cittye or Borough Towne where anye Majistrat is. Lett him be delivered to the {folio 81} Lieutenant or Sheriffe of the Shire to be executed (by martiall law) as a Rogue or ydle vagrant.{Limite him by a halter who will not live within his bounds.} And for his host that shall give him Entertaynment after he is soe branded and marked;{A good proviso for a popish priest harbourer.} Lett him not onlie forfeit all his goodes towardes the maytenance of the ghest hosue for the relief of hurt and sicke souldiers; But alsoe indure imprisonment at the pleasure of the Lord Deputye: Or at the discrecion of the Lieutenant and Sheriffe of the Shire.

{The example is good.} There is as great reason (in my opinion) to execute these men, who are soe daungerous, as to execute poore soluldiers who are at command to enter their lyves in her Majesties service;{Such is the discipline of warre.} for they (yf they breake but a proclamacion the transgression whereof is sett downe to be death) doe suffer for the same, as requistite it is; otherwise there would be noe obedyence nor disciplyne. Wherefore (I say) there is as great reason to execute any of the saide kinde of religious Romanists yf (after a proclamacion made in that behalfe) they shalbe found and taken (in manner aforesaid) in any of the same Cittyes or Borough Townes when as they have too much libertye to live in private amongst their frendes in the Country of which sort there are too many.{They have few or no Enemyes of the native Irish.} And yett when those frendes have payd (but a few yeares) that which I have formerlye spoken of, they will (noe doubt) waxe wearye of their noble father the Pope,{They may prove chargeable brethren.} and of those his children the Jesuites, Semynaries, Priests and Friers seeing the cherishinge of them and of their owne superstitious Consciences {folio 82} proves soe dere. And they wilbe the more grieved when (through the light which good scholes and soe consequentlie the better successe of the gospell shall show them) they shall perceive their owne Errors.{Grace may growe by degrees.}

{Ireland hath neede of all.} These things putt, in practise, would (in my Judment) do much good in that Realme of Ireland.

Another great mischief ys likewise to be prevented. That where as all the traytors who are souldiers have for the moste part bene trayned up even from boyes to the state of men by our Capteins and souldiers and then put into the Queenes pay;{Boyes trayned with us become soldiers with the traytors.} And upon small discontents (making want their Coulor) have runne to the Enemye and turned traytors. To prevent which inconvenyance for ever hereafter,{It is tyme it were remedyed.} yea and alsoe to prevent the secret and subtill returne of those traytors souldiers into any of our bande, the Capteins entertayninge them not knowing them to have bene Traytors and fugitives. Let this Course be taken.

{A penaltie to prevent this mischiefe.} That no Captaine upon payne to lose his Companye and to indure three moneths imprisonment; nor any Officer or souldier of any band upon the losse of his place and lyke ymprisonment, doe take or receave any boy (into the Companyne wherein he serveth) nor any Irish souldior, unless they do bringe Certificatee under the handes of most honest and well knowne Subjects,{Such a testimony is halfe a tryall.} how they have behaved themselves and spent their tyme, for the space of one whole yere before. And yf it shall {folio 83} appere they have lived amongst the Queenes loyall subjects in good order for that tyme, then lett them be entertayned. But lett noe souldior that hath bene knowne a traytor be received into anny Band unless (as I have often tymes noted before) he come in upon the performance of some good service.{Soe shall he be tried before he be trusted.} Then acquayntinge the Lord Deputye or the Generall of the Forces there withall, and they or one of them giving allowance for the entrye of that souldior lett him be received and put into the Queenes paye.

Except this Course be taken this Inconvenience will grow, especiallye when the Rebells shalbe well prosecuted and driven to extremytie: which they must be or els those warrs will not be ended.

The Rebells beinge well followed and forced unto extremyties, as (by the meanes by me propounded) in short tyme they maye be; and become base traytors, runninnge from place to place. Then will their vittayles grow scarse and begine to fayle them.{As foode doth fayle so the flies fall away.} And then will they either turne awaye all their boyes or els the Boyes will runne awaye from them. And soe will many of their souldiors and both will be receyved into some of our Companynes of horsemen or footmen.{They will come to us for succour.} The souldior hewill goe into that Province where he is not acquaynted; because he would not be knowne to have bene a Traytor which to {folio 84} prevent I have here sett downe a sure course.

{Souldiors must have boyes.} But for asmuch as there is a necessitye that Capteines, Officers of bandes, and souldiors (both horsemen and footmen) must have boyes, It were (methinckes) good pollecye that a proporcion of Boyes were yearlie sent out of England{Boyes from England to be sent into Ireland.} (where there are too manye ydle youths to spare) into everie of the foure Provinces. And because the Armye is now great; the proporcion of boyes must be the greater. And that everie three souldiors (once garrysoned) maye be allowed to have amongst them one boye.{One boye for 3 souldiors and his allowance.} And for the mayntenace of that boy everie souldior have allowance of a penye by the daye, more in lendings (abating it either in his apparel or some other thing, that the Queene may be noe further charged)) more than now he hath, towardes the mayntenance of the saide boye to attend three souldiors. Soe the boyes allowance shalbe iij d. per diem.

{When boyes should be sent.} The best tymes for the sending over of those boyes wilbe att the beginninge of the springe that they maye be seasoned and inured (before winter) with the Ayer of that Countrye.

{What good Boyes may doe in tyme.} These boyes in some few yeres wilbe made readye souldiors. And the yearlie sending over of boyes thither (soe longe as neede shall require) wilbe a meane to strengthen and uphold the Companyes both of horsemen and footmen: So that men of greater yeres may {folio 85} be spared both there and here, to follow husbandrye, and other necessarie traids.{A meane to save them from hanginge and whippinge.} It wilbe lykewyse a good meane to evacuate England of many ydle youths, who live at their libertye everie where (especiallie about London) and are ymployed in no good business.

This being allowed there shall not hereafter be anye of the boyes of the Irish birth trayned up amongst us. Whereby the traytors might be strenghned as now they are. {Birdes of our owne broad are better than of a strange nest.} Butt the sonnes of her Majesties naturallye borne English subjectes shall serve for the warres of that land; which wilbe much better for us because I know (by experience) that the trayninge up of the Irish boyes in our companies doth daylie annoy us, and that verie much.

{None but the ignorant will make question of it.} To object that boyes are altogether unnecessarye, were vayne. For such is the necessitye of those warres as a souldior cannot by any meanes be without a boye. Yett were there never soe few boyes (in our bandes) as there are at this instant; by reason they are gone unto the traytors with whome they had rather abyde then with us, because the Rebells live in such plenty and pleasure.

There is another great inconvenience which requireth remedye to save both old and new souldiors who doe now perish through want thereof.

{Husbandrie for souldiors clothinge.} No souldior is able to live and follow the warres (in Ireland) without a mantell, which all the daye defends him from the weather and is at night his house and {folio 86} lodginge. What hart or curage can a poore soldiour have to fight or what strengthe to performe any action? Or abillitye to march and beare his armes? When he shall either want meat, or meanes to keepe him warme.

Suppose there be one amongst twentie (and I would there were soe manye) who is of that constitution and resolucion to endure both hunger and could;{Yf the numbers should grow noe greater it would be longe err an Armye could be raysed.} one amongst twentie ys but fyve of a hundredth; then what shall become of the rest? Shall they (because they are not able to undergoe such hardnes) be lost? God forbid; for although he that is of that fortitude to sustayne all bruntes of extremitie and necessitie (and yet doe service) be worth xxtie other, yet must not the rest be cast awaye, for soe a Realme maye soone be dispeopled and charitie and Christianitie quite abandoned.{It is a pitty to lose men that may be saved.} But it is an easy matter to save (though not all) yet the most parte of them alive, yf equitie and Conscience maybe but used in their Clothinge and diet: And her Majestie at noe greater charge than now she is.

{Change of Aer will trye mens constitutions.} Both the Aer and Earth of Ireland are moyster than of England, therefore such clothinge as will best defend the body form that annoyance is fittest for the souldiors, which, (uppon my knowledge and creditt) I undertake to be the freize and mantles of that Countrye: and touchinge the necessities of the mantell, noe souldior can there live without it.{The Queene truly served the soldior well clothed.} Then this is the way to furnish the souldiors and neither beguyle her Majestie nor them.

{folio 87}The souldior maye have more and better apparel (for his purposes) than nowe he hath and withall two mantlles everie yere (which nowe he hath not) the charge beinge all the one.{By good husbandrye.}

{Allowance of soldiors apparrell and the price of everie parcell.} Everye souldior is allowed everie yere to have two Capps, sixe payres of stockings and sixe payre of shoes. For the two Cappes the souldior doth pay vj s. viij d. For everie payre of stockings ijs vd. For everie paire of shoes ijs. iijd. In lieu of his two Cappes of vjs and viijd price, let him have foure cappes at viijd the cappe which will cost in all ijs and viijd. There maye he save iiijs to buy him a mantle.{The soldier of Ireland must needes have a mantle and here is one gayned. Allowance of Cappes.} Those 2 Cappes which are now appoynted are called Monmouth Cappes, and are good to hunt and hauke in but naught to goe to warres in: for a souldior cannot with any ease or Conveniencye were his murrian upon one of them. Besydes they will not defend the head from wett but sucke it in like a sponge. The Cappes which I meane are Cappes of the Scottish fashion made of Irish frize; whereon the souldior may were his murrian it defendeth the wett longe and being wett is soone drye; soe will not the Cappe of iijs iijd.{Less cost and more commodious.} Agayne the souldiers may have two for one, and ever keepe the one of them drye, soe hath the foure Cappes for two: these at viijd the piece those at iiijs and iiijd the piece.

{Allowance of stockinges.} For stockings his allowance beinge vj payre per annum at ijs vjd the payer, lett him have tenne payre of Irish frieze stockings att xvd the payre: soe shall he save ijs and vjd out of his stockings towardes his other mantell; and yet have more and better stockings; For the Irish frieze stockings are warmer and longer and will never {folio 88} shrincke as doe those of Carseye who being made too short will alsoe shrincke when they come to wett besides they are soe rotten that (growinge lesse and lesse) the soldior soone teareth them from his leggs, especiallye when they are wett. The Irish frieze stocking is larger and more durable; besides the soldiors (for shrift) shall have tenne payre for sixe and ijs and vjd spare.{One other mantell gayned.}

{Allowance of shoes.} A souldior is lykewise allowed to have sixe payre of shoes everie yere, payinge for everie paire (out of his intertayment) ijs and iiijd. Which shoes after they have bene but a few tymes through wett and (with reverence) myered, will grow soe hard and heavie and withall by often dryinge soe strayt that they will do the souldior no service in short tyme. Wherefore both for his more ease and more profitt, lett the souldior have Irish broages, for his six payre of English shoes, xij paire of them for the which he is to pay xijd the payre. Soe shall he have two paire for one and the same better for his use and yett save ijs towardes his other mantell, which (with the ijs vjd saved in his stockings) will buy him a good mantell; soe shall he yearly have two of them to keepe him warme.

Synce therefore her Majestie receiveth no losse, and her souldiors receive Commodytie: me thinckes it would be needles to use the provant merchants helpe to furnish them with apparell:{What the provant merchant doth the capteine may better doe.} But that everie Captayne should be credited with fortye powndes quarterly before hand, for that purpose. And as that shall be bestowed, soe to have other fortie poundes and soe from tyme to tyme. Then yf anye souldior {folio 89} shalbe found to goe barefoote and bare legged (as now many of them doe) the fault beyng in the Captaine and not in the souldior, as yet may be; Let that Captaine lose his Company:{It is pittye to trust him with a 100 men who is not to be trusted with 40li pounds.} And that Captayne who shall not be thought worthie to be trusted with soe much money before hand whereby to relieve his souldiors yet more unworthie to be trusted with the charge of a cth men, with whome he must venter his lyfe (as they must theirs) untill all the service shalbe ended.

{Where thrift and helth concurre the plott is good for the soldior.} Since therefore the souldiors may be thus frugallie and healthfullie furnished, I hold it necessarie that the merchant may not have to deale in these noted necessaries: but rathere the Captayne whom it doth moste concerne; both for his credit and safetie of his persons. And the {For offendinge the merchant lett him serue these necessaries.} merchant (if it be shalbe still soe judged convenient) maye provide shirtes, dublettes and cassockes; one of which I would (yf I might be heard) have to be converted into a good Irish frieze jerkyn, which wilbe both cheaper and warmer for his winter garment.{A good change for the soldior.} This much for the soldiors apparell, now concerninge their vittayles.

{Vittayles infect the soldiors.} Whereas many of her Majesties souldiors receive infection by unwholesome vittayles which are often rotten, and doe stincke before they can have them. And alsoe by their Continuall drincking of water and yet her Majestie doth commonlie lose in everie fiftie poundes worth of vittayles xxxli, and soe in everie fiftie thousand thirtie thousand.{That the Queene may not lose her charges nor her soldiors their lives.} To remedye this, and to save both the soldiors life and her Majesties losse, yea and to bringe unto {folio 90} her Coffers great Commoditie in those matters: these are the meanes.

First for the vittayles which are to goe from hence to serve the Armye, before that Countrye shallbe able to yeld sufficient of itself to satisfie the Forces: Let the same be ready shipped to be transported with the soldiors or ymediatelie after.{Vittayles and soldiers must goe together.} That neither the vittayles may aryve before the souldiors and soe putrefie nor the souldieres longe before the vittayles and thereby pyne through want. These inconveniences doe moste commonlie fall upon her Majesties people and her provision, as thinges are accustomed to be handled.

{After one yeres peace Leinster will vittayle the armye in Ulster and their owne forces.} But after that the province of Leynster shalbe once recovered and reformed (which in the space of sixe moneths I meane in winter) it may easely be, as before I have mencioned then after one yere next followinge her Majestie may in disbursinge of money for vittayles, make returne of 2000 li cleare gayness for issuing of 1000 li in buyinge of grayne,{The Queene may gayne 2000 li by disbursinge of one.} whereof there wilbe (after one yere) such plentye in Leinster as wilbe sufficient to satisfie yt self and the forces in Ulster. And by disbursinge 1000 li for Beefes, she shall gaine 500 li in this sorte.{500 li gained by disbursinge 1000 li.}

{What the Queene doth paye and what the souldiors pay for grayne.} Her Majestie shall have wheat, rye and beare mault at iiijs the barrel Bristow band which contayneth 32 gallons. For everie barrell whereof the souldier doth allow out of his intertaynment xijs soe likewise for everie Barrell of Oates for provender her Majestie payeth ijs. And the horsemen allow for the same out of their pay vjs whereby in disbursinge one thousand poundes her highness may clearlie {folio 91} gaine 2000 li. Soe oat mault also which is received att ijs vjd the Barrell is delivered att vs whereby half in half is gayned.

{The prices of Beoves to the Queene and to the souldiors.} Lykewise for everie Beaffe for the which her Majestie doth pay xvs the souldior alloweth xxs whereby everie 1000 li is made 1500 li 6. And all those provisions may be plentifullie had (for her Majesties Armye){Such is the composition.} out of Leinster at the saide Rates according to the Composiiton whereunto the inhabitants themselves have agreed. Soe as they may receive ready money for the same. And they wilbe alsoe Contented to carrie and transporte the same provisions to any parte of the same Province or to anny garrison borderinge upon the same. Or to any porte or haven of the same Province where the saide grayne and vittayles may be conveyed by sea to further and more remote places of garrisones.{Her Majesties adventure.} Of which portage by sea her Majestie is to abide the venture. All this will the subjectes of Leynster performe upon their owne charge;{They will do all these needfull survices to be eased of some needlesse burthens.} soe as they may be eased of many burdens, which are now imposed upon them whereby her Majestie doth receive noe benefitt: And they will willinglie undergoe the other more necessarye burthens, by men mentioned in this treatise of Recoverie.

{Water is now their drinke which breedeth many deseases in our Englishmen.} After this manner may the souldiors be vittayled with wholesome vittayles and drinke, which is at all tymes verie scarse. For havinge mault they will get it to be brewed at their owne charge, which heretofore hath bene chargable to her Majestie.

{folio 92}{He must be noe ordinarye man who shall undertake this kinde of vittaylinge.} Whatsoever shalbe appoynted vittayler for this kine of vittaylinge ought to be a man both of credite and of good Conscience. To deale faithfullie for her Majestie, Justlie with her subjectes and carefullie for her souldiors. A man of good abillyte and meanes of his owne, some gentleman of that province of Leynster: who will see the Countrie trulie payed. When money cometh to his handes. And if this course shalbe lyked and approved I doe know a gentleman of good abillytie whoe I doubt not but will undertake yt, the rather yf such order be taken with the Recusantes and some consideracion allowed him from her Majestie in lieu of his travell therein.

{This gentleman should have money to disburse for Captaines Billes for the Queenes profite.} And whether this gentleman or whosover shall exercise that place it were verye requisite that he should have the paying of all the bills given in Leynster by any Captain whatsoever. And for that purpose to have alwayes a Remaynder of Treasure in his handes which when he shall have noe occasion to use for payment of matters belonging to his place: The Lord Deputie for the tyme beinge, may call for it, at his pleasure.

{Ticketts enrich under Treasurers Clerks.} For as the tickettes are now payde they doe but enrich a sorte of under clerkes belonging to the Treasurers Deputies.

{Which consideration cutts worse than usurye.} For since a man cannot gett a Captaynes Bill to be payed unless he doe give too great a consideraction (and especiallye since those weeklye lendinges have bene put in practise) for as much as her Majestie doth most Royallie pay all, I thincke it verie fitt to have a man of abillitye and some creditte put in trust with those matters before mentioned. And yf it shall seeme so good unto your Honour I can nomynate a man,{And all the Army want such a one.} agaynst whom there can be noe just exception taken.

{folio 93}{He and the rest wilbe willinge to beare that charge.} This gentleman will undertake that office the more willingelie, yf he maye see the Province freed of all Charges, savinge this last here rehersed. The Charge of the Lieutenant and his cth soldiors. The Sheriffe his xij horsemen.{And these with all theyr harts.} And the xxtie labourers of the Countrye for the purposes before specyfied. And not be charged with the Composition, nor the rysinge out to generall hostinges; which Rysinges out to anye Journey (for ought that ever I could perceive) did new good to that kingdome nor benefyte her Majestie any waye.{It is an Idle custome which profiteth neither prince nor people.}

{This maye be expected from the curious or the inconsiderate.} I doe not doubt but in scanninge of this discourse, there wilbe manye objections. And some will say this is dishonourable, and that is dishonourable for her Majestie to doe; whom I answer thus brieflie.

{And yet I know not one thinge that concernes yt.} It is now no tyme to stand upon pittye by matter of Honour soe longe as the mayne remayneth untouched. But rather to put that in execution which maye moste offend the Traytors, punish the malefactors and reforme that kingdome.

And although some burthens be imposed upon the subjectes. Lett them consider, it is convenient for them to beare them,{The reason of their defence will induce them to this and more.} in regarde it is done for their own defence, and that the undergoinge thereof doth ease them of a tenfould greater Charge, where at they now are, and yet they not defended. But yf matters were reformed accordinge to my opinion (I will not terme prescription) yf Lieutenants and other Commaunders, shall suffer them to be spoyled (as now they are and heretofore they have bene). The losses of the subjectes are to be answered out of the {folio 94} Commaunders and souldiors entertaynment, soe as the subjects performe what to them belongeth, as in this Treatise of Recoverie is in sondrie places noted, or at the least verie good service may be done upon the Traytors.{It is all that Prince or people can desire.}

{It is honour to a prince to bringe people to obedience.} And I cannot perceive but it is an honour to her Majestie (by any meanes) to suppresse those proud traytors and to bringe them to obedience, according to her Princlie puirpose: which done, she maye after wardes repayre (at her pleasure) those scruples of her honour which shall seeme to be committed,{If any shall happen which I cannot see.} which (soe farere as my slender reach can attayne unto) is a better course than to suffer the kingdome to be abused by the insultinge Rebells, and sometymes (for a little intermissive ease) to admitt of the Traytors base condicions.

{It is noe triffle.} And for that the Recoverie of the Kingdome is the matter now in question, lett not pettie poyntes of honour restrayne a princelie proceedinge to effect yt with the greatest expedition and safetye, and with the smallest charge, soe shall her honour (which God ever preserve) remayne in due regard, her Vassalle Traytors shalbe confounded. And the reputacion of Englishmens valour reparyred. But yf (which I hope it never shall) that Ireland shoulde be lost: then her princelie honour shall in the world be talked of, and England ever blemished.{That lost honour and valour suffer obloquye.}

{The conclusion of the treatise of recovery with a shadow of reformation.} Thus have I (in my owne simple Judgment) sett downe assured meanes for the Recoverie and some for the reformacion of Ireland. Yf any of them shalbe put in practise, I shalbe right glad {folio 95} and that poore kingdome happie. Yf not, I have discharged my Conscience and dutye by expressinge my knowledge; And soe humblie referringe yt to your Honours Consideracion. I doe here purpose for this tyme to conclude this generall Treatise, and to proceed to my particular Apologye.