Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition
Annals of the Four Masters (Author: [unknown])

Annal M1597


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1597. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred ninety-seven.


O'Donnell (Hugh Roe, the son of Hugh, son of Manus) encamped in Breifny of Connaught, to the east of Sliabh-da-en, after having plundered, as we have


said before, the faithful people of O'Conor. He was awaiting the arrival of his forces and muster from every quarter where they were; and when they had all assembled, which was at the end of the month of January, they marched into the territory of Tirerrill, from thence into Corran, through Machaire-Chonnacht, and into Clann-Conway and Hy-Many. Having reached the very centre of Hy-Many, he sent forth swift-moving marauding parties through the district of Caladh, and the upper part of the territory; and they carried off many herds of cows and other preys to O'Donnell, to the town of Athenry; and though the warders of the town attempted to defend it, the effort was of no avail to them, for O'Donnell's people applied fires and flames to the strongly-closed gates of the town, and carried to them great ladders, and, placing them against the walls, they recte, some of them ascended to the parapets of the wall. They then leaped from the parapets, and gained the streets of the town, and opened the gates for those who were outside. They all then proceeded to demolish the storehouses and the strong habitations; and they carried away all the goods and valuables that were in them. They remained that night in the town. It was not easy to enumerate or reckon the quantities of copper, iron, clothes, and habiliments, which they carried away from the town on the following day. From the same town he sent forth marauding parties to plunder Clanrickard, on both sides of the river; and these marauders totally plundered and ravaged the tract of country from Leathrath to Magh-Seanchomhladh. The remaining part of his army burned and ravaged the territory, from the town of Athenry and Rath-Goirrgin Westwards to Rinn-Mil and Meadhraige, and to the gates of Galway, and burned Teagh-Brighde, at the military gate of Galway. O'Donnell pitched his camp for that night between Uaran-mor and Galway,


precisely at Cloch-an-Lingsigh. On the following day O'Donnell proceeded to Mainistir-an-chnuic, at the gate of Galway, and communicated with the inhabitants of the town, requesting traffic and sale of their various wares and rich raiment for some of the preys. He then resolved upon returning back; and were it not for the burden of the collected preys, the multiplicity of the plunders, and the vastness of the spoil, it is certain that he would have not stopped on that route until he had gone to Gortinnsi-Guaire in Kinel-Aedha-na-hEchtge. O'Donnell, with his forces and their preys, returned by the same road, through the very middle of the province of Connaught, and never halted until he pitched his camp in Calry, to the east of Sligo; and he sent his calones and the unarmed part of his people to convey some of the preys northward, across the River Samhaoir.


As for O'Conor Sligo (Donough, the son of Cathal Oge), he mustered a numerous army of English and Irish troops, a short time after the festival of St. Bridget, to march to Sligo.


O'Donnell, as we have already mentioned, was in Calry, in readiness to meet them; and he made an attack upon the army of O'Conor before they could reach Sligo. None of O'Conor's army waited to resist him, excepting a few in the rear, who were overtaken at Traigh-Eothaile. These were wounded or drowned; and the son of Mac William Burke, namely, the son of Richard, son of Oliver, son of John, and many others not enumerated, were slain. O'Conor returned back; and he was not happy in his mind for having gone on that expedition. O'Donnell also returned home, and dismissed his tribes, that they might rest themselves after their long expedition; and he left his soldiers and hirelings in Connaught, under the command of Niall Garv, the son of Con, son of Calvagh O'Donnell, to carry on war against O'Conor and the English people who were along with him. These proceeded to plunder and destroy the Irish tribes who had risen up in confederacy with O'Conor and the English; so that they won over a great number of them to the Irish side again, and, among others, Mac Dermot (Conor), Chief of Moylurg, who was brought before O'Donnell, and formed a league of friendship with him a second time, and gave


him due submission. The chiefs of the territories bordering on the Curlieu Mountains did the same, and delivered up their hostages and securities to O'Donnell.


One hundred and forty-four barrels oF powder were sent by the Queen to Dublin, to her people, in the month of March. When the powder was landed, it was drawn to Wine-street, and placed on both sides of the street, and a spark of fire got into the powder; but from whence that spark proceeded, whether from the heavens or from the earth beneath, is not known; howbeit, the barrels burst into one blazing flame and rapid conflagration (on the 13th of March), which raised into the air, from their solid foundations and supporting posts, the stone mansions and wooden houses of the street, so that the long beam, the enormous stone, and the man in his corporal shape, were sent whirling into the air over the town by the explosion of this powerful powder; and it is impossible to enumerate, reckon, or describe the number of honourable persons, of tradesmen of every class, of women and maidens, and of the sons of gentlemen, who had come from all parts of Ireland to be educated in the city, that were destroyed. The quantity of gold, silver, or worldly property, that was destroyed, was no cause of lamentation, compared to the number of people who were injured and killed by that explosion. It was not Wine-street alone that was destroyed on this occasion, but the next quarter of the town to it.


O'Conor (Donough, the son of Cathal Oge) established friendship and concord between his brother-in-law (the son of Mac William Burke), i.e. Theobald-na-Long, the son of Richard-an-Iarainn, son of David, son of Edmond, and the Governor of the province of Connaught, i.e. Sir Conyers Clifford. After their reconciliation Theobald drew the Governor and the companies of the province of Connaught into Tirawley, and into Mac William's country, and expelled and banished Mac William (Theobald, the son of Walter Kittagh, son of John, son of Oliver) from his patrimony, to O'Donnell; they despoiled and totally plundered all those who remained in confederation and friendship with him in the territory. The country generally, on this occasion, adhered to Theobald-na-Long


and the Governor. The Governor then returned to Athlone, and the companies of soldiers were distributed among the garrisons. The preys and spoils taken from Mac William's people on this occasion were indescribable.


As for Mac William, when he went to O'Donnell to complain to him of his sufferings, he remained with him until the middle month of summer. O'Donnell then made a hosting into the province of Connaught to assist Mac William, and he crossed the Moy into Tirawley without meeting any danger; and the country was not able to oppose him, so that he seized their hostages and pledges; and he delivered up these hostages, and left the country in obedience to him and he left Rury O'Donnell, his own brother, Tanist of Tirconnell, with him, to strengthen him against his enemies, a great number of foot-soldiers, and other troops. O'Donnell then returned back to his own country.


When O'Donnell left the country, O'Conor and Theobald-na-Long mustered a great army of English and Irish, in order to wreak their vengeance on Mac William; and they banished him a second time, and Rury along with him, on that occasion, from the territory, for they had not a number of men equal to their's. The resolution then adopted by Rury and Mac William was to send all the property and cattle of the territory in their vicinity, together with the inhabitants and families, before them, across the Moy of Tirawley, and through Tireragh of the Moy, to come under the jurisdiction of O'Donnell. This they did, and they arrived before nightfall at Sliabh-Gamh, and during the whole night they continued crossing the mountain.


As for the Governor, as soon as he had sent O'Conor and Theobald-na Long to banish Mac William from the territory, he mustered all his forces, to meet Mac William and Rury on a road which they could not shun or avoid. The noblemen who attended the Governor on this expedition were these: Ulick, the son of Rickard Saxonagh, son of Ulick-na-gCeann, Earl of Clanrickard, with his son, Rickard, Baron of Dun-Coillin; Donough, the son of Conor, son of Donough O'Brien, Earl of Thomond; Murrough, the son of Murrough, son of Dermot, Baron of Inchiquin; and many other distinguished


men besides them. The Governor lay on the first night in the castle of Cul-Maoile Collooney, which is situated on the Abhainn-mhor, to the east of Sliabh Gamh, and to the west of Sliabh dá-én, having fifteen hundred select warriors along with him there. This place where he remained was a general passage, and it was not easy to avoid it. Rury O'Donnell and Mac William were informed that the Governor was before them upon a road by which they could not avoid passing. And when before morning they had arrived at a place very near the castle, they resolved on sending off their herds and flocks, their calones, and the unarmed portion of their forces, by a way at a great distance from the castle, and more secure than that by which they themselves intended to proceed, whilst they themselves should cross the river without being noticed, at a short distance from the castle, as they had not a force equal to that of the enemy. They crossed the river accordingly unnoticed and unheard, and landed in safety at the other side; and they thought that they had ensured the safety and protection of their cattle and attendants; but this was not the case, for the loud lowing of the herds of kine and irrational animals, and the shouts of their drivers, were heard early in the morning from the castle; and the Governor's cavalry set out in troops and squadrons in the direction of the lowing of the cattle, to see if they could take them. They seized upon a great number of cattle, but the greater part of them escaped from them. A great number of the servants and drivers were killed. It was on this occasion also that Mulmurry, the son of Cu-Uladh Mac Ward, a learned poet, and one of the most distinguished men of his own tribe, was killed. Their own people were not able to protect them, in consequence of the great numbers that were opposed to them. It was great annoyance to the Governor that they should have passed him by before he could lay hold of them. The Irish thus made their way northwards across the Erne. The Governor returned back and he was much dejected because his enemies had thus escaped from him.


Fiagh, son of Hugh, son of John O'Byrne from Glenmalure, was slain


in the first month of summer in this year, having been treacherously betrayed by his relative, at the bidding of the Chief Justiciary of Ireland, Sir William Russell.



A new Lord Justice, Lord Borough, Thomas by name, arrived in Ireland in the beginning of the month of June, with much arms and many soldiers. After receiving the sword from Sir William Russell, who had been Lord Justice for three years before, he deprived Sir John Norris of the office which he held from his Sovereign, namely, the generalship of the war, and took that office to himself. After this he issued a proclamation to the men of Leinster and Meath, and to all those who were obedient to the Queen, from the Meeting of the three Waters to Dundalk, to meet him with all their forces, fully mustered, at Drogheda, on the twentieth day of the month of July. These orders were responded to by the Earl of Kildare, and by the English of Meath and Leinster. The Lord Justice came to the same place with as many men as he had been able to muster. After these forces had met together, they marched to Tyrone, and arrived at Abhainn-mhor without opposition or delay; and, what was seldom


the case with O'Neill, an advantage was got of his vigilance, having, contrary to his wont, neglected to guard the pass, and the Lord Justice crossed the river without receiving battle or opposition, and landed safely at the other side of it. He then razed and demolished a watching-fort which O'Neill had on the bank of the river, and erected a new fort for himself on the opposite bank of the same river. But though this advantage was taken of O'Neill, through the guidance and instruction of Turlough, the son of Henry, son of Felim Roe O'Neill, neither the Lord Justice nor any of his forces dared to advance the distance of one mile further into Tyrone; for they were not allowed rest or ease, sleep or quiet, but a succession of skirmishes and firing was kept up on them, both by day and night. It would be impossible to calculate or describe the number of the Lord Justice's men who were killed and disabled, and the number of horses and other spoils that were taken from them, on this occasion.


On a certain day the Justice went upon a hill which was near the camp, to reconnoitre and survey the country around; but it would have been better for him that he had not gone thither, for a great number of his chief men


were slain by O'Neill and his people. Among these were the brother of the Lord Justice's wife, and the chief officer of his army, together with a great number of captains and other gentlemen besides. Some of the Earl of Kildare's people were also slain there; and had not the camp of the Lord Justice been so near at hand, the number that escaped would have survived this engagement. The Earl of Kildare (Henry, the son of Garret), in consequence either of a wound or a fever, was obliged to set out on his return home; but when he had gone as far as Drogheda he died in that town. His body was carried to Kildare, and interred with great honour and reverence in the burial-place of his ancestors. His brother, William, was installed in his place.


The Lord Justice, after having finished the new fort on the bank of the Abhainn-mhor, and having observed his loss of men, and that he was not permitted to penetrate further into the country, he placed provisions and warders in this fort, and then set out to return back. He went first to Newry, and from thence to Dublin, and his army dispersed for their several homes.


At the time that the Lord Justice was engaged in the foregoing expedition, he sent a written dispatch to the Governor of Connaught, ordering him to proceed, with all the forces he could possibly muster, to the western extremity of Ulster, against O'Donnell, while he himself should remain in Tyrone. This order was promptly responded to by the Governor; for he sent for the Earl of Thomond (Donough, the son of Conor), for the Baron of Inchiquin (Murrough, the son of Murrough), for the Earl of Clanrickard (Ulick, the son of Rickard Saxonagh), and his son, Rickard, Baron of Dunkellin; and also dispatched orders to the gentlemen of the counties of Mayo and Roscommon, requiring them to collect and muster their forces. He ordered all the chieftains to meet him at the monastery of Boyle, on the twenty-fourth day of the month of July, precisely when he himself, with all his bands of soldiers, would be at that place. They all accordingly came on that day to the aforesaid place. When assembled, they amounted to twenty-two standards of foot, and ten standards of cavalry. They marched from thence to Sligo, and from thence to the Erne, and pitched


their extensive camp on the banks of the limpid Samhaoir. The high spirit of this army was such, that they thought that all Ulster would be incapable of coping with them in battle.


On the following morning, by break of day, the Governor's army rose up to cross the river; but O'Donnell had posted guards upon all the fords of the Erne. However, they got an advantage at one difficult ford, namely, Ath-Cul-Uain, and to this they vigorously and resolutely advanced. The guards of the ford proceeded to shoot at them without mercy, and to defend the ford against them as well as they were able; but they were not able to defend it long against the numerous force and army opposed to them; so that the Governor and his army crossed it, and gained the other side. On this day, however, a lamentable death took place, namely, that of Murrough, the son of Murrough, son of Dermot, son of Murrough O'Brien, Baron of Inchiquin, as he was on horseback, in the depth of the river, outside the soldiers, saving them from drowning, and encouraging them to get across past him. But destiny permitted that he was aimed at by one of O'Donnell's people with a ball exactly in the arm-pit, in an opening of his plate armour, so that it passed through him, and out at the opposite arm-pit. No assistance could be given him; and he fell from his horse into the depth of the current, in which he was immediately drowned. The person who there perished was much lamented by the English and Irish, on account of the greatness of his wealth, and the nobility of his blood, though young as to age; and although it would have been meet that his body should have been taken up, and honourably interred, the army did not stop to do so, but proceeded directly to the monastery of Assaroe, which they reached the 31st of July, the day of the week being Saturday. They encamped around the monastery, and also within it, and thus remained from the forenoon of Saturday, when they crossed the Erne, until Monday morning. On the Sunday on which they were in the monastery the ships arrived which were promised to be sent after them from Galway, with ordnance and great guns, and other stores for their support, whilst they should


remain in this strange territory. This fleet put in at Inis-Saimer, close to Assaroe, and landed their stores on the island, leaving a sufficient number to guard them. On Monday the ordnance were landed and planted against the castle of Ballyshannon. The troops were then removed from the monastery to Mullach-Sithe-Aedha, opposite the fortress, and about the ordnance. On Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, they continued to fire on the castle, with heavy balls, emitted with loud report and flashing flames from the loud-sounding, red, shot-vomiting guns of that heavy and immense ordnance which they had planted opposite the fortress, so that their reports and loud thundering in the regions of the air were heard far and distant from them. They sent large parties of their choicest soldiers to the base of the castle with wall-razing engines, and with thick and strong iron armour about their bodies, and bright-shining helmets on their heads, and with a bright testudo of round, broad, hard iron shields around them, to protect them from the shots of their enemies. The resolute attack they made upon the fortress, however, was of no avail to them; and it had been better for them that they had not come upon this journey against it; for from the castle were poured down upon them showers of brilliant fire from well-planted, straight aimed guns, and from costly muskets, and some rough-headed rocks and massive solid stones, and beams and blocks of timber, which were kept on the battlements of the fortress, in readiness to be hurled down when occasion required; so that the coverings of the razing party were of no shelter or protection to them, and great numbers of them were destroyed, and others who were severely wounded became so exhausted that they delayed not to be further slaughtered, and, turning their backs to their enemies, they were routed to the camp. The people of the fortress kept up a constant fire on them, and killed an unascertained number of them.



A party of O'Donnell's cavalry made a routing attack upon the English cavalry; and there is no record or remembrance of the numbers that were mortally wounded between them; but, among the rest, O'Conor Sligo (Donough, the son of Cathal Oge) was severely wounded, for he and O'Conor Roe (Hugh, son of Turlough Roe) and Theobald-na-Long, with all their forces, were along with the Lord Justice at this time.

O'Donnell, however, had been in want of forces, and had only a small number on the Saturday on which the Lord Justice came into the country with this powerful force; but his people and forces were assembling and flocking to him from every direction, so that the most of them had reached him before the noon of Monday. On this occasion Maguire ( Hugh, the son of Cuconnaught, son of Cuconnaught) and O'Rourke (Brian Oge, the son of Brian, son of Brian Ballagh) came to join him, with their forces; and after these chiefs had assembled together, they allowed the Lord Justice and his army neither ease nor rest, for they carried on skirmishing and firing, conflict, assault, and onslaught, on the camp, every day during the three days that they continued battering the castle. O'Donnell's army frequently drove those who were on the outskirts of the Connaught camp into the very centre of it, and those who were in the centre to the outskirts; and they did not permit their horses or other cattle to go forth outside the boundary camp to graze, nor did they permit hay or corn to be carried in to them. The Governor and his army were thus reduced to great distress and extremities; for, though they should wish to depart, they could not approach any common ford on the Erne from Cael-Uisge to Ath-Seanaigh. The chiefs, though numerous were their forces, were much dispirited on finding themselves placed in such peril by their enemies. When, therefore, the Governor, the Earls, and the chiefs in general, had perceived the great danger in which they were, they held a consultation from the beginning of night on Tuesday, to the morning twilight of Wednesday, the 15th of August; and the resolution they finally came to at the day-break was, to advance forward at once from the place where they were at Sith-Aedha to the rough, turbulent, cold-streamed, rocky ford over the brink of Assaroe, called


Casan-na-gCuradh, and they advanced to that to them unknown and seldom-crossed trajectus, in troops and squadrons, without being noticed or heard by O'Donnell. In consequence of the strength of the current, and the debility of some of the army and the horses, from having been deprived of food, a countless number of their women, and men of their inferior, unwarlike people, of their steeds and horses, and of other things they had with them, were swept out westwards into the sea by the current of Assaroe. They left their ordnance and their vessels of meat and drink in the power of the Kinel-Connell on this occasion. The chiefs and gentlemen of the army, however, and such of them as were strong, crossed the Erne after great danger and peril. The warders of the castle continued firing on them as rapidly as they were able, and pursued them to the brink of the river, in order to exterminate their enemies; and intelligence of their movements reached O'Donnell and his army. When O'Donnell heard the report of the firing, he immediately rose up with his forces, and, having quickly accoutred themselves in their fighting habiliments, they advanced to the river as speedily as they could. When the Governor's army had cleared the opposite bank of the river they went into order and battle array. They placed their women, their calones, their unarmed people, their wounded men, and such of their horses of burden as they had, between them and the sea. They placed their warriors and fighting men behind them, and on the other side towards the country, for they were certain of receiving an attack by those forces who had pursued them. O'Donnell's people went in pursuit of them across the river without delay; and they were so eager to wreak their vengeance on the army that fled from them that they did not wait to put on their armour or outer garments. They began to surround them and sharpen the conflict against them, and both parties continued shooting and attacking each other from the Erne to Magh-gCedne in Carbury-Drumcliff. At this time there fell a shower of rain in such torrents that the


forces on either side could not use or wield their arms, so drenched with wet were their powder-pouches and the apparatus of their fine guns. These showers of rain did more injury to O'Donnell's people than to the Governor's army; for they the former had left their outer garments behind, as we have said before; but not so the others, they wore coverings over their battle dresses.

The Governor proceeded with his forces to Sligo that night; from thence on the next day to the abbey of Boyle, and on the third day to the district of Athleague. The chiefs of Connaught, then dispersed from their territories and houses, and the Governor went to Athlone.

The Irish of the province of Ulster were joyful and in high spirits after the Lord Justice had returned from Tyrone without receiving submission or respect, and the Governor of Connaught from Tirconnell, in the same month, as we have just mentioned.


When the Lord Justice had left Tyrone, as we have before stated, after having placed provisions and warders in the new fort, which he himself had erected on the bank of the River Abhainn-Mhor, he went to Dublin. As for O'Neill and his people, he rested neither day nor night, but watched every opportunity of taking this fort by stratagem or assault, or wreaking his vengeance on the garrison. On a certain day he attacked the fort; but thirty of his men were slain, and he effected nothing against the fort. When the Lord Justice received intelligence that his warders were harassed in this manner, and that they were in want of provisions, he mustered a numerous army to place provisions and all other necessaries in the fort. When the Lord Justice, with his army, had arrived at Armagh, he went with the cavalry of the army about him along the public road, some distance before his foot-soldiers and companies, with the expectation of meeting some of O'Neill's people in an unprotected position. When he came near the Abhainn-Mor he fell in with a troop of horse and a body of infantry of O'Neill's people. A fierce conflict and spiteful engagement ensued between them, and many men and horses were lost by the Lord Justice in that sharp battle. When the foot soldiers had come up with the Lord Justice, he advanced to the fort, and some say that he was never well


from that day forth. On the next day they left provisions and warders in the fort, and then prepared to return back, but went no further than Armagh that night. It was in a carriage or in a litter that his people (or his faithful friends and servants of trust) carried the Lord Justice on that day, without the knowledge of the greater part of his army. O'Neill kept up a constant fire and attack upon the Lord Justice's camp during the night, by which the chief leader of the army and several others besides were slain. From thence they proceeded to Newry, and he died of the wounds which he had received between Armagh and the new fort. The keeping of the sword of state was then intrusted to the Chancellor and the Chief Justice of the King's Queen's Bench, Sir Robert Gardiner, until a new Lord Justice should come from England.


O'Donnell was greatly chagrined that the Governor and the Earls should have escaped as they did. There was, however, no attack from either side until the end of Autumn. O'Donnell thought it too long that he had left unattacked the English of Connaught and those Irish who had risen in alliance with them, and who had previously made friendship with himself. Among these was O'Conor Roe (Hugh, the son of Turlough Roe); and he O'Donnell was meditating how he could plunder his territory. This was very difficult for him to do; because the position he occupied was secure and intricate, and he had near him a fastness into which he could send his cattle and other possessions, beyond the reach of his enemies, unless they should come upon him unawares; and O'Rourke had promised him that he would not permit O'Donnell to march towards him without sending him notice. O'Donnell assembled his forces, and proceeding into Connaught, halted south-west of Gleann-Dallain, where he pitched his camp. When he received intelligence that a friendship subsisted between O'Rourke and O'Conor, he deceived O'Rourke by sending messengers to him to invite him, to his camp where he was. O'Rourke promised to go to him on the following day; for he thought that O'Donnell would not leave the camp until he should arrive there; but O'Donnell did not act so; for, after he had sent his messengers to O'Rourke, he left the camp at noon, and, proceeding southwards across the Sligo, never stopped until he arrived at the Curlieu Mountain. Here he made a short stay while his troops were


taking some refreshments and resting themselves, because he did not at all wish to pass southwards over the mountain by daylight. When the beginning of night came on them they proceeded southwards over the mountain and across the River Boyle; and before morning they had passed through Magh-Luirg-an-Daghda, and the upper part of Machaire-Chonnacht. Early in the day they sent marauding parties into the wilds and recesses of the country in every direction; and these left not a single head of cattle from Ath-Slisean to Baghna, and they plundered and burned all that lay between these limits. They then returned back with their herds of kine and many other spoils. O'Rourke was ashamed that the country should have been plundered without his knowledge; and the Governor, Sir Conyers Clifford, was not less grieved that a country, which was under his rule and jurisdiction, should have been thus plundered and burned.


An army was led by Maguire (Hugh, the son of Cuconnaught, son of Cuconnaught), and Cormac, the son of Ferdorcha, son of Con Bacagh O'Neill, at the instance of the O'Farrells, to Mullingar, in Meath, and they preyed the country around them, and totally pillaged Mullingar itself, in which they did not leave in the town any property of gold, silver, copper, iron armour, or foreign wares, or any other thing that could be carried or driven from the town, which they did not take away with them. Upon their return back they set the town in a dark, red blaze and conflagration; and they afterwards returned safe to their homes.


Ellen Butler, the daughter of the Earl of Ormond (Pierce Roe, the son of James, son of Edmond, son of Richard), and wife of the second Earl of Thomond (Donough, the son of Conor, son of Turlough O'Brien), died.


Murtough Ultach Donlevy, the son of John, died at Druim-na-loiste, on the 10th of February, after having passed the eighty-ninth year of his age.


Sir John Norris, who had been the General of the Queen's army in France and Ireland, was deprived of his office by the new Lord Justice, who had last arrived in Ireland, and went to Munster, where he remained with his brother, Sir Thomas Norris, who had been previously President under him of Munster for the period of twelve years. John was seized with a disease and died suddenly


in the autumn of this year; and Sir Thomas was the heir to his property. Sir Thomas continued in the same office after the death of his brother.


Edmond (the son of Ulick-na-gCeann, son of Richard, son of Ulick of Cnoc-Tuagh), of Baile-Hilighi, died in the summer of this year.


Dubhaltach, the son of Tuathal O'Conor, died.


Con and Dermot, the two sons of this Dubhaltach, and the son of Mac Dermot of Moylurg (Mulrony, the son of Brian, was son of Rory, son of Teige), made an irruption into Glinske, the castle of Mac David, and took preys. On their return from the castle with their booty, the son of Mac David came up with them at a sinuous winding of the Suck, and defeated them, and slew Con O'Conor, by no means one of the least expert horsemen in Connaught, Mulrony Mac Dermot, already named, and many other gentlemen. The son of Mac David then returned home in triumph.


Mac William (Theobald, the son of Walter Kittagh) returned to his territory at Allhallowtide this year, and remained in the fastnesses of his country in despite of his enemies. During this time he plundered the Owles. His brother, Thomas, was slain in Clann-Muiris-na-mBrigh, on the same occasion.


John Oge, the son of Rickard, son of John of the Termon, was slain in a nocturnal assault by a party of the Clann-Donnell, on an island of Annies in Finnloch-Ceara.


At the time when the Baron of Inchiquin was lost in Tirconnell, as we have stated, he had in his possession, as his ancestors had before him, lands on the farther brink of the Shannon, called Port-croisi. When the Burkes of the Shannon side, the Clann-William of Aes-tri-Maighe, had heard of the death of the Baron, they resolved, on the authority of an old charter of their ancestors,


to prevent the Baron's family and their mother (i.e. Margaret, the daughter of Thomas Cusack) from working on those lands. A party of the people of Kinel-Fearmaic, the Baron's territory, went to aid and assist Margaret, and she set out with them to her reapers and people to Port-croisi. When the aforesaid Burkes, namely, Thomas, the son of Theobald, son of William, son of Edmond, and Ulick, the son of William, son of Edmond, had learned this, they assembled as large a number as they were able, and attacked Margaret and the Baron's people. A fierce battle was fought between them; and though the Baron's people were few in number, they proceeded valiantly to defend themselves. Several gentlemen were slain between them on both sides. On the side of the Burkes fell Ulick, the son of William, son of Edmond Burke, and three or four other gentlemen. On the other side also there fell Hugh O'Hogan, by no means the least distinguished son of a chieftain, for goodness and wealth, in the county of Clare, with another gentleman, namely, Murrough, the son of Donough, the son of Murrough Roe, son of Brian O'Brien, and the son of Cruise, namely, Thomas, the son of Christopher.


Captain Tyrrell, Captain Nugent, the Kavanaghs, the O'Conors Faly, the O'Mores, and the Gavall-Ranall, were making great war, plunder, and insurrection in Leinster, and in the country of the Butlers, from the festival of the Virgin Mary to the Christmas this year; and it would be tedious to write of all they plundered and destroyed in these territories during this period. On the 7th day of December they slew two bands of soldiers that were stationed in Port-Leix.


About Allhallowtide this year the Governor of Carrickfergus and three


companies of soldiers were slain in Clannaboy by James, the son of Sorley Boy Mac Donnell.


The Mac Sheehys, namely, Murrough Baclamhach, the son of Murrough Balbh, son of Manus Mac Sheehy, with his brother, Rory, and Edmond, the son of Murrough Bacagh, son of Edmond, son of Manus Mac Sheehy, were executed by the English for their war and insurrection.


After the Lord Justice, Thomas Lord Borough, had died of the effects of his wounds at Newry, and the keeping of the regal sword had been given to the Lord Chancellor and to Sir Robert Gardiner, Justice of the King's Queen's Bench, as we have stated, the person who was appointed to the generalship of war and peace in Ireland was the Earl of Ormond (Thomas, the son of James, son of Pierce Roe), and therefore an armistice was concluded between this Earl and the chiefs of the province of Ulster. Not long after this namely, in the month of December, and shortly before Christmas, this Earl of Ormond and the Earl of Thomond (Donough, the son of Conor), went into the province of Ulster, where they and O'Neill and O'Donnell passed three nights together at one place; and a treaty concerning a peace was carried on by those Earls, on behalf of the Queen, with the Irish of Leath-Chuinn; and the issue of their meeting was, that a peace was made between the English and the Irish, on the oath of these Earls, until the May following. The proposals and writings of the Irish aforesaid, and an account of the articles and conditions on which they would accept of peace for themselves and their confederates in the war, in every place where they were seated, were dispatched to the Queen to England by the Earl of Thomond; and whatever news should arrive from England in May should be acted upon here.


O'Conor Sligo (Donough, the son of Cathal Oge) went to England a short time before the Christmas of this year.



As for the Baron of Inchiquin, of whom we have already spoken as having been wounded and drowned when the Governor and the aforesaid Earls were crossing the Erne with their forces, his body was taken up by Cormac O'Clery, one of the monks of the monastery of Assaroe, and the body was buried by him, with due honour, in the monastery. In consequence of this a dispute and contention arose between the friars of Donegal and the monks of Assaroe; the friars maintaining that the body should be of right buried in their own monastery, because the ancestors of the Baron had been for a long period before that time buried in the Franciscan monastery in his own country, and the monks insisting that it should remain with themselves; so that the friars and the monks went before O'Donnell, and the two Bishops who were then in the country, namely, Redmond O'Gallagher, Bishop of Derry, and Niall 0'Boyle, Bishop of Raphoe, and these chiefs, decided upon having the Baron, Murrough. the son of Murrough O'Brien, buried in the monastery of St. Francis at Donegal. This was accordingly done, for the body was taken up at the end of three months after its interment in the monastery of Assaroe, and the friars reburied it in their own monastery with reverence and honour, as was meet.


O'Conor Don (Hugh, the son of Dermot, son of Carbry), who had been for a long time imprisoned by O'Donnell, was set at liberty by him on the 4th of December, after he O'Conor had given him his full demand; and he solemnly bound himself to be for ever obedient to O'Donnell, by guarantees and oaths of God and the Church; and he also delivered up to him, as hostages for the fulfilment of this, namely, his own two sons, the heir of O'Beirne, the eldest son of O'Hanly, and the heir of O'Flynn, &c.