Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition: D103006

Die irischen Triaden (nach Kuno Meyer)

Author: unknown

Background details and bibliographic information

File Description

Kuno Meyer

Translated by Peter Dietsch

Introduction by Fergus Kelly

Proof corrections and additional editing by Beatrix Färber

Funded by University College, Cork, School of History

1. First draft, revised and corrected.

Extent of text: 8650 words


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Distributed by CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.
Text ID Number: D103006

Availability [RESTRICTED]

Available with prior consent of the CELT programme for purposes of academic research and teaching only. Permission to use the translation of Fergus Kelly's introduction to 'Irish Wisdom: Classic Irish Triads' was kindly given by Fergus Kelly and the Blackstaff Press, Belfast.


Place-names: Kuno Meyer used anglicised versions of Irish place-names in his translation, but left the Irish place-names in some instances. Since the material covered in the triads goes back to the ninth century AD when there was no English (or Anglo-Saxon) presence felt in Ireland, the approach adopted for the German translation has been to avoid any anachronistic usage: we have used the Old Irish place-names, as listed in Meyer's Index Locorum (p 45–46), followed by the modern English form in square brackets. In one case, for 'Tirowen' given by Meyer, today's standard form 'Tyrone' was preferred.

Ortsnamen: Kuno Meyer verwendete in seiner englischen Übersetzung sowohl Ortsnamen in anglisierter als auch in original irischer Form. Die Inhalte, die in den irischen Triaden behandelt werden, gehen etwa auf das 9. Jahrhundert n. Chr. zurück, als Irland noch nicht im angelsächsischen Einflussbereich lag. Zur Vermeidung von Anachronismen wurden die altirischen Ortsnamen, wie von Meyer in seinem Index Locorum (S. 45/46) aufgelistet, durchgängig beibehalten und die moderne anglisierte Form in eckigen Klammern beigefügt. Als einzige Ausnahme wurde die heutige anglisierte Standardform 'Tyrone' anstatt Meyers etymologisch klarer Variante 'Tirowen' gewält.


    Manuscript sources for the Irish text
  1. Trinity College Dublin, MS TCD 1318 (H 2.16), The Yellow Book of Lecan, a vellum of the end of the fourteenth century, pp. 414b–418a, a complete copy.
  2. Royal Irish Academy Dublin, MS 23 P 12, the Book of Ballymote, a vellum of the end of the fourteenth century, pp. 65b–66b (ends imperfectly).
  3. Royal Irish Academy Dublin, MS Stowe, D II 1, the Book of Húi Maine, a vellum of the fourteenth century, fo. 190a–fo. 191a. A complete copy.
  4. Royal Irish Academy Dublin, MS 23 P 2, the Book of Lecan, a vellum of the fifhteenth century. The leaves on which the Triads are found are now bound up with the Codex H 2 17 belonging to Trinity College. It is a complete copy begining on p. 183b and ending on p. 184b. The editor remarks that, 'by an oversight' he has 'referred to the MS sometimes by Lec and sometimes by H. In some cases both Lec and H will be found quoted in the variants. The same MS is always meant.' This practice has been left stand.
  5. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, MS 23 N 10, a paper ms written in the year 1575, pp. 98–101. A complete copy, the gap between p. 100 and 106 being made up by pp. 7a–10b of the vellum portion of the manuscript.
  6. Trinity College Dublin, MS H 1 15, pp. 946–957. This is a paper ms written by Tadhg Tiorthach Ó Neachtain in 1745. It is a complete copy with copious glosses in Modern Irish.
  7. Dublin, RIA, Stowe Collection, a paper quarto now marked 23 N 27, containing on fo. 1a–7b a copy of the Triads. It was written in 1714 by Domnall (or Daniel) o Duind mac Eimuinn. Its readings closely agree with those of N.
  8. Manchester, Rylands Library, a copy written in 1836 by Peter O'Longan, formerly in the possession of the Earls of Crawford.
  9. Edinburgh, Advocates Library, MS Kilbride III, vellum, begins on fo. 9b2.
    Digital images of Meyer's edition
  1. Available at
  1. Kuno Meyer (ed. and trans.), The Triads of Ireland, Todd Lecture Series 13. (Dublin: Royal Irish Academy 1906).
    Literature (incl. references given by Meyer)
  1. James Henthorn Todd (ed. & trans.), The Irish version of the Historia Britonum of Nennius (Dublin: Irish Archaeological Society 1848).
  2. Eugene O'Curry, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish. Vol. 1–3 (London 1873).
  3. Kuno Meyer, Cath Finntrága or Battle of Ventry (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1885). [From Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 487).
  4. Charles Plummer, Irish Miscellanies: the Conversion of Loegaire, and his death, Revue Celtique 6 (1884) 162–172.
  5. Whitley Stokes, The prose tales in the Rennes Dindshenchas, Revue Celtique 15 (1896) 418–484 (no. 44 and 111).
  6. W. Neilson Hancock, Thaddeus O'Mahony, Alexander George Richey & Robert Atkinson, Ancient Laws of Ireland, 6 vols. (Dublin, 1865–1901).
  7. Kuno Meyer, 'Das Apgitir Crábaid des Colmán maccu Béognae ', ZCP 3 (1901) 447–455.
  8. Whitley Stokes, Martyrology of Oengus the Culdee, Henry Bradshaw Society 29. (London 1905) 112.
  9. Siegmand Hellmann, 'Sedulius Scottus', p. 135, in: Ludwig Traube, 'Quellen und Untersuchungen zur lateinischen Philologie des Mittelalters', vol. 1 (München 1906).
  10. Whitley Stokes & John Strachan (ed. & tr.), Thesaurus palaeo-hibernicus (2 vols, Cambridge 1901–03, supplement by Whitley Stokes, Halle/Salle (1910), reprinted in two volumes, Dublin 1985).
  11. Patrick Weston Joyce, A Social History of Ancient Ireland, 2 vols (New York, London, and Bombay: Longmans, Green, & Company, 1903).
  12. Kuno Meyer (ed. & trans.), Cáin Adamnáin: an Old-Irish treatise on the Law of Adamnan, Anecdota Oxoniensia, Mediaeval & Modern Series 12 (Oxford 1905).
  13. Rudolf Thurneysen, Die Bürgschaft im irischen Recht, Abhandlungen der Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.-hist. Klasse, no. 2 (1928).
  14. Rudolf Thurneysen, Irisches Recht, Abhandlungen der Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.-hist. Klasse, no. 2 (1931).
  15. Éamonn de hÓir, 'The anglicisation of Irish place-names', Onoma 17 (1972) 192–204.
  16. For modern Irish proverbs in triadic form, compare for instance Enrí Ó Muirgheasa (ed.), Seanfhocail Uladh, Eagrán Nua (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig an tSoláthair, 1976) 3–8.
  17. Patrick Sims-Williams, 'Thought, word, and deed: an Irish triad', Ériu 29 (1978) 78–111.
  18. Fergus Kelly, A Guide to Early Irish Law (Dublin: DIAS 1988).
  19. Michael A. Monk & John Sheehan, Early medieval Munster: archaeology, history and society (Cork 1998) [p. 83 on condiments and relishes mentions echmuir].
  20. Fergus Kelly, Irish Wisdom: Classic Irish Triads (Belfast: Appletree Press 1993).
  21. P. W. Joyce, The origin and history of Irish names of places. [Facs. of the original edition in 3 volumes published 1869–1913.] With a new introductory essay on P.W. Joyce by Mainchín Seoighe (Dublin: Éamonn de Búrca for Edmund Burke 1995).
  22. Kevin Murray, 'Fr Edmund Hogan's 'Onomasticon Goedelicum', ninety years on: reviewers and users', Ainm 8 (1998–2000) 65–75.
  23. Historical Dictionary of Gaelic Placenames (London: Irish Texts Society 2003). [Volume 1 of Hogan's revised Onomasticon.]
  24. Pádraig Ó Riain, Diarmuid Ó Murchadha and Kevin Murray, Historical Dictionary of Gaelic Placenames, Fascicle 1 [Names in A-] (London: Irish Texts Society 2003); repr. with addenda and corrigenda April 2007.
  25. Pádraig Ó Riain, Diarmuid Ó Murchadha and Kevin Murray, Historical Dictionary of Gaelic Placenames, Fascicle 3 [C-Ceall Fhursa] (London: Irish Texts Society 2008).
  26. Fergus Kelly, Thinking in Trees: The Triad in Early Irish Literature (Sir John Rhys Memorial Lecture), Proceedings of the British Academy 125 (December 2004) 1–18.
  27. Diarmuid Ó Murchadha, 'Dún Cermna: a reconsideration', Éigse 34 (2004) 71–89.
  28. Bernhard Maier, Die Weisheit der Kelten. Sprichwörter aus Irland, Schottland, Wales und der Bretagne. (Munich: C. H. Beck 2011) [An anthology of proverbs from Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Brittany in the original languages, with German translation. Includes introduction and bibliographic references].
    The edition used in the digital edition
  1. Die irischen Triaden. Peter Dietsch (ed), unpublished [] ()


Project Description

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

Sampling Declaration

The present text represents a German translation of Meyer's triads 1 to 256. Each triad is numbered in line with Meyer's edition. A German translation of Fergus Kelly's introduction to 'Irish Wisdom: Classic Irish Triads' is prefixed. Meyer's own English introduction has not been translated. It is available in CELT files T103006 and G103006.

Editorial Declaration


Text has been checked and proofread twice.


For the translation, the neue deutsche Rechtschreibung (new German spelling) was used.


There are no hyphenated words crossing a line break.


div0=the Triads; div1=the section. Page-breaks are not marked, but Meyer's numbers have been preserved.


Names of persons (given names), places and group names are not tagged. Direct speech is rendered q.

Canonical References

This text uses the DIV1 element to represent the Section.

Profile Description

Created: Translation by Peter Dietsch. (November 2010)

Use of language

Language: [DE] The text is in German.
Language: [GA] Some words are in Irish.
Language: [EN] Some words are in English

Revision History