Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition
Annals of the Four Masters (Author: [unknown])

Annal M1531


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1531. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred thirty-one.


Tuathal, the son of O'Neill, i.e. the son of Art, son of Con, was taken prisoner by O'Neill, i.e. by Con, the son of Con.



Mac Carthy Reagh (Donnell, the son of Fineen, son of Dermot), Lord of Hy-Carbery, a man of good jurisdiction and rule, and of great hospitality and prowess, a man who had given a general invitation of hospitality to all those in Ireland who sought gifts, died.


Donough, the son of Turlough, son of Teige O'Brien, Tanist of Thomond, a man of hospitality and nobleness, died.


The son of O'Doherty, i.e. Niall, the son of Owen Carragh, died.


Con, the son of John Boy Mac Mahon, was slain by Mac Mahon and the sons of Brian Mac Mahon.


Owen, the son of Gilla-Patrick Oge Maguire, was killed by his brother, Edmond.


Conor, the son of Cathal, son of Don Maguire, was slain by the people of Iochtar-tire.


O'Flanagan of Tuath-Ratha (Manus, the son of Gilbert, son of Cormac), distinguished for his nobleness, and the keeper of a house of hospitality, died on the 25th of February; and Gilla-Isa, the son of Turlough, was styled O'Flanagan.


Murtough, the son of Conor Mac Coghlan, Prior of Gailinn, and Vicar of Liath-Manchain, was treacherously slain by Turlough Oge O'Melaghlin and Rury.


Dermot, the son of John, son of Hugh, the most noble and humane of the descendants of Hugh, son of Mulrony Mac Donough, died.


Cormac, the son of Cathal Oge, son of Cathal Mac Manus, illustrious for his house of hospitality, died.


Tuathal, the son of O'Donnellan of Machaire-Maenmaighe, and Gilla-Patrick, the son of Adam Mac Ward, died.


An irruption was made by the son of Maguire (Cormac) into Kinel-Farry. He there took a prey from the son of Brian O'Neill, and the son of Brian himself was slain in pursuit of the prey; and the son of Maguire carried off the prey.



An army was led by the English Lord Justice, the Earl of Kildare, and the chiefs of the Irish recte English of Ireland, into Tyrone, at the instance of O'Donnell and Niall Oge O'Neill, and of the descendants of Hugh O'Neill; and they burned Tyrone from Dungal to Abhainn-mhor, demolished the new castle of Port-an-Fhaileagain, and plundered and burned the country of Brian-na-Moicheirghe. Monaghan was left empty to them. O'Donnell and Niall set out to join that English army at Kinard, and demolished the castle of Kinard; but, O'Neill being near them with a very numerous army, they dared not advance further into Tyrone; so that these hosts returned to their several homes, O'Neill not having come to terms of peace or armistice with them.


Rory Gallda (the Anglicised), son of O'Neill, was taken prisoner by O'Neill (Con, the son of Con).


Hugh Oge, the son of Thomas, son of Thomas, son of Gilla-Duv Maguire, died, after having gained the victory over the Devil and the world.


James O'Flanagan, the son of the Parson of Innis, a man of great name and renown in his own country, died.


Baile-Ui-Donnghaile was assaulted by Niall Oge, son of Art, son of Con O'Neill. He demolished the castle; and he made a prisoner of the son of O'Neill, who was foster-son of O'Donnelly, and carried him off, together with the horses and the other spoils of the town.


The castle of Belleek was taken by Hugh Boy O'Donnell, from which followed the disturbance of Tirconnell.


Maguire proceeded with an army into Tirconnell, at the instance of O'Donnell, for O'Donnell's sons were at strife with each other, from fear that the one


might attain to the chieftainship in preference to the other, after their father's death; for the name and renown of Manus O'Donnell had spread not only through all Tirconnell, but through external territories; and he was oppressing his own kindred. O'Donnell was afraid that they would commit fratricide upon each other, and that his own power would, in consequence, be weakened, wherefore he had invited Maguire to come to him, to see whether they could reconcile Manus with his relatives through friendship and brotherly love. Maguire and Hugh Boy O'Donnell afterwards marched with their troops until they arrived at the River Fin; and they plundered all the territory that was under the jurisdiction of Manus, from border to border. Manus at this time was on the Green of Castlefinn, with all his forces assembled; and the sons of Manus, with a party of their people, set out across Scairbh-Begoige, opposite the town castle, to await and meet the army that was advancing towards them. They were routed by Maguire and Hugh Boy, and forced to retreat, into the castle for protection. One of the O'Gallaghers, belonging to Manus's cavalry, made a thrust of a spear at Turlough, the son of Donough, son of Brian, son of Philip Maguire, who escaped, severely wounded, and was then carried to his house, where he died at the end of three nights, after the victory of penance. They all then returned to their several fortresses.

Annal M1532


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1532. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred thirty-two.


Thomas, the son of Pierce Roe, Earl of Ormond, was slain in Ossory by Dermot MacGillapatrick, who was heir to the lordship of Ossory. Not long after this, Dermot was delivered up by his own brother (the Mac Gillapatrick) to the Earl, by whom he was fettered, in revenge of his son and of every other misdeed which Dermot had committed against him up to that time.



O'Carroll (Mulrony), the most distinguished man of his own tribe for generosity, valour, prosperity, and renown; a man to whom the poets, the exiled, the clergy, and the learned, were indebted; who had gathered and bestowed more wealth than any other person of his stock; a protecting hero to all; the guiding, firm helm of his tribe; a triumphant traverser of tribes; a jocund and majestic Munster champion; a precious stone; a carbuncle gem; the anvil of the solidity, and the golden pillar of the Elyans, died in his own fortress, on the festival of St. Matthew the Evangelist; and his son, Ferganainm, was inaugurated in his place. On that very day, and before the death of Mulrony, his sons defeated the Earl of Ormond and the sons of John O'Carroll, who were deprived of many men and horses, and of cannon called falcons, in consequence of which the ford at which the defeat was given was called Bel-atha-na-bhfabhcún; and this was Mulrony's last victory. His son, Ferganaimn (as we have already stated), was styled the O'Carroll, in preference to his seniors, the sons of John O'Carroll. Many evils resulted to the country in consequence of this, for the sons of John first took the castle of Birr, and plundered the country out of it. The son of the parson O Carroll was slain on the Green of Birr by Teige Caech, the son of O'Carroll. After this O'Carroll drew his cliamhain father-in-law, the Earl of Kildare, Lord Justice of Ireland, against


the sons of John; and they took the castle of Cill-Iurin, the castle of Eaglais, and the castle of Baile-an-duna. They afterwards sat round Birr; and a fight was continued between them and the warders of the castle, until a ball, fired from the castle, entered the side of the Earl, but this circumstance was kept secret until the castle was taken. The Earl returned home,and the ball remained in him until the following spring, when it came out at his other side.


It was in commemoration of the year of the death of Mulrony O'Carroll that the following quatrain was composed:

  1. One thousand and five hundred years,
    Twenty years and twelve beside,
    From the birth of Christ who saved us
    To the autumn when O'Carroll died.


Owen, the son of Tiernan, son of Owen O'Rourke, a distinguished gentleman, was slain by O'Mulvey and his kinsmen, in the monastery of Druim-da-Ethiar Dromahaire.


Turlough, the son of Mac Clancy, was killed by his own two brothers, on the threshold of Mac Clancy's mansion; and Brian O'Rourke destroyed much in Dartry, on account i.e. in revenge of this killing.


Mary, the daughter of Mac Sweeny Fanad, and wife of O'Boyle, died suddenly, after having been thrown from her horse, at the door of her own mansion, on the 21st of April.


Mac Quillin (Walter, the son of Garrett) was killed in the church of Dunbo; and Conor, the son of O'Kane, a rich and affluent man, was burned in it, and Mac Con-Uladh (viz. James, the son of Art Mac Con-Uladh) was taken prisoner by the son of Donnell Cleireach O'Kane.



The Coarb of Fenagh, i.e. Brian, died.


Cormac O'Hultachain, Erenach of Achadh-Beithe Aghavea, died.


Magauran, son of Manus, son of Thomas, Chief of Teallach-Eachdhach Tullyhaw, died.


John, the son of Philip, son of Turlough, son of Philip Maguire, was killed with one stab of a knife dagger by Donnell, the son of Maguire, i.e. by the son of Cuconnaught, son of Brian, son of Philip.


O'Mulconry (Torna, the son of Torna) died; and Conor, the son of Donnell Roe, was styled O'Mulconry in his place. He, too, died shortly afterward.


O'Donnell and Maguire went to the English Lord Justice, William Skeffington, and after they had formed a league of mutual friendship and amity with each other, the Lord Justice went with them into Tyrone. The castle of Dungannon was broken down and the country was ravaged.


The Earl of Kildare (Garrett, the son of Garrett) came to Ireland from the King as Lord Justice.


O'Donnell proceeded to Moylurg with his forces, being accompanied by Mac Donnell, namely, Alexander, the son of John Cahanagh. O'Donnell plundered and burned Moylurg, until at last Mac Dermot gave him his own demand that he might be at peace with him.


The sons of O'Neill, i.e. the sons of Art Oge, namely, Donnell and Tuathal, who had been for a long time detained in captivity by the other O'Neill, were hanged by him.


The castle of Ard-na-riagh Ardnarea was taken by the sons of O'Dowda from the sons of John Burke, in consequence of which a war arose between them and the descendants of Richard Burke, and many depredations and slaughters were committed on both sides.


Great depredations and desperate ravages were committed by Niall Oge O'Neill upon Ruibilin Mac Donnell, and he carried the spoils into Fermanagh.


Cormac, the son of Maguire, was treacherously taken prisoner by the sons of O'Neill, namely, by Ferdoragh, the son of Con, son of Con, and Felim Doibhlenach, the son of Art Oge, son of Con O'Neill. A party of his cavalry vere slain, and, among the rest, William, the son of Dermot, son of Cormac


Mac Caffry, and Gilla-Ballagh, the son of Henry Boy Mac Caffry, and many others. Several were also taken prisoners; but, though the sons of O'Neill were victorious, they did not return scathless, for the greater part of their people were severely beaten and wounded, and among the rest Felim, the son of O'Neill.

Annal M1533


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1533. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred thirty-three.


Mac Dermot of Moylurg (Dermot, the son of Rory Mac Dermot) was treacherously slain by the sons of Owen, son of Teige Mac Dermot; and Owen, the son of Teige, assumed the lordship after him.


O'Molloy (Donnell Caech, the son of Cosnamhach), Lord of Fircall, was treacherously slain on the Green of Lann-Ealla by his own brother, Cucogry, and Art, his brother's son; and his brother, Cahir, was styled O'Molloy.


Felim Bacagh, the son of Niall, son of Con O'Neill, died.


The two sons of Felim, the son of Rory Bacagh O'Neill, were slain by Manus O'Donnell.


Edmond, the son of Con, son of Niall, son of Art O'Neill, was slain by the sons of Maguire.


The castle of Sligo was taken by Teige Oge, the son of Teige Oge, son of Hugh O'Conor, by means of a nocturnal assault, the warders of the castle having betrayed it and surrendered it to them.


The castle of Ard-na-riagh Ardnarea was likewise taken at night by the sons of Thomas Burke, from the sons of O'Dowda.


A great depredation was committed by O'Donnell upon O'Hara Boy, between the two rivers, because the latter had been disobedient to him.


Niall, son of Murrough Mac Sweeny, was slain on the bridge of Sligo. He was the best and most renowned youth of his own tribe.


Murtough, son of Felim, who was son of Turlough Carragh O'Conor, was


hanged by O'Donnell on the Green of the castle of Eanach, his sons and relatives having previously refused to give up the castle for his ransom.


The Earl of Kildare went a second time into Ely, to assist Ferganainm O'Carroll, to Suidhe-an-roin; and he laid siege to the castle, on which occasion he lost a good constable of his people; and, having taken the castle, he returned home. Owny Carragh, son of John, was styled O'Carroll in opposition to Ferganainm, in consequence of which internal dissensions arose in Ely.


Cormac Mac Coghlan, Lord of Clann-Conor, died.


Cahir Mac Coghlan, Erenagh of Clonmacnoise, died.

Annal M1534


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1534. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred thirty-four.


O'Conor Roe (Teige Boy, the son of Cathal Roe) died; and his son, i.e. Turlough Roe, was styled O'Conor.


Mac Dermot of Moylurg (Owen) died in the Rock of Lough Key, after having been a year in the lordship, during which time Moylurg was in a state of disturbance and commotion. The Abbot of Boyle was then styled Mac Dermot, namely, Hugh, the son of Cormac Mac Dermot. The sons of Teige Mac Dermot however took the Rock from him, and the country was not less disturbed during his time.


Owen, son of Hugh, son of Niall, son of Con, the best man of the descendants of Hugh Boy O'Neill, was slain with a cast of a dart by a party of Scots, on Loch Cuan.


Turlough Duv O'Dempsey was treacherously killed by his own kinsman, Murtough Oge O'Dempsey, although he was under the protection of God and St. Evin. Murtough Oge was slain himself soon afterwards by O'More, through the miracles of God and St. Evin.


O'Gallagher, i.e. Edmond, the son of John, son of Tuathal, died suddenly.


Cormac, the son of Farrell Mac Ward, a learned poet, the best of his tribe in his time for alms-deeds and humanity, died, after unction and penance.



Mulmurry Mac Keogh, intended Ollav of Leinster in poetry, a learned man, skilled in various arts, who kept a good house of hospitality, was accidentally killed by his mother's brothers, the sons of O'Toole.


Manus Boy O'Duigennan was strangled in the night by his own wife.


Great complaints and accusations were transmitted from the chiefs of the English of Ireland and from the Council, to the King, Henry VIII., of England, against the Lord Justice (i.e. the Earl of Kildare, Garrett Oge, the son of Garrett, son of Thomas, commander of the strength and power of Ireland); and the Earl went over to the King, to vindicate his conduct before him, but it was of no avail, for he was taken and confined in the tower, where he remained for one year, and they were exerting the rigours of the law against him. The Earl Garrett, on his departure for England, left the sword of the King with his son, Thomas. Others however say that it was William Skeffington who succeeded Garrett in the office of Lord Justice.

Annal M1535


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1535. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred thirty five.


The Earl of Kildare, Lord Justice of Ireland (Garrett Oge), the son of Garrett, son of Thomas, the most illustrious of the English and Irish of Ireland in his time, for not only had his name and renown spread through all Ireland, but his fame and exalted character were heard of in distant countries of foreign nations, died in captivity in London. After which his son, Thomas, proceeded to avenge his father upon the English and all who had been instrumental in removing him from Ireland. He resigned the King's sword, and did many injuries to the English. The Archbishop of Dublin came by his death through


him, for he had been opposed to his father: many others were slain along with him. He took Dublin from Newgate outwards, and pledges and hostages were given him by the rest of the town through fear of him. The son of the Earl on this occasion totally plundered and devastated Fingall from Slieve Roe to Drogheda, and made all Meath as it were tremble beneath his feet. When the King had received intelligence of this he sent relief to the English, namely, William Skeffington, as Lord Justice, and Leonard Gray, with a great fleet, and these proceeded to plunder all (the territory) that was under the jurisdiction of the Earl's son. They afterwards took Magh Nuadhat, Thomas's town, and expelled himself from his territory. His father's five brothers also rose up against Thomas, to assist the English, namely, James Meirgeach, Oliver, John, Walter, and Richard, for they thought that if Thomas were conquered one of themselves might obtain the earldom. When the aforesaid Englishmen were not able to make a prisoner of Thomas (after having taken his manors and towns from him, and driven him for an asylum to the Irish of the south of Ireland, especially to the O'Briens and O'Conor Faly, who all were a firm and powerful bulwark against them, and at war with them) they resolved in council to proffer him a pretended peace, and take him by treachery; whereupon they sent Lord Leonard to the Earl's son, who promised pardon on behalf of the king, so that he coaxed him with him to England, where he was immediately seized and placed in the King's tower, in bondage and captivity. Lord Leonard returned to Ireland; and the Lord Justice of lreland William Skeffington, having died, he assumed his place, and he took to him the sons of


Garrett, the son of Thomas, the Great Earl of Kildare, namely, James Meirgeach, Oliver, John, Walter, and Richard, and they were for some time in his company and friendship. They were however finally seized on, they being under his protection, and sent to the King of England; and they were immediately clapped into the King's tower, in which was also the heir to the earldom, i.e. Thomas; and there were they all six!


Egneghan, the son of Donnell O'Donnell, was slain by the sons of O'Boyle.


The daughter of O'Neill and wife of Manus O'Donnell, namely, Judith, daughter of Con, son of Henry, son of Owen, died on the 21st of August, in the middle of her age and affluence. She was the most renowned woman for her years of her time for piety and hospitality, for she was only forty-two years of age when she resigned her spirit, and was honourably buried in the monastery of St. Francis at Donegal.


Mac Sweeny of Tir-Boghaine (Mulmurry More, the son of Niall Mac Sweeny) was treacherously slain by his own brother, Niall, at the door of Mac Sweeny's castle of Rathain, on the festival of SS. Peter and Paul.


Ferdoragh Mac Coghlan, Lord of Delvin Eathra, died, and Felim, the son of Meyler Mac Coghlan, took his place.


Fineen, the son of Conla Mac Coghlan, was slain by Ferganainm, son ot Ferdoragh.


Murtough Mac Donough, the son of Murrough, and his two sons, John Glas and Farrell, were slain at Magh-Imleach by O'Hara Boy, having been first deceitfully betrayed by one of their own people.


Mac Auliffe gained a great battle, in which were slain the Lord of Claenglais and Mac Gibbon, with a large battalion of the Clann-Sheehy. Maelmurry, son of Brian Mac Sweeny, was slain in the commencement and fury of the conflict.



Melaghlin, the son of Carbry O'Beirne, was slain by the sons of Cathal, son of Mac Dermot.

Annal M1536


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1536. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred thirty-six.


The monastery of Druim-da-ethiar Dromahaire was accidentally burned in the night, while all were asleep, and Eremon O'Donnell, a Friar Minor, was burned within it, and a great quantity of property was also destroyed in it.


Many diseases and maladies raged in this year, namely, a general plague, galar-breac, the flux, and fever, of which many died.


Cormac Oge, the son of Cormac, son of Teige Mac Carthy, the choice of the Irish of Leath-Mhogha, died, after having gained the victory over the Devil and the world, and was interred at Kilcrea.


Mac William of Clanrickard (John, son of Rickard, son of Edmond) died; and a great war broke out in Clanrickard, concerning the lordship; two Mac Williams were nominated in the country, namely, Richard Bacagh, the son of Ulick, was called Mac William, and Ulick, son of Richard Oge, was called Mac William also. On this occasion Ulick-na-gCeann sided with Richard Bacagh.


O'Reilly (Farrell, the son of John, son of Cathal), Lord of Hy-Briuin and Conmaicne, a generous, potent, upright, and truly hospitable man, died, after receiving the communion and sacrifice.


Mac Clancy, Chief of Dartry (Feradhach, the son of William), died. He was a charitable and humane man.


Thomas O'Higgin, Chief Preceptor of the men of Ireland and Scotland in poetry, died.


Felim, the son of Felim O'Rourke, died in captivity with Brian, the son of Owen, son of Tiernan O'Rourke.


Cathal, the son of Johnin, son of John O'Mulmoghery a constantly-spending and lastingly-affluent man, died.



The chiefs of Lower i.e. north Connaught, namely, Teige Oge, the son of Teige, who was son of Hugh; Teige, the son of Cathal Oge O'Conor; the Clann-Donough, and the sons of O'Dowda, went on an excursion against the descendants of Richard Burke, at the instance of the Bishop Barrett. The spoils of the country fled i.e. were carried before them to the Termon of St. Tiernan of Errew, but the bishop took them out of the Termon to the army, and the spoils were not restored in honour of the saint.


Teige Oge, the son of Teige, son of Hugh, son of Turlough Carragh O'Conor, was styled O'Conor. He was the first man of the descendants of Brian Luighneach, in Lower Connaught, who was styled O'Conor, for he who until then had the leadership, or chief command, of that tribe was styled Mac Donnell Mic Murtough; and it was for sake of honour, and in order to outshine the lords who had preceded him that he made that change in the name. This new O'Conor and the son of Cathal Oge O'Conor made an incursion against the Clann-Costello; but they seized on no prey, and as they did not obtain any spoils, they encamped around Kilcolman, the town i.e. mansion of the son of Rury Mac Costello, who came to O'Conor, and delivered himself into his hands, on condition that O'Conor would spare his town, and presented to O'Conor a grand coat of mail which he had, namely, the coat of mail of Mac Feorais. O'Conor then returned to Sligo with this hostage and purposing to keep him in pledge for a full ransom for him.


At this time war and contentions arose between O'Donnell and all the chieftains of Lower Connaught, with the single exception of Brian, the son of Owen O'Rourke, who did not, on this occasion, join either side. An army was, therefore, mustered by O'Donnell and his sons (excepting Manus alone, who did not come into his father's army on this expedition, because he was biassed by O'Neill). Into this army of O'Donnell came Maguire (Cuconnaught); the son of O'Neill (Niall Oge, the son of Art); and the son of O'Reilly (Hugh, the


son of Maelmora), with O'Reilly's rising out. Into this muster of O'Donnell came also, as usual, the Mac Sweenys and the O'Boyles. These forces marched from Ballyshannon in the afternoon, and pitched their camp that night between the rivers Duff and Drowes; and there having taken dinner and refreshments they sent guards and sentinels to watch the pass between them and Magh gCeidne, for they were afraid that the O'Conors, with all their forces, might surprise them that night in their camp, inasmuch as they were then all assembled in a flaming body at Sligo, threatening to give battle to O'Donnell as soon as they should meet him. The first person who went out to watch for the army was O'Boyle (Niall, the son of Turlough), who supposed that his enemies would soon come up to him, and that he would be able to wreak his vengeance upon them. But the people of Hugh Boy, the son of O'Donnell, went at the same time, without giving notice to O'Boyle, or his people, to guard another pass. Both parties met, and, neither of them recognising the other, they proceeded to strike at each other. Fiercely and resolutely did O'Boyle fight in this skirmish against his enemies (as he thought), and he unsparingly cut off great numbers of the opposite host; but as he was slaughtering them in this manner, they formed a huge circle around him, so that he at last met his death from his own true and faithful friends, on the second of the Calends of August, * * * day of the week. The death of the person being the here slain, i.e. Niall, the son of Turlough, was a cause of great grief to the poor and indigent, and to the literati and the kerns. Although O'Donnell was much grieved at this lamentable occurrence, it did not, nevertheless, prevent his projected expedition, but he marched onward as far as Finfir. A party of Cathal Oge's O'Conor's cavalry, composed of the O'Hartes, set out for Braghait-Chuillighe, and a troop of O'Donnell's cavalry marched likewise against them; and they met at Bealach-Duin-iarainn, where a skirmish ensued, in which a distinguished horseman of the O'Hartes was slain, whereupon both parties withdrew for that time. O'Donnell remained within his own camp that night, and


on the morrow marched on to Fearsat-Reanna-an-Liagain, to cross over into Cuil-irrae. O'Conor was at Sligo, preparing his people to march against O'Donnell to the same Fearsat, to prevent his crossing it. While the tide was full both armies were reconnoitering and observing each other. O'Conor seeing that he had not equal forces with O'Donnell's, and being, together with his army, seized with terror and awe at the sight of the arrangement and array of his O'Donnell's troops, and the position of his cannon, and other military engines, on the borders of the Fearsat, resolved not to come to an engagement with him at that place, but to wait until he should find him less prepared somewhere else. O'Donnell crossed the Fearsat without meeting any opposition, it being left without defence, without guard against him. Some of the chieftains of Lower Connaught sent a party to skirmish with O'Donnell's army; but they were responded to and opposed by the other host, and one who was a great loss to the Mac Donoughs, namely, Malachy, the son of Teige, son of Rory, was killed on that occasion with the shot of a ball. Another horseman of O'Donnell's people, namely, James Ballagh, the son of Niall, son of John O'Donnell, was slain by a thrust of a spear. They withdrew from each other then; and O'Donnell proceeded into the country of the descendants of Brian O'Conor, and remained for three nights destroying and burning the country; and O'Conor was all this time encamped near him, at Bel-an-droichit. After this O'Donnell marched westwards across the Strand, into Tireragh of the Moy; and his army did extensively destroy the corn and many towns, for the country was in their power, except a few of its castles. The forces seized on many cows around Sliabh Gamh; they marched westwards across the River Moy, at the instance of the descendants of Rickard Burke, in pursuit of a party of the creaghts of the sons of O'Dowda. On this occasion the daughter of Walter Burke, the wife of Owen O'Dowda, was taken by them, with her property.


So immense were the preys and spoils obtained by O'Donnell's army on that expedition, that two beeves used to be given for a bonn in his camp at that time. Mac Dermot, the sons of Teige Mac Dermot, and the sons of Mac David, came to aid the people of Lower Connaught against O'Donnell. O'Donnell, after having accomplished his intentions in Tireragh on that expedition, prepared to return home. The chiefs of Lower Connaught, and all those who joined their muster, were resolved and prepared to come to an engagement with O'Donnell, on his return; they did not, however, give him battle, but merely came to a slight skirmish with him at Fearsat-Reanna-an-Liagan. (This place is called Rinn-Liagain from Liagan, a heroic warrior of the Fomorians, who was slain there by Lugh the Longhanded, as he was on his way to the battle of Magh-Tuireadh, and from him it is named). It was in this skirmish, while O'Donnell's army was crossing the Fearsat, that a horseman of the people of Cathal Oge O'Conor, namely, Hugh Ballagh, the son of Brian, son of Hugh O'Conor, was slain; and the son of Mac Dermot, namely, Hugh, the son of Owen, son of Teige Mac Dermot, was also severely wounded. O'Donnell returned home, without obtaining rent or tribute, submission or homage, from the chiefs of Lower Connaught, on that occasion, which was unusual with him.


Donough, the son of Teige, son of Rory, son of Conor, son of Tomaltagh, son of Maurice, son of Donough, was styled Mac Donough, before the death of Mac Donough himself, namely, Owen, son of Donough, son of Murrough, who, however, was in the decline of his life, and had lost his sight. A war broke out between the sons of Owen and the new Mac Donough, concerning the lordship; but nothing remarkable was destroyed in the contests between them.


An army was led by O'Conor Sligo; Brian, the son of O'Rourke; and by the son of Cathal Oge O'Conor, at the instance of Mac Dermot and the sons of


Teige Mac Dermot, against Turlough Roe, the son of Teige Boy, son of Cathal Roe O'Conor. They desolated the Cluainte, as well ecclesiastical as lay possessions. From thence they marched into the Tuathas, where the O'Hanlys gave them pledges and hostages in behalf of their country ; and from thence they passed into Hy-Many, where they spoiled and completely plundered every one who was the friend of O'Conor Roe, save only those whom the son of O'Rourke protected, for it was not to destroy that O'Rourke had gone thither, but to establish a peace between Mac Dermot and his kindred on the one side, and O'Conor Roe and all his allies on the other. These troops took the castle of Turraic, and demolished it. Donough, the son of Edmond O'Kelly, came and surrendered himself as a hostage, lest they should destroy his country. These troops then returned, having accomplished their expedition as was pleasing to them; and they took with them to Sligo those hostages, namely, the son of O'Kelly and the son of O'Hanly; and they also carried with them the variegated door of the castle which they had taken, in order to place it as a door to the castle of Sligo.


The English Justiciary marched with an army into Munster, where he took Carrac-O-Cainnell, and broke down the bridge of Murrough O'Brien. Some assert that the son of Donough O'Brien was a party to inducing the Chief Justice to go on this expedition.


Brian, son of Owen, who was son of Tiernan O'Rourke, was styled the O'Rourke; and he pulled down Caislen-an-chairthe now Castlecar.


Donnell, the son of Donough O'Kelly, a distinguished captain, and Tanist of Hy-Many from Caraidh to Grian, and Egneghan, the son of Melaghlin, son of Donough, his nephew, were both treacherously slain by Melaghlin, the son of William, son of Melaghlin O'Kelly, in the Feadha of Athlone, at the instigation of the sons of Donnell's own brother, namely, the sons of Teige, son of Donough O'Kelly.


The sons of Mac William of Clanrickard, John Duv and Redmond Roe, the


two sons of Rickard, son of Ulick, were slain by the sons of the other Mac William, namely, the sons of Rickard Oge, they being overtaken in a pursuit, after they had gathered the preys of the country.


Mac Costello (John, son of Gilla-Duv), a bountiful and truly hospitable man, a captain distinguished for noble feats, was treacherously slain by a party of his own tribe.


O'Conor Faly (Brian, the son of Cahir) was banished from his country, and all his castles were demolished; and numbers of his people were slain, during the taking of them, by the English Lord Justice, i.e. Lord Leonard. And this was done through the envy and machinations of Cathal Roe, O'Conor's own brother.


Donough O'Carroll deposed Ferganainm, and Owny Carragh, his own brother, and deprived both of the lordship.

Annal M1537


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1537. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred thirty-seven.


A war broke out between Hugh Boy O'Donnell and Manus O'Donnell. The sons of O'Boyle sided with Hugh, who was in the castle of Donegal. In consequence of this dissension between the sons of O'Donnell, a great commotion arose in Tirconnell, during which a party of the descendants of the Bishop O'Gallagher were slain by the sons of O'Boyle, namely, the son of Turlough Oge, son of Brian, and the two sons of Owen Ballagh, the son of Brian, and others besides these.


O'Donnell (Hugh, the son of Hugh Roe, son of Niall Garv, son of Turlough of the Wine, Lord of Tirconnell, Inishowen, Kinel-Moen, Fermanagh, and Lower Connaught), died; he was a man to whom rents and tributes were paid by other territories over which he had extended his jurisdiction and power, such as Moylurg, Machaire-Chonnacht, Clann-Conway, Costello, Galleanga, Tirawly,


and Conmaicne-Cuile, to the west; and to the east, Oireacht-Ui-Chathain, the Route, and Clannaboy; for of these there was not one territory that had not given him presents, besides his tribute of protections. It was this man also that compelled the four lords who ruled Tyrone during his time to give him new charters of Inishowen, Kinel-Moen, and Fermanagh, as a further confirmation of the old charters which his ancestors had held as a proof of their title for these countries; so that he quietly and peaceably had lordship over them, and commanded their rising-out. This was not to be wondered at, for never was victory seen with his enemies, never did he retreat one foot from any army, small or great; he was the represser of evil deeds and evil customs, the destroyer and banisher of rebels and thieves, an enforcer of the laws and ordinances after the justest manner; a man in whose reign the seasons were favourable, so that sea and land were productive; a man who established every one in his country in his proper hereditary possessions, that no one of them might bear enmity towards another; a man who did not suffer the power of the English to come into his country, for he formed a league of peace and friendship with the King of England, when he saw that the Irish would not yield superiority to any one among themselves, but that friends and blood relations contended against one another; a man who duly protected their termon lands for the friars, churches, poets, and ollavs. The aforesaid O'Donnell (Hugh, the son of Hugh Roe) died on the 5th of July, being Wednesday, in the monastery of Donegal, having first taken upon him the habit of St. Francis, and having wept for his crimes and iniquities, and done penance for his sins and transgressions. He was buried in the same monastery with great honour and solemnity, as was meet; and Manus O'Donnell was inaugurated in his place by the successors of St. Columbkille, with the permission and by the advice of the nobles of Tirconnell, both lay and ecclesiastical.



Maguire (Cuconnaught, the son of Cuconnaught, son of Brian, son of Philip), Lord of Fermanagh, a charitable and humane man, the most renowned for dexterity of hand, nobleness, and hospitality, that came of the race of the Collas for a long period of time; who had brought under his jurisdiction that tract of country from Clones to Cael-Uisge; the suppressor of thieves and evil-doers; a man who possessed happiness and affluence in his time, was, on the 8th of October, treacherously slain on Creachan, an island in Lough Erne, belonging to the Friars, by the descendants of Thomas Maguire, and the descendants of Turlough, i.e. by Flaherty, the son of Philip, son of Turlough Maguire. He was first buried in Devenish, but was sometime afterward disinterred by the Friars Minor, who carried him to the monastery of Donegal, and there interred him in a becoming manner.


An army was led by O'Neill (Con) into Trian-Chongail Clannaboy, and spoiled and plundered a great part of the country; the son of O'Neill, however, was taken prisoner in the rear of the army, at Belfast. O'Neill then returned to his house.


Niall Oge, the son of Niall, son of Con O'Neill, Lord of Trian-Chongail Clannaboy, died suddenly at that time; and O'Neill returned again into Trian-Chongail. and obtained his son, who was in captivity; and dissensions and contentions afterwards arose in Trian-Chongail concerning the lordship.


Niall, the son of Hugh, son of Niall, son of Con, son of Hugh Boy, heir to the lordship of Trian-Chongail, a man who was likely to follow in the wake of his ancestors in nobleness and hospitality, and in the patronage of the learned and the destitute, was slain by the Scots.


The son of O'Reilly (Brian, the son of Farrell), a great loss in his own country, was slain by the people of the English Lord Justice, who came to commit ravages in Clann-Mahon.


The son of Mac Sweeny (Mulmurry) was slain by the sons of Murrough Mac Sweeny.


An army was led by O'Donnell (Manus) into Lower Connaught, in the month of September; and he destroyed much corn, and traversed and burned all Lower Connaught, namely, Carbury, Tireragh, the two Leynys, Corran,


and Tirrerill. On this occasion the town castle of O'Hara Reagh was taken by O'Donnell; and having got O'Hara himself in his power, he extended to him mercy and protection, and carried him away as a hostage to his own house.


O'Gara (Owen, the son of Dermot, son of Owen), Lord of Coolavin, died.


Teige, the son of Hugh, son of Mac Consnamha, Chief of Muintir-Kenny, died.


The son of O'Reilly (Cahir Modardha, the son of John, son of Cathal) was slain by the English on a pursuit.


The son of O'Doherty (Niall Caech, the son of Gerald, son of Donnell, son of Felim) was slain in a nocturnal assault by Rury, son of Felim O'Doherty, at Baile-na-gCananach, in the Termon of Derry.


O'Flanagan of Tuath-Ratha (Gilla-Isa) and his son were slain by his own tribe; and many other misdeeds were done in Fermanagh, both by burning and plundering, after the death of Maguire.


Depredations and burnings were committed by Calvagh O'Donnell in Clanawley; and another depredation was committed by him on O'Kane.


O'Conor Faly obtained the dominion of his own territory again, contrary to the will of the English Lord Justice and his own relatives, the sons of O'Conor; and many of their people were slain by him.


The son of O'Melaghlin (James, son of Murrough) was slain by the son of O'Conor Faly. He was the most illustrious and triumphant of his tribe in his time.


Turlough Cleireach, i.e. the O'Melaghlin, was slain in Calry, by the sons of Felim, namely, Kedagh and Connell; and Art O'Melaghlin took the place of O'Melaghlin.


Thomas, the son of the Earl of Kildare, the best man of the English of Ireland


in his time, and his father's five brothers, whom we have already mentioned, namely, James Meirgeach, Oliver, John, Walter, and Richard, were put to death in England on the 3rd of the Nones of February; and all the Geraldines of Leinster were exiled and banished. The earldom of Kildare was vested in the King ; and every one of the family who was apprehended, whether lay or ecclesiastical, was tortured and put to death. These were great losses, and the cause of lamentation throughout Ireland.


A heresy and a new error sprang up in England, through pride, vain-glory, avarice, and lust, and through many strange sciences, so that the men of England went into opposition to the Pope and to Rome. They at the same time adopted various opinions, and among others the old law of Moses, in imitation of the Jewish people; and they styled the king the Chief Head of the Church of God in his own kingdom. New laws and statutes were enacted by the king and Council Parliament according to their own will. They destroyed the orders to whom worldly possessions were allowed, namely, the Monks, Canons, Nuns, Brethren of the Cross, and the four poor orders, i.e. the orders of the Minors, Preachers, Carmelites, and Augustinians; and the lordships and livings of all these were taken up for the King. They broke down the monasteries, and sold their roofs and bells, so that from Aran of the Saints to the Iccian Sea there was not one monastery that was not broken and shattered, with the exception of a few in Ireland, of which the English took no


notice or heed. They afterwards burned the images, shrines, and relics, of the saints of Ireland and England; they likewise burned the celebrated image of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Trim, which used to perform wonders and miracles, which used to heal the blind, the deaf, and the crippled, and persons affected with all kinds of diseases; and they also burned the staff of Jesus, which was


in Dublin, performing miracles, from the time of St. Patrick down to that time, and had been in the hands of Christ while he was among men. They also appointed archbishops and sub-bishops for themselves; and, though great was the persecution of the Roman emperors against the Church, scarcely had there ever come so great a persecution from Rome as this; so that it is impossible to narrate or tell its description, unless it should be narrated by one who saw it.

Annal M1538


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1538. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred thirty-eight.


Hugh Boy O'Donnell, son of Hugh Duv, son of Hugh Roe, heir to the lordship of Tirconnell, a man who was well skilled and learned in every science, who was most distinguished for munificence and hospitality, for prowess in the field of battle and the gap of danger, and who was expected, from his steadiness and other characteristics, to attain to the lordship of his own country Tirconnell, died at Cill O'dTomhrair, on the 22nd of March, after having received the Communion and Extreme Unction.


Niall, the son of Con, son of Art O'Neill, a man illustrious for his valiant deeds and nobleness, was slain in a nocturnal assault by the son of Niall O'Neill, in the castle of Omagh; the castle having been first betrayed by a party who were within the castle. Niall O'Neill afterwards destroyed the castle, and persecuted his own son for this killing.


The son of Mac Clancy (Cahir, the son of Feradhach, son of William), heir to the chieftainship of Dartry, died in Dun-Carbry.


Ferganainm, the son of Ferdoragh Mac Coghlan, Tanist of Delvin Eathra, was slain by the sons of the Prior Mac Coghlan.


An army was led by O'Donnell (Manus) into Lower Connaught, and triumphantly took the castle of Sligo, which was well defended by warders and


cannon, after it had had been for some time out of his possession, having been powerfully defended against his father, and it could not be taken until then. And after having taken this castle, and left his warders in it, he proceeded to Moylurg, and ravaged all that country. Upon his return he visited the castle called Magh-Ui-Ghadhra, and took it. The son of O'Donnell (Niall Garv, the son of Manus) was unfortunately slain on the 11th of December by the shot of a ball fired from the castle, when they were approaching the town. The person, however, who had done this act was pardoned by O'Donnell, who sent him away under his protection. O'Donnell then returned with his army safe (except the great misfortune already alluded to), after having ravaged all Moylurg and Machaire-Chonnacht, excepting such parts as were obedient to him.

Annal M1539


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1539. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred thirty-nine.


O'Brien of Thomond (Conor, the son of Turlough, son of Teige) died, after having been for some time in the lordship; and the country was prosperous and flourishing in his time. Murrough, the son of O'Brien, i.e. the son of Turlough, son of Teige, was inaugurated in his place, as his qualifications deserved.


An army was led by O'Donnell (Manus) into Lower Connaught, between Christmas and the festival of St. Bridget; and he exacted from them the inhabitants his full tribute and hostages, and returned safe to his house.


O'Neill, i.e. Con, came to Donegal about Easter, to visit O'Donnell; and they made peace, friendship, and alliance with each other, as well and as firmly as they possibly could.


The son of Maguire (Cormac, the son of Cuconnaught, son of Cuconnaught, son of Brien, son of Philip), Tanist of Fermanagh, a good man of nobleness and hospitality, was treacherously slain by the people of his brother, in his brother's own presence.



An army was led by O'Neill (Con) and O'Donnell (Manus), with one will and accord, into Meath; and such part of these territories as were disobedient to them they spoiled and burned before them, as far as Tara, and the possessions of all those who refused to submit to them. They obtained immense and innumerable spoils on this expedition, for the Irish had not in latter times assembled to oppose the English army, that destroyed more of the property of Meath than this plundering army; for many were the spoils of gold and silver, copper, iron, and every sort of goods and valuables besides, which they took from the towns of Ardee and Nuachongbhail, which they entirely plundered on that expedition. Upon their return, these troops were elated with courage and high spirits, and filled with pride and haughtiness, on account of the vastness of their spoils, and because they had not met any opposition. When the English Lord Justice, Lord Leonard, heard the news of this, he made a complete muster of all the English in Ireland, the forces of the great towns of Meath, both ecclesiastical and lay, and all the fleets in the adjacent harbours, and especially the large fleet in the bay of Carlinne. After all these forces had collected to one place to the Lord Justice, he set out in pursuit of the Irish army into Oriel, and came up with them at a place called Bel-atha-hoa, in Farney. The Irish army were not able to go into order or array, as was meet for them; nor did they take the advice of their chiefs, to stand and maintain their battle-ground, but they fled in a scattered and disorderly manner, leaving a great deal of their own property, and of the spoils taken from the English at that place, to their enemies, after being routed. Some of their common people were slain, but none of their gentlemen, except Mulmurry Mergeach, son of, John Roe Mac Sweeny, whom the Tirconnellians lost on that field. After this defeat of Bel-atha-hoa, Magennis (Murtough), who had wandered away from


his people, and was attended only by a few troops, was taken prisoner by a party of the people of Oriel; and they privately detained him for some time as a prisoner, and afterwards treacherously slew him, at the instance of a party of his own tribe, who had bribed them to put him to death.


Niall Oge O'Boyle was slain by Conor, the son of O'Boyle.


O'Melaghlin (Art), a successful and warlike man, and his son, Cahir O'Melaghlin, Deacon of Cluain, were slain at Fornocht, by the sons of Felim O'Melaghlin; and Felim assumed the lordship.


Mac Coghlan (Felim, the son of Meyler) was slain at Beannchor, by the sons of O'Madden (Melaghlin God, &c.), after he had heard mass on Sunday, the second of the Nones of July.


The lordship of Delvin was parcelled out by O'Melaghlin (Felim) among Art, the son of Cormac Mac Coghlan; Donnell, the son of Ferdoragh; and Melaghlin, the son of Edmond.

Annal M1540


THE AGE OF CHRIST, 1540. The Age of Christ, one thousand five hundred forty.


Rory O'Malone, Bishop of Ardagh, and representative of the Bishop of Clonmacnoise, a prosperous and affluent man, died.


The monastery of Cluain-Ramhfhoda Clonroad was given to the friars of the Observance, by order of O'Brien (Murrough, the son of Turlough) and the chiefs of Thomond, and by the consent and permission of the superiors of the Order of St. Francis.


The English, throughout every part of Ireland where they extended their power, were persecuting and banishing the Orders, and particularly they destroyed the monastery of Monaghan, and beheaded the guardian, and some of the friars.


The two sons of O'Boyle, Niall Roe and Conor, were in contention and at


strife with each other. Niall made an incursion against Conor into Luachras (for Conor had his seat and residence there), and remained that night in ambush in the church of St. Seanchan. Conor next morning went upon the hill adjacent to the church, and Niall and his people sallied forth from the church against him. When Conor saw them approaching him, he ran away to avoid them, as he had with him only a few and these persons unfit to bear arms, and he proceeded alone down across the strand of Luachras. Niall pursued him as quickly as he was able, and he outran his own people in his eagerness to catch Conor; he overtook him, and they engaged each other vigorously and ferociously, forgetful of friendship and relationship. Conor gave Niall a blow on the top of the head, and prostrated him on the ground, and then fled away, severely wounded. His people came up to Niall, who told them to pursue Conor, and that he himself was not in danger of death on that occasion. They did so at his request, and overtook Conor on the borders of a neighbouring lake; and they did not dare to come to blows with him, until they had first knocked him down with the stones which were on the strand of the lake; and when he was prostrated, they struck at him with weapons. And on their return they found Niall dead. There had not been of their tribe, for some time, two of the same ages who were more generally lamented than these two who were slain by each other.


The sons of William, son of the Bishop O'Gallagher, namely, William Oge and Hugh Gruama, were slain by the sons of O'Boyle, namely, by Donnell and Turlough, in revenge of their father.


An army was led by O'Donnell (Manus) into Connaught, and never halted until he arrived in Moylurg,from whence he passed into Clann-Conway; and he totally devastated and burned Moylurg and Clann-Conway. He afterwards plundered the Curlieu Mountains, and then returned home safe, after victory and triumph.


Another hosting was made by O'Donnell, and he was joined by Niall, the son of Art Oge, Tanist of Tyrone, and by Mac Donnell of Scotland (Colla, the son of Alexander), with many Scots along with him. O'Donnell and this army


proceeded into Fermanagh, and they at first destroyed much in the country, until they obtained pledges and guarantees of submission. After that they marched through Breifny O'Rourke, and from thence to the Curlieu mountains, where they pitched their camp, and destroyed Bealach-Buidhe, and cleared every other difficult passage. Upon this the Clann-Mulrony came to them, and gave hostages to O'Donnell for the observance of his own conditions for the time to come. O'Donnell then returned safe to his house.


The sons of O'Donnell (i.e. of Hugh Oge, the son of Hugh Roe), namely, Donough Cairbreach and John of Lurg, rose up in opposition to O'Donnell (Manus, their own brother), and went into the Crannog of Loch-Beiathaigh, from which they proceeded to spoil the country. O'Donnell took them both prisoners, and took also Egneghan O'Donnell in the town of Conwall. He hanged John of Lurg, and put Egneghan and Donough in fetters; and he broke down and demolished the Crannog of Loch-Beathaigh.


O'Doherty, i.e. Gerald, the son of Donnell, son of Felim, a noble and hospitable man, died at an advanced age, after having vanquished the Devil and the world.


Donnell, the son of Niall O'Boyle, was styled O'Boyle.


John, son of Con O'Donnell, was slain by the sons of Morogh Mac Sweeny-na-dtuath.


The castle of Leitrim was erected by O'Rourke (Brian, the son of Owen) while a great war was waged against him on every side, namely, in Moylurg, Muintir-Eolais, and Breifny-O'Reilly; and his own son and a party of the men of Breifny were also at war with him. He finished the castle in a short time, and destroyed a great portion of Moylurg on his opponents.


A general invitation of hospitality was given by Rory, the son of Teige Mac Dermot, and his wife, the daughter of Mac William of Clanrickard. The schools of Ireland, and those who sought for presents, flocked to them to the Rock of Lough Key, and they were all attended to by that couple.


Teige, the son of Brian, son of Manus Mac Dermot Roe, was drowned in the River Bann, while on an excursion along with O'Rourke.



James Oge, son of the Prior Mac Coghlan, was treacherously beheaded by Kedagh O'Melaghlin, in his own James Oge's castle, i.e. the castle of Feadan, in consequence of which great injury was done to the country. Felim O'Melaghlin brought the English and the Treasurer with him to Delvin, but did not, however, take the Feadan ; and they returned to their respective homes, after having destroyed much.


Donnell, the son of Ferdoragh Mac Coghlan, head of his own branch of that family, died before the killing of James Oge, son of the Prior.