Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition

Background details and bibliographic information

Auraicept na n-Éces

Author: [unknown]

File Description

George Calder

compiled and proof corrections by Beatrix Färber

Funded by University College, Cork and
The HEA via the LDT Project and
The HEA via PRTLI 4

2. Second draft.

Extent of text: 73125 words


CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a Project of University College, Cork
College Road, Cork, Ireland—


Distributed by CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.
Text ID Number: G502003

Availability [RESTRICTED]

Available with prior consent of the CELT programme for purposes of academic research and teaching only.

The printed edition is now in the free domain.


    Manuscript sources
  1. Dublin, Trinity College Library, 1432 olim E. 3. 3, ff. 3–16; 15th to early 16th century; scribe Diarmaid Ó Dubhagáin; patron Uilliam Ó Loingsigh.
  2. Dublin, RIA, 1225 olim D ii 1 alias Book of Uí Mhaine, ff. 139–143; 14th century. (much of it was written c. 1393–4); 157 folios; scribes Ádhamh Cuisin and Faolán Mac an Ghabhann na Scéal (ob. 1423) and eight others; patron Muircheartach Ó Ceallaigh (ob. 1407), bishop of Clonfert (r. 1378–94) and subsequently archbishop of Tuam (r. 1394–1407). Known as Leabhar Uí Dhubhagáin in the seventeenth century.
  3. Dublin, RIA, 536 olim 23 P 12 alias Book of Ballymote; 14th century (AD 1383x–1397). 251 folios; scribes Solamh Ó Droma, Robertus Mac Síthigh, and Maghnus Ó Duibhgeannáin (ob. 1452); patron Tomaltach Mac Donnchaidh (ob. 1397), lord of Tír Oilealla, in whose family it remained until 1522, when it was sold to Aodh Óg Ó Domhnaill, lord of Tír Chonaill. Owned by archbishop James Ussher in the seventeeth century. Later in the Library of Trinity College Dublin from which it was borrowed in 1719, never to be returned. Presented to the Royal Irish Academy in 1785. Digital images of the manuscript can be viewed on the ISOS Project of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (
  4. Edinburgh, NLS, Advocates, 72.2.1 olim Gaelic I, ff. 19–29; (c. 1425).
  5. Dublin, RIA, 535 olim 23 P 2 alias Book of Lecan, ff. 151–161; 14th to 15th century. (1397–1418 or a little later); 311 folios; scribes Giolla Íosa Mac Fir Bhisigh and his students, Ádhamh Ó Cuirnín and Murchadh Riabhach Ó Cuindlis; and Tomás Cam Mac Fir Bhisigh (only son of Giolla Íosa). In 1612 the MS was in the possession of Henry Perse, secretary to the lord deputy, Sir Arthur Chichester. It then passed to archbishop James Ussher and was in his library in England when he died there in 1656. It was returned to Ireland by Oliver Cromwell with Ussher's other books and some time before 1665 it was deposited in the Library of Trinity College Dublin, where it remained until the Jacobite War. Reported missing in 1702, it was certainly in France by 1703. It passed to the Irish College Paris and in 1787, at the instance of Colonel Charles Vallancey, it was presented to the Royal Irish Academy.
  6. London, British Library, Egerton 88, ff. 63–76; 16th century; (ad 1564–70); scribes Domhnall (mac Aodha) Ó Duibh Dhá Bhoireann (working for himself), Maghnus Ó Duibh Dhá Bhoireann and others.
  7. Dublin, Trinity College Library, 1363 olim H. 4. 22, pp. 167–98; 15th to 16th century.
  8. Dublin, Trinity College Library, 1318 olim H. 2. 16 alias Yellow Book of Lecan, 504–49; 1397–1418 or a little later.
    Digital images of the text
  1. The book is available in pdf. format on The copy available there was used to check the scanned text. It originates from the library of D. A. Binchy.
  1. James Henthorn Todd (ed. & trans.) Can a mbunadas na nGaedel, in: idem (ed.) Leabhar breathnach annso sis: the Irish version of the Historia Britonum by Nennius (Dublin 1848) 220–287.
  2. Eugene O'Curry, Lectures on the manuscript materials of ancient Irish history (New York 1861).
  3. Richard Rolt Brash, The ogam inscribed monuments of the Gaedhil in the British Islands (London 1879).
  4. Rudolf Thurneysen, 'Du langage secret dit ogham', Revue Celtique 7 (1886), 369–74; repr. in idem, Gesammelte Schriften, i–iii, ed. Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel & Rolf Ködderitzsch (Tübingen 1991), ii 100–5.
  5. Samuel Ferguson, Ogham inscriptions in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland, Rhind Lectures on Archaeology [...] 1884, ed. Mary C. Ferguson (Edinburgh 1887).
  6. Iohannes Huemer (ed), Virgilius Maro Grammaticus (Leipzig 1886).
  7. Kuno Meyer, Songs of summer and winter (London 1903).
  8. R. A. S. Macalister, Studies in Irish epigraphy, 3 vols. (London 1897–1907).
  9. Patrick Weston Joyce, A Social History of Ancient Ireland, 2 vols (New York, London, and Bombay: Longmans, Green, & Company, 1903).
  10. John [=Eoin] MacNeill, 'Notes on the distribution, history, grammar and import of the Irish ogham inscriptions', Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (C), 27 (1908–9), 329–70.
  11. Heinrich Zimmer, in: Sitzungsberichte der Königl.-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.-hist. Klasse, December 1910, p. 1049.
  12. John [=Eoin] MacNeill, 'Early Irish population groups: their nomenclature, classification and chronology', PProceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (C), 29 (1911–2), 59–114.
  13. Wallace Martin Lindsay (ed), Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum sive Originum Libri, xx. (Oxford, 1911). [Available online as PDF on]
  14. Kuno Meyer, Über die älteste irische Dichtung, Sitzungsberichte der königl-preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1913.
  15. Holger Pedersen, Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen, 2 volumes, (Göttingen 1909–1913).
  16. Kuno Meyer, 'Über die Anordnung des Ogamalphabets', Sitzungsberichte der Königl.-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.-hist. Klasse, 1917, 376–78.
  17. Eoin MacNeill, A pioneer of nations, Studies (Dublin) 11 (1922) 13–28, 435–46.
  18. Charles Plummer, 'On the meaning of ogam stones', Revue Celtique 40 (1923), 387–390.
  19. Joseph Vendryes, 'Sur les noms des lettres de l'alphabet irlandais', Revue Celtique 44 (1927) 317–19.
  20. Rudolf Thurneysen, Auraicept na n-Éces, Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 17 (1928) 277–303.
  21. F. C. Diack, 'The origins of the ogam alphabet', Scottish Gaelic Studies 3 (1929–31), 86–91.
  22. Eoin MacNeill, 'Archaisms in the ogham inscriptions', Proc Roy Ir Acad (C) 39 (1931) 33–53.
  23. Osborn J. Bergin, 'On the Kilbonane ogams', Ériu 11 (1932) 107–11.
  24. Rudolf Thurneysen, Allerlei Nachträge, Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 19 (1933) 125–33: 128–9.
  25. H. Arntz, 'Das Ogom', Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache & Literatur 59 (1935) 321–413.
  26. Rudolf Thurneysen, 'Zum Ogom', Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache & Literatur 61 (1937) 188–208; repr. in idem, Gesammelte Schriften, i–iii, ed. Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel & Rolf Ködderitzsch (Tübingen 1991) ii 292–312.
  27. W. Keller, 'Die Entstehung des Ogom', Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache & Literatur 62 (1938) 121–32.
  28. Osborn J. Bergin, The native Irish grammarian, Proc Br Acad 24 (1939), 205–35 [Rh[ycirc ]s Lecture].
  29. J. Vendryes, 'L'écriture ogamique et ses origines', Études Celtiques, 4/1 (1941) 83–116; repr. in idem, Choix d'études linguistiques et celtiques (Paris 1952) 247–76.
  30. L. J. D. Richardson, 'The word ogham', Hermathena, 62 (1943) 96–105.
  31. A. G. van Hamel, Primitieve Ierse taalstudie, Medeelingen d. k. Nederlandsche Akad Wetenschappen, aft letterkunde, n.r., dl. 9, nr 9 (1946), 295–339.
  32. Proinsias Mac Cana, The three languages and the three laws, Studia Celtica, 5 (1970), 62–78.
  33. Jack Fellman, The first mediaeval grammar of a European vernacular, Linguistics, 206 (1978), 55–6.
  34. Edgar M. Slotkin, Medieval Irish scribes and fixed texts, Éigse, 7 (1978–9), 437–50.
  35. Anders Ahlqvist, Les débuts de l'étude du langage en Irlande?, in: Konrad Koerner (ed.), Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science, iii, Studies in the History of Linguistics, 20 (Amsterdam 1980), 35–43.
  36. Louis Holtz, Donat et la tradition de l'enseignment grammatical: études sur l'Ars Donati et sa diffusion (IVe–IXe siècle) et édition critique (Paris 1981).
  37. Anders Ahlqvist, Det medeltida Irlands spr[aring ]kvetenskap, in Even Hovdhaugen (ed.), The Nordic languages and modern linguistics: proceedings of the fourth international conference of Nordic and general linguistics in Oslo 1980 (Oslo, 1981) 202–11.
  38. Liam Breatnach, The caldron of poesy, Ériu 32 (1981) 45–93.
  39. Anders Ahlqvist, The Early Irish Linguist (Helsinki 1983).
  40. Liam Breatnach, Addenda and corrigenda to the 'Caldron of poesy' (Ériu xxxii 45–93), Ériu 35 (1984) 189–91.
  41. Anders Ahlqvist, Téarmaíocht ghramadaí na Gaeilge, Studia Hibernica 24 (1984–88), 89–96.
  42. Anders Ahlqvist, The study of language in early Ireland, Neuphilol Mitt 85 (1985) 246–57.
  43. Diego Poli, La metafora di Babele e le partitiones nella teoria grammaticale irlandese dell' Auricept na n-Éces, in Diego Poli (ed.), Episteme: in ricordo di Giorgio Raimondo Cardona, Quaderni Linguistici e Filologici, 4 (Macerata 1986–9) 179–97.
  44. Anders Ahlqvist, An Irish text on the letters of the alphabet, in A. M. Simon-Vandenbergen (ed.), Studies in honour of René Derolez (Ghent 1987), 3–16.
  45. Anders Ahlqvist, Latin grammar and native learning, in: Donnchadh Ó Corráin, Liam Breatnach & Kim McCone (eds.), Sages, saints and storytellers: Celtic Studies in honour of Professor James Carney (Maynooth 1989) 1–6.
  46. Damian MacManus, A Guide to Ogam (Maynooth 1991).
  47. Andrew Garrett, 'On the prosodic phonology of ogam Irish', Ériu 50 (1991), 139–160.
  48. V. P. Kalyguine, Quelques aspects mythologiques de la tradition grammaticale vieil-irlandaise, Études Celtiques 29 (1992) 241–8.
  49. Erich Poppe, Natural and artificial gender in Auraicept na n-Éces, Studia Hibernica 29 (1995–7), 195–203.
  50. Erich Poppe, Die mittelalterliche irische Abhandlung Auraicept na nÉces und ihr geistesgeschichtlicher Standort, in K. D. Dutz & H.-J. Niederehe (eds.), Theorie und Rekonstruktion (Münster 1996), 55–74.
  51. Erich Poppe, 'Latinate Terminology in Auraicept na nÉces', in: History of Linguistics 1996, vol. 1: Traditions in Linguistics Worldwide. Eds. David Cram, Andrew Linn, Elke Nowak. (Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 1999, 191–201).
  52. Rijcklof Hofmann, 'The Irish tradition of Priscian', in: Mario de Nonno, Paolo de Paolis & Louis Holtz (eds.), Manuscripts and tradition of grammatical texts from antiquity to the renaissance, 2 vols, (Cassino 2000), i 257–83: 278–85.
  53. Erich Poppe, 'The Latin quotations in Auraicept na nÉces: microtexts and their transmission', in: Próinséas Ní Chatháin & Michael Richter (eds.), Ireland and Europe in the early middle ages: texts and transmission (Dublin 2002), 296–312.
  54. Pierre-Yves Lambert, 'Les Differentiae dans la littérature irlandaise ancienne', in: Pierre Lardet (ed.), La tradition vive: mélanges d'histoire des textes en l'honneur de Louis Holtz, Bibliologia: Elementa ad librorum studia pertinentia, 20 (Paris & Turnhout 2003) 107–18: 116–8.
  55. Johan Corthals, 'Stimme, Atem und Dichtung: aus einem altirischen Lehrbuch für Dichterschüler (Uraicept na mac sésa)', in Helmut Birkhan (ed.), Kelteneinfälle an der Donau: Akten des vierten Symposiums deutschsprachiger Keltologinnen und Keltologen, Linz-Donau, 17–21. Juli 2005 (Vienna 2007) 124–47.
  56. Roisin McLaughlin, 'Fénius Farsaid and the Alphabets', Ériu 59 (2009) 1–24.
  57. Richard M. A. Marshall, Studies on the 'Ars Grammatici Sergi{li}i' Journal of Medieval Latin 20 (2010) 167–231 [with an edition, a discussion of writing, and references to the 'Auraicept'].
  58. Deborah Hayden, 'Poetic Law and the Medieval Irish Linguist: Contextualizing the Vices and Virtues of Verse Composition in Auraicept na nÉces', Language and History 54:1 (May 2011) 1–34.
    The edition used in the digital edition
  1. Auraicept na n-éces: the scholars' primer: being the texts of the Ogham tract from the Book of Ballymote and the Yellow book of Lecan, and the text of the Trefhocul from the Book of Leinster, ed. from eight manuscripts, with introduction, translation of the Ballymote text, notes, and indices by George Calder. George Calder (ed), First edition [lvi + 374 pp. Preface, Contents xi, MSS Transcribed or Collated xiii, Authorities Referred to or Quoted xv, Introduction xix–lvi, 1. Text with [facing] Translation 2–169; Text Untranslated 171–257; Trefhocul with Examples 258–269; De Duilib Feda 270–271; Ogam. Prologue and Examples, with [facing] Translation 272–299; Photographs of Ogham Alphabets, with Transcript of the Interlinear Explanations and Translation thereof 300–313; Glossarial Index 315–361; Index of Places, Tribes, and Nations 362–367; Index of Persons 368–374.] John Grant Edinburgh, 31 George IV Bridge (1917)


Project Description

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

Sampling Declaration

The present text represents the editor's introduction (xix–liii), the text on even pages 2–168; pages 172–257 in sequence; and even pages 272–298 of the volume. Pages 258 to 271 with Trefhocul and Duilib Feda have not been captured. [The Trefhocul is reproduced in the Book of Leinster, vol. 1, file G800011A on CELT.] All translation, footnoted variants, notes, indexes, line-drawings representing Ogam characters and images have been omitted in this edition. (Please see PDF version for these.) It is hoped to include the inline Ogam characters in the near future. Missing text supplied by the editor is tagged sup. Expansions to the text are marked ex. Bold face appearing in Calder's edition has not been been reproduced; readers wishing to view it are asked to refer to the PDF version.

Editorial Declaration


Text has been checked and proofread twice at CELT. All corrections and supplied text are tagged. Text in Latin is marked as such.


The electronic text represents the edited text. Poems have been encoded as embedded texts. Numbered line-breaks occur every 5 lines. In the printed edition these appear to the right of the text, i. e. they refer to the preceding line. The foliation of the various manuscripts is encoded using mls. The Greek letters alpha/beta used within folio pagination have been rendered as a/b.


Soft hyphens are silently removed. When a hyphenated word (hard or soft) crosses a page-break, a line-break, or a milestone, this break is marked after the completion of the hyphenated word. 'Orphaned' line-breaks may ocasionally arise from this practice.


div0=the primer; div1=the section; stanzas are marked lg.


Names of persons (given names), and places are not tagged. Terms for cultural and social roles are not tagged.

Canonical References

This text uses the DIV1 element to represent the section.

Profile Description

Created: Created by Irish monks in monastic scriptoria. Date range: 900–1200.

Use of language

Language: [GA] The text is in Middle Irish.
Language: [EN] The front matter and introduction are in English.
Language: [DE] Quotations in German occur in the introduction.
Language: [CY] Some words in the introduction are in Welsh.
Language: [LA] Some formulaic words are in Latin.
Language: [IW] Some letters and words are in Hebrew.
Language: [GR] Some words are in Ancient Greek.

Revision History

Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition: G502003

Auraicept na n-Éces: Author: [unknown]

List of witnesses



The Handbook of the Learned, here edited for the first time, is a work that opens up many questions.

Éces is often equivalent to fili. Filidecht covered the whole field of poetry, romance, history, biography, geography, grammar, antiquities, and law. The poet-jurist, who, seated, gave judgments in verse, is probably referred to at lines 407,8. The Auraicept treats chiefly of the Ogham alphabet and grammar, but if the Trefhocul be included, it treats also of poetry in the strict sense.

The poets,filid, were a guild, making their own special laws,and exercising discipline upon their own members (2193). They claimed and used the right to quarter themselves and their retinue upon society (2221), and they exacted a fixed sum for their poetic compositions. In general this was cheerfully paid; the means for enforcing unwilling payment was satire. The exercise of this potent weapon was moderated by rule (1935), certain forms of satire, such as tamall n-aire (1932), being forbidden in the Trefhocul; and though the poets have been abolished by law for over a century, even at this day in certain districts the phrase, dheanamh aoir air, to satirise one, is not without its terrors.

The poets were a secret society with a language peculiar and intelligible to themselves only. According to their literary tradition Fenius, at their request, devised this language for them (195), and its obscurity was essential (21).


The people often rose up against the poets and attempted to repudiate their claims. One such rising was that at Drumketta, A.D. 590 (1472). About that time they numbered 15,000. Owing to the advocacy of St Columba, himself a fili, they were suffered to continue, but under restrictions.

The filid were a strictly professional class, undergoing a rigorous training to fit them for their position. The bards, on the other hand, were unprofessional, and more or less untrained, but they practised a large number of metres in which the filid also were required to become proficient.

The following tables (cf. the later scheme in Joyce's Social Hist., i. 430), will show what place the Auraicept occupied in their studies.

The Fili, his Rank, Name, and Compositions, with the Rewards therefor, and his Retinue (2219–2254).

RankNameMetreRewardRetinue at feastsRet. on circuitRet. ordinarilyRet. at poetic feasts/contests
I.ollamanamaina chariot (=one bondmaid)2481210
II.anradnathfive cows12658
III.clíanairfour cows8546
IV.canoemainone horse (=two cows)6324
V.dossláidone milch cow4213
VI.macfuirmidsetradone cow-in-calf3112
VII.foclócdíanone three-year-old heifer1111(?)


The Yearly Studies of the Fili.
Each year included the studies of all preceding years.

YearNameStudies covered
1foclócl. oghum, besides regular oghum; the Auraicept with its prologue and with its flexions; l. drécht, vi. dían.
2macfuirmidl. oghum, besides usual oghum; vi. detailed lessons of filidecht; xxx. drécht; x. setrada, senamain, and snaithe senamna.
3dossl. oghum, besides ebadach nIlmain; vi. other detailed lessons of filidecht; xl. drécht; xvi. láid.
4canol. drécht; l. bretha nemid; xx. emain.
5clílx. drécht; xxx. anair; xxx. iarmberla.
6anradlxx. drécht; lxxx. nath mór; lxxx. nath becc & berla na filed.
7ollambrosnacha suad, i.e. the bard metres which the poet ought to know, for that is the poet's lesson of the seventh year; e.g. l. divisions of brosnacha, i.e. dechnad mór, and two species of nedchnad mór are there reckoned, viz. sned and trebrad.
8...fiscomarca filed .i. dúili berla & clethchor choem & reicne roscadach & láide .i. tenmláida & immas forosnai & dichetal do chennaib na tuaithe & dinshenchus, and all the principal tales of Ireland in order to relate them to the kings, lords, and gentlemen. For the fili is not yet perfect.
9, 10...xl. sennath .i. ; xv. luasca & vii. ena; eochraid of lx. words with metres and xiv. srotha and vi. dúili feda.
11...l. anamain mór l. anamain becc.
12...cxx. rochetal; iiii. cerda, i. e. cerd of Ladchend mic Bairchida, & cerd hi Chota & cerd hui Bicni, & cerd Béci.


A brief study of the Auraicept is sufficient to convince one that the leading extraneous source is the Latin Grammarians. Some of them are cited by name, Priscian (A.D. 450), Donatus (A.D. 350), Pompeius, and Consentius.

If it be urged that the quotations from these authors are a late addition to the Auraicept by way of learned illustration, it is answered that in any case the general setting of the matter follows closely the didactic style of the grammarians, as the following examples, occurring passim, will show:—
Quaestio est, Gr. Lat. v. 537, 16, 29; 541, 20, 32.
cest, Aur. 9, 57.
Ouaesitum est, v. 228, 18,
Quaeritur, v. 165, 27; 210, 38,
De qua quaeritur, Origg, xvi. 10, 2
conagar, Aur. 1019, 1375.
ut sciam, v. 195, 19.
ut scias, v. 121, 15, 18; 173, 18: co fesear, Aur. 1577.
ut sciamus, v. 10, 16.
sciendum est, v. 180, 32: is soigti Aur. 3508, is fisid 3523.
scire debemus, v. 277, 30.
scire debes, v. 142, 15.

The matter itself of the Auraicept is largely identical with that treated of by the Latin Grammarians in their early chapters—the alphabet, classification of letters, sounds and syllables, consonant and vowel changes, gender and declension of nouns, comparison of adjectives, prepositions governing dative and accusative cases, the accent, artificial and natural, genus and species, and a few other incidental points. The omissions are almost equally significant. There is no classification of declensions, no declension of adjectives which are tacitly included with the substantives, no treatment of pronouns except as tokens of gender (aurlonn, 585), or as emphasised by féin = met (726), and


the whole accidence of the verb is wanting. The similarity between Latin and Gaelic failed at this point. The paradigm of the verb is tentative and native (304, 653). An endeavour is made to show that, while there is a correspondence in meaning between the two languages, Gaelic is the more comprehensive (1081).

The language is Middle Irish, but the basis, which has been much worked over, all belongs to the Old Irish period.

The composition consists of Text and Commentary, the latter forming the great bulk of the work. The text is the oldest portion; the commentary, in parts as old as the text, was in a process of continuous growth. The text, written in a large hand in most MSS., is printed in leaded type. BB, here followed, curtails the text. The Book of Lecan and T. make a much larger delineation of text. The question as to what is text and what is commentary will require further study for a satisfactory solution, but it may be here remarked that much of the primary material is embodied in the tract in the ordinary hand of the commentary so as to be indistinguishable from the commentary at sight, and that the commentary itself occasionally points to the text by the use of such expressions as Cid ara tuc-somh (97), Cid ara n-ebairt (378, 484, 512, 385), intan roraidh (421), ata acht lem (2973), amal asbert i curp in libuir (173, 241) where corp in libuir always means the text of the book under comment.

Another but a rather uncertain criterion is this. A passage which does not occur by way of commentary on any previous quotation, but which is itself made the subject of commentary, is in a sense primary material, though not necessarily so old as the principal text on which the commentary is written.

The use of conagar is generally to introduce commentary even though the passage so introduced is itself subjected to


comment. In a word, there is a primary commentary used to explain the original text, and a secondary commentary developing the content of the primary commentary (e.g., 1072 on 1068, 1637 on 1515). The etymological glosswork belongs to this last stage, and is incorporated without any regard to the context. The language even of the commentary is based on Old Irish usage. It explicitly recognises three genders in substantives and pronouns. In it airdíbdad (1264) means the silencing of the consonants, f and s. In later usage this term becomes airdibad, urdubad (uirdhiughadh, O'Molloy, Grammatica Latino-Hibernica 61), and denotes eclipsis, obnubilatio. The tract before us takes no account of eclipsis. At the time the tract was written the combinations mb, nd, had evidently not yet become assimilated (but cf. Nembroth, Nemruad). For, if such assimilations had taken place, an account would have been given of the phenomenon under such questions as ‘What two consonants have the force of one consonant?’ (1375).

As regards ng initial, the evidence is not so clear. The nasal infection may have produced (ng+g) and not ng simply (255). On the other hand the combination is an Ogham letter (442)—but even vowels of diphthongs were pronounced separately (1430)—and is, considered along with the example, uingi (4926), curiously suggestive of:
NT. N Latinum adiuncto Gamma Graeco significat semiunciam.’’

Origg. xvi. 27, 4.

The scheme of declension, also, distinguishes clearly between dative and accusative after prepositions (1651, 1770), a distinction not uniformly or often observed in Middle Irish, though a much later tract draws a distinction between acc. after a preposition importing motion, siubhal, and dat. after a preposition importing rest, comhnaidhe


( Ériu, 8. 17, [sect ] 72, 73). This last, however, may be merely a grammatical recrudescence, or an imitation of Latin.

A few sporadic examples of Old Irish are here added:—
1. The article.
nominative plural m. in muite 447, in taebomna tuissecha 918, in tri focail 2018, but ainm n., has art. nominative plural m. ind anmanda 4828.
nominative plural f. inna iiii. aipgitri-sea 1132. For article developed from projected n., v. condelc, etargoire n-inchoisc 647, in incoisc 641.

2. NOUN Stems.
A. o-stems:
nominative plural n. araile crand 1149.
B. io-stems:
nominative singular n. a mberla sain 1044. dative singular oc nach ailiu 1044; accusative singular fria araill 3106, ar araill 5613; gan araill 3105.
nominative singular & araill 3410; 'nas i n-aill 1272. quam i n-aill 4593, 4579 no da fhir-inaill 338.
C. n-stem:
gach reim n-olc 2177.
3. NUMERALS: teora, ceitheora 4708, 3747, cf. 872.
4. THE Verb: ailsius 5319, adrodamas 135; copula verb, arnid 693, nadat 4588.

As to the native elements, we are told that Cenn Faelad—in English Kinealy—wrote the Prologue (80). As this preface is not likely to have been omitted by the compilers of the extant tract, one concludes that this must be the actual introduction (1–62). This view is confirmed by the displacement in version ii. of the section (63–78) which is the work of a ommentator of Cenn Faelad; also by the particle tra in the first sentence quoted from Cenn Faelad, which follows the introduction in both versions.


There are four authors of the Auraicept proper, Cenn Faelad, Ferchertne, Amergen, and Fenius.

The excerpts from the Book of Cenn Faelad deal with:
The origin of Gaelic (100).
Divisions of the Latin alphabet (312), and of the Irish alphabet (392),
Latin and Irish treatment of semivowels contrasted (445).
Genders in Irish (520).
Degrees of comparison in Latin, and qualitative and quantitative distinctions in Irish (639).

The excerpts from the Book of Ferchertne deal with:
The seven elements of speech in Irish (739), and The formation and powers of Ogham letters (943).

There is a long excerpt from the Book of Amergen dealing with: the origin of Goedelg (1034). This passage is of earher date and language than the general run of the tract. In substance it is an alternative prologue.

The excerpts from the Book of Fenius (1102) deal with:
The alphabets of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (1129), hence probably the ascription to Fenius who was learned in those languages (160), and contemporary with the Exodus (1104).

Verse feet or syllabic content of Irish words (1213).
Consonant changes (1264).
The five kinds of Irish (1302).
The twenty-five inflections (1515).
What is alt? (1577).
The end of the text of the Auraicept is noted (1636).

Besides those four ancient books cited, the Book of Cenn Faelad, the Book of Ferchertne (735), the Book of Amergen (1028), the Book of Fenius, Iair mac Nema, and Gaedel mac Ethiuir (1102), two others are mentioned, the Dúile Feda (5416), of which the Ogham tract is perhaps an expansion,


and the Cin Ollaman (1204, 4385) possibly an early form of the tract on Metrics. The quotations from the first four books are set forth as usual in large hand; but possibly other passages from them are embodied in the commentary in the normal hand. For wherever a passage in the commentary is afterwards explained in detail with the usual artificial etymologies, this is an indication that the passage probably belonged originally to the ancient text.

While the ascription of the Book of Cenn Faelad is probably genuine, the same cannot be said of the Books of Ferchertne, Amergen, and Fenius. The quotations may be from writings approximately of the time of Cenn Faelad, but of unknown authorship. A commentator (1019–1027) takes the view that the work of these authors were successive steps leading up to the grand consummation, the Trefhocul. By the statement also of a commentator that ‘what is first according to book order was invented last, to wit, the Book of Cenn Faelad’ (66) may be meant that this author co-ordinated all the ancient material, and presented it as it now stands. This view is upheld by another commentator who says that Ferchertne composed the Auraicept but Cenn Faelad rewrote it, or copied it, along with the greater part of Scripture (2638).

There seems no reason to question the ascription of the Book of Cenn Faelad to the author of that name. He is a well authenticated person. He died A.D. 679. His pedigree is found in the genealogy of the Cenél n-Eogain. His poems, dealing to a large extent with the wars of his kinsfolk, the Northern Uí Néill, are quoted largely in the annals. The curious tradition about his ‘brain of forgetfulness’ (77) had no doubt a foundation in fact. Possibly he got a good education in youth, but developed a ‘brain of forgetfulness’ by turning from learning to soldiering. He certainly fought in the battle of Moira A.D. 637, where he was wounded.


Returning again to civil life and his early pursuits, ‘poetry, words, and reading’ (78), he laid the foundation of that reputation which as ‘Cenn Faelad, the Learned’ he still enjoys (O'Curry, Lectures). His period as an author therefore extends over the forty-two years between the battle of Moira and his death, and quotations from him must take rank among the oldest dated specimens of the language. But he refers to still older Irish writers, augdair na n-Gaideal (79), who wrote on the subject of Irish grammar, or of Irish origins. He may refer to such works as the Irish Chronicon Eusebii ( Ériu 7, 62) which came down to A.D. 609, and of which the lost portion at the beginning may well have contained the story of Fenius. Writing in 603, S. Columbanus refers to ‘antiqui philosophi Hiberniae’ as experts in chronography. Thus that earlier than the seventh century a state of learning existed which was held in esteem by the writers of that century is proved, though the direct products of that earlier learning are no longer extant. If we assume Cenn Faelad to be really the author, and therefore that the Auraicept was begun about the middle of the seventh century, how did it happen that while the other Western nations were sunk in ignorance, the Irish enjoyed the light of learning? Zimmer ( Sitzungsberichte der Königl.-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Dec. 1910, p. 1049) quoting the passage in Aur. 1859–1876 puts the question with great force:
‘Das sind die ‘Elemente der Kasus- und Numeruslehre,’, wie man sie als Teil des über viele lahre sich erstreckenden Studiums der irischen fili (Grammatiker, Metriker, Antiquare und professionsmässiger Dichter) in den nationalen Schulen Irlands traktierte, als Klemens der Ire an der Hofschule Karls des Grossen jungen Franken das abc beibrachte, als Dicuil in St Denis, Dungal in Pavia, Sedulius in Lüttich und Metz, Moengal in St Gallen, Johannes Scottus an der Hofschule Karls des Kahlen tätig waren; durch diesen


Unterricht ist Cormac mac Cuilennáin gegangen (gest. 908), der nebenbei ganz austándige Kenntnis im Latein, Griechisch, Hebráisch, Altnordisch, Angelsächsisch und Kymrisch besass.’

The high tide of learning at a very early period in ancient Ireland was beyond a doubt caused by the influx of learned men from the Continent. In his researches Zimmer came upon this passage:
‘Huni, qui ex nephario concubitu progeniti sunt, scilicet demonum, postquam praeheunte caterva viam invenerunt per Meotides paludes, invaserunt Cothos quos nimium terruerunt ex improviso monstro quod in illis erat. Et ab his depopulatio totius imperii exordium sumpsit, quae ab Unis et Guandelis, Gotis et Alanis peracta est, sub quorum vastatione omnes sapientes cismarini fugam ceperunt, et in transmarinis, videlicet in Hibernia, et quocunque se receperunt maximum profectum sapientiae incolis iliarum regionum adhibuerunt.’

The first part of this statement relating to the Huns is taken from Jordanis, who wrote about A.D. 550, and fixes approximately the date of the depopulation of the empire and the rush of learned men into Ireland. We may assume that the migration had already continued for a time before this account was written. The intercourse between Ireland and the continent was certainly kept up.

Three centuries later we have this testimony respecting the ‘Natio Scottorum quibus consuetudo peregrinandi jam paene in naturam conversa est. Quid Hiberniam memorem, contempto pelagi discrimine, paene totam cum grege philosophorum ad littora nostra migrantem!’—( Sitzungsberichte der Königl.-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1910, p. 1080).

Zimmer with great learning, breadth of view, and

mastery of detail builds upon these facts a history at once picturesque and surprising.

Stated briefly his hypotheses amount to this. The exodus from Gaul to Ireland (A.D. 419–507) was caused by the Homoousian persecution. Aquitania and the modern Baskish territory suffered like other parts, and Ireland was then the only haven of orthodoxy. Among the refugees from that region was the ‘fatuus homunculus’ who was so called by his fellow-countryman the deacon Ennodius (A.D. 473–521) but who called himself Virgilius Maro, Grammaticus. He found an asylum with a native prince as was the fashion for learned men in those days, settled, and taught grammar, nay more, gained for himself fame, recognition, and a place among the native poets, being in fact none other than Ferchertne fili.

The Auraicept bears abundant evidence of the influence of two Latin authors, Isidore and Maro. The latter Zimmer laboured to identify with Ferchertne fili. It can be shown that the Auraicept lends no support to this proposed identification. This Ferchertne fili ( ZCP 3, 13) is described in the tract as a contemporary of Conchobar mac Nessa (736), who, whatever reckoning be adopted, lived somewhere about the second century (cf. AU 484). According to this chronology, therefore, the identification of Ferchertne fili and Maro would place the latter at least a couple of centuries before his known floruit. Again the matter treated of by Ferchertne fili—the seven elements of speech in Irish, and the formation and powers of Ogham letters—does not correspond to anything in Maro's pages. If it be proved also that, while Isidore's influence is felt chiefly in the earlier part of the Auraicept, Maro's influence is confined entirely to the later, Zimmer's main contention that Maro was Ferchertne fili cannot succeed. Several centuries lay between the inception of the Auraicept and its close.


Maro's tract had a profound influence on the Auraicept, but none on its early stages. According to internal evidence Cenn Faelad wrote the part ascribed to him about the middle or second half of the seventh century. That is the superior limit. The inferior limit lies in the eleventh century, or perhaps the tenth, and is determined generally by two facts—(i) that the Auraicept is found in two families of MSS., the variations in which postulate many generations of scribes, and (2) the immense development which has taken place in the tract itself as it has advanced from crude statements to a prosody which is exceedingly complicated and difficult. But the argument does not rest entirely on general considerations.

The second text (3382) quotes native grammarians by name, Ua Bruic, Ua Coindi, Ua Coirill and Ua Finn (3391). They are named by their surnames (each being the acknowledged head of his family), a usage that is not found earlier than the tenth century, one of the earliest instances being that of Ua Ruairc, AU 953. Ua Coirill mentioned above may have been the professor of law and history, who died AU1083. Hence the Auraicept was not completed before the middle of the tenth century, perhaps not till towards the end of the eleventh, when Maro's influence is still in evidence.

Let us now look at some excerpts from the works of the two Latin authors, Isidore and Maro.

I. Isidore of Seville, who died A.D. 636.
His Etymologiae or Origines in twenty books contain a vast amount of information of such a sort that one finds it impossible to resist the conclusion that the compilers of the Auraicept had this document before them. At least that Cenn Faelad and Isidore drew matter from a common


source is a certainty, for the facts (or alleged facts) and the phraseology are the same.

If we keep in mind that Isidore died the year before the battle of Moira, and that after that event Cenn Faelad began and pursued his studies with such success that he was popularly supposed to forget nothing (so one may interpret the words), and if we remember further that there was a constant coming and going of learned men, and a steady exchange of books between the continent and Ireland, there is no inherent improbability in the supposition that Cenn Faelad assimilated some of his material from the Origines published perhaps some twenty years before. True, the name of Isidore does not occur in the Auraicept, but no more does that of Eusebius from whom he probably made extracts, nor that of Luccreth Mocu Chiara ( Älteste irische Dichtung, p. 51), from whose poem the passage about the seventy-two races ( Aur. 215–227) was certainly taken.

There being no difficulty as to date or the omission of a name, full weight may be allowed to any other considerations tending to connect the two authors. The following quotations from many books of the Origines show how much the Auraicept was indebted to that source both in general structure and in detail.

Some references demonstrate that the Irish and Ireland were not unfamiliar to Isidore, at least as an author:
Horrent et male tecti cum latratoribus linguis Scotti.’’

Origg. xix. 23, 6.

Scotia idem et Hibernia proximae Brittaniae insula, spatio terrarum angustior, sed situ fecundior. Haec ab Africo in Boream porrigitur. Cujus partes priores Hiberiam et Cantabricum Oceanum intendunt, unde et Hibernia dicta: Scotia autem, quod ab Scotorum gentibus colitur, appellata.’’

Origg. xiv. 6, 6.


Time, place, person, and cause of writing ( Aur. 63, 735, 1029), define the general plan and treatment of a subject, and are usually found in the íntroduction to any serious work in Irish.

Iam vero in elocutionibus illud uti oportebit, ut res, locus, tempus, persona audientis efflagitat.’’

Origg. ii. 16, 1.

The cradle of letters was in Achaia, or by projection of d from art., Dacia, or by early French pronunciation, Asia.

Ubi fuit Athenae civitas.’’

Origg. xiv. 4, 10.

Apud Eotenam (uel Athena) civitatem.’’

Aur.. 214.

Fuit autem Isis regina Aegyptiorum, Inachis regis filia, quae de Graecia veniens Aegyptios litteras docuit.’’

Origg. viii. 11, 84.

These sentences show that, unless the Biblical Accad was introduced from some other source, Achaia (251) was probably the original reading; but the possibility that Achaia lay in Maeotidis Paludibus ( ZCP 10 126) must not be overlooked.

Namque omnium ferocissumi ad hoc tempus Achaei atque Tauri sunt, quod, quantum conjicio, locorum egestate rapto vivere coacti.’’

Glossae Juvenalis (Sall. Fragmenta).

Authority, written authority, ugdaracht (131), perhaps includes the following authors of whom, however, only two, Moses and Hieronymus (q.v.), are mentioned by name:
Moyses, Dares Phrygius, Herodotus, Pherecydes.
Vnde Sallustius ex historia, Livius, Eusebius et Hieronymus ex annalibus et historia constant.’’

Origg. i. 42; 44, 4.

What are the names of the seventy-two races from which the many languages were learnt? (215, 263):
Gentes autem a quibus divisa est terra, quindecim sunt de Japhet, triginta et una de Cham, viginti et


septem de Sem, quae fiunt septuaginta tres, vel potius, ut ratio declarat, septuaginta duae; totidemque linguae, quae per terras esse coeperunt, quaeque crescendo provincias et insulas impleverunt.’’

Origg. ix. 2, 2.

In definition a bias existed towards the heptad or the octave, Aur. 639, 739.
De septem liberalibus disciplinis. Grammatica dialectica, etc.,’’

Aur.. 51.—Origg. i. 2, 1.

Occasionally individual words are closely defined:
Materia inde dicitur omne lignum quod ex ea aliquid efficiatur.’’

Origg. xix. 19, 4.

Fid, Aur. 943, cf. later the use of adbar.

The importance of Hebrew is insisted on:
Illa lingua quae ante diluvium omnium una fuit, quae Hebraea nuncupatur.’’

Origg. xii. 1, 2.

The Hebrew language was in the world first and it will remain after doomsday (190).
Item quaeritur qua lingua in futurum homines loquantur.’’

Origg. ix. 1, 13.

The following passage explains why Gaelic was deemed a worldly speech (46), not being one of the three sacred tongues in which was written the superscription on the cross (165).
Linguarum diversitas exorta est in aedificatione turris post diluvium. Nam priusquam superbia turris illius in diversos signorum sonos humanam divideret societatem, una omnium nationum lingua fuit, quae Hebraea vocatur. Initio autem quot gentes, tot linguae fuerunt, deinde plures gentes. Tres sunt autem linguae sacrae: Hebraea, Graeca, Latina quae toto orbe maxime excellunt. His enim tribus linguis super crucem Domini a Pilato fuit causa eius scripta.’’

Origg. ix. 1–3.


The early Irish rhythmical alliterative poetry, e.g.—
arnin arding [d]éd,
forsail for fot fedair,
dinin disail for gair gabhaidh (1546),
extending up to and running into the eighth century, might almost be defined by the words:
Huic adhaeret rythmus, qui non est certo fine moderatus, sed tamen rationabiliter ordinatis pedibus currit; qui Latine nihil aliud quam numerus dicitur.’’

Origg. i. 39, 3.

A verse of dithyramb or metrical rhythm is to be measured by a breath of the poet, five words to each breath (930).
Periodos autem longior esse non debet quam ut uno spiritu proferatur.’’

Origg. ii. 18, 2.

Grammatical questions as to gender and comparison of adjectives find a like expression in Latin and Gaelic:
Neutrum dictum quia nec hoc nec illud, id est nec masculinum nec femininum.’’

Origg. i. 7, 28; Aur.. 614.

Octo autem modis conparatio analogiae colligitur: id est qualitate, conparatione, genere, numero, figura, casu, extremitatibus similium syllabarum, et similitudine temporum.’’

Origg. i. 28, i; Aur.. 639.

Non est maius nisi ad minus referatur.
Sic et parvum opponitur magno ita ut ipsud parvum ad magnum, cui opponitur, sit parvum.’’

Origg. ii. 31, 4, 5; Aur.. 676.

Inde Ponticus sinus amplissimus a tergo Maeotidis paludibus; quod mare ex multitudine fluminum dulcius quam cetera.’’

Sallust, quoted by Priscian, Macrobius, Servius, and Origg. xiii. 16, 4.

in dulci aqua’’

xii. 6, 56;

sive salsae sint sive dulces.’’

xiii. 14, 1; Aur.. 730.


Artificial etymologies carry their influence into the Gaelic text; vir is derived from víres, mulier from mollities, fémina from fémur:
Vir nuncupatus, quia maior in eo vis est quam in feminis.’’

Origg. xi. 2, 17; Aur.. 605.

Mulier vero a mollitie, tanquam mollier, detracta littera vel mutata, appellata est mulier.’’

Origg. xi. 2, 18;

cf. femina de flescda no maithchnechas,’’

Aur.. 610.

Femora dicta sunt, quod ea parte a femina sexus viri discrepet. Sunt autem ab inguinibus usque ad genua. Femina autem per derivationem femorum partes sunt, quibus in equitando tergis equorum adhaeremus.’’

Origg. xi, 1, 106.

Femina vero a partibus femorum dicta ubi sexus species a viro distinguitur.’’

Origg. xi. 2, 24; Aur.. 608.

Consonants, semi-vowels, and mutes are treated similarly in the Gaelic and the Latin texts:
Et vocatae consonantes quia per se non sonant sed iunctis vocalibus consonant. Haec in duabus partibus dividuntur: in semivocalibus et in mutis. Semivocales dictas eo, quod quiddam semis de vocalibus habeant.’’

Mutae autem dictae quia nisi subiectis sibi vocalibus nequaquam erumpunt.’’

Origg. i. 4, 3, 4; cf. Aur.. 358 et seq.; 367 et seq.; 468 et seq.

Vnde et legitimae nominantur illa ratione, scilicet vel quod ab E vocali incipiunt et in mutum sonum desinunt, ut sunt consonantes, vel quod a suo sono incipiunt et in vocalem E desinunt ut sunt mutae.’’

Origg. i. 4, 10; Aur.. 488.

The active and the passive of verbs:
Etargaire persainni i ngnim (651); i cessadh (653).
In persona verbi agentis et patientis significatio est.’’

Origg. i. 9, 1.


The Origines contain well-known quotations (and the above may be of this sort):
Litterae autem dictae quasi legiterae, quod iter legentibus praestent, vel quod in legendo iterentur.’’

Origg. i. 3, 3; Aur.. 360.

Some quotations are hard to find elsewhere:
Nam unum semen numeri esse, non numerum.’’

Origg. iii. 3, 1; Aur.. 688.

It is not time that is divided but our actions (93).

Nam tempus per se non intellegitur, nisi per actus humanos.’’

Origg. v. 31, 9.

These references I have not found.— Aur. 464, 517, 728.

The foregoing quotations are found in the portion of the Auraicept attributed to Cenn Faelad. They occur not only in commentary but often in the structure of the composition. Hence the conclusion that Cenn Faelad had before him the Origines or a document based thereon, and closely resembling it, is amply justified.

The use of the Origines is continued in the Gaelic text, after the portion attributed to Cenn Faelad ends. In the latter part of the book occur also some few suggestions of Ogham.

What is known as nihilus, Aur. 970, 8, is thus explained:
V quoque littera proinde interdum nihil est, quia alicubi nec vocalis nec consonans est, ut QVIS. Vocalis enim non est quia I sequitur; consonans non est quia Q praecedit. Ideoque quando nec vocalis, nec consonans est, sine dubio nihil est.’’

Origg. i. 4, 8.

A quotation common in the grammarians is:
Nisi enim nomen scieris, cognitio rerum perit.’’

Origg. i. 7, 1; Aur.. 1099.


A quotation not seen by me elsewhere:
Lapis autem dictus quod laedat pedem.’’

Origg. xvi. 3, 1; Aur.. 3396.

OccasionaIly the Latin helps to decide the reading of the Gaelic text:
Incorporalia, quia carent corpus; unde nec videri nec tangi possunt, ut veritas, iusticia.’’

Origg. i. 7, 4; cf. Aur.. 3238.

Occasionally the Gaelic is a running commentary on the Latin:
‘Perspicuae voces sunt quae longius protrahuntur ita ut omnem inpleant continuo locum, sicut clangor tubarum’ (stocaireacht no cornaireacht, Aur. 1477). ‘Subtiles voces’ (cronan no certan bec, 1474) ‘sunt, quibus non est spiritus, qualis est infantium vel mulierum vel aegrotantium, sicut in nervis’ (intan is cruit, 1484). ‘Quae enim subtilissimae cordae sunt, subtiles ac tenues sonos emittunt’ (intan as bindi is tuiu & is isliu ata na a n-aill, 1484). ‘Pingues sunt voces, quando spiritus multus simul egreditur, sicut virorum’ (mod .i. mo od .i. od ceol intan is mascul 1470). ‘Acuta vox tenuis, alta, sicut in cordis videmus’ (traethait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda 1477). ‘Dura vox est, quae violenter emittit sonos sicut tonitruum, sicut incudis sonos, quotiens in durum malleus percuititur ferum’ (intan is torand no is crand 1479, tourand no caint 4575).

‘Caeca vox est, quae, mox emissa fuerit, conticescit, atque suffocata nequaquam longius producitur, sicut est in fictilibus’ (tae a ed intan is fod 1479, fouta 4578). ’’

Origg. iii. 20, 10–13.

Occasionally the Latin determines the interpretation of the Gaelic, the latter being an almost literal translation of the former:
Superflui sunt, quorum partes simul ductae plenitudinem excedunt, ut puta duodenarius. Habet enim partes


quinque: duodecimam, quod est unum; sextam, quod duo; quartam, quod tria; tertiam, quod quattuor; dimidiam, quod sex. Vnum enim et duo, et tria, et quattuor, et sex simul ducta xvi faciunt et longe a duodenario excedunt.
Perfectus numerus est, qui suis partibus adinpletur, ut senarius; habet enim tres partes, sextam, tertiam, dimidiam: sexta eius unum est, tertia duo, dimidia tres. Haec partes in summam ductae, id est unum et duo et tria simul eundem consummant perficiuntque senarium.’’

Origg. iii. 5, 9—11; Aur. 1443—1453.

Occasionally the Gaelic gives merely the gist of the Latin:
Primum enim diem a Sole appellaverunt, qui princeps est omnium siderum, sicut et idem dies caput est cunctorum dierum. Secundum a Luna, quae Soli et splendore et magnitudine proxima est, et ex eo mutuat lumen. Tertium ab stella Martis quae Vesper vocatur. Quartum ab stella Mercurii, quam quidam candidum circulum dicunt. Quintum ab stella Iovis, quam Phaethontem aiunt. Sextum a Veneris stella, quam Luciferum asserunt, quae inter omnia sidera plus lucis habet. Septimus ab stella Saturni, quae sexto caelo locata triginta annis fertur explere cursum suum.’’

Origg. v. 30, 5–7; Aur. 3531–9.

Titles of chapters or sections in the Origines appear as names of Ogham:
De homine xi. 1. . . . daenogam 5709.
De avibus xii. 7. . . . enogam 5692.
Oppida nobilia xv. 1, 6. . . . dinnogam 5687.
De aedificiis sacris xv. 4. . . . ceallogam 5702.
De navibus xix. 1,1. . . . ogam n-eathrach 6132.
De instrumentis rusticis xx. 14. . . . ogam tírda 5724.
De coloribus xix. 17 . . . dathogam 5697.


Bible names suffer change in passing into the Gaelic text through the Latin transliteration:
Nebuchadnezzar, Nabuchodonosar,’’

Origg. v, 39, 18; Nabgodon, Aur, 127.

Nimrod, Nembroth,’’

Origg. vii. 6, 22; Neamruad, Aur. 112.

Noah, Noe,’’

Origg. vii. 6, 15; Nóe, Aur. 107.

Secrecy—the avowed purpose of Ogham—is outlined in a simple code similar to that which finds expression in Aur. 6011.
Caesar quoque Augustus ad filium, ‘quoniam,’ inquit, ‘innumerabilia accidunt assidue quae scribi alterutro oporteat et esse secreta, habeamus inter nos notas si vis tales ut, cum aliquid notis scribendum erit, pro unaquaque littera scribamus sequentem hoc modo pro a b, pro b c, et deinceps eadem ratione ceteras; pro s autem redeundum erit ad duplex a a.’ Quidam etiam versis verbis scribunt.’’

Origg. i. 25, 2.

This reference I have not found: Aur. 3244–8, but cf. Maro 24, 10–24.

II. Virgilius Maro, Grammaticus

The editor, Huemer, in his Praefatio, p. xi., after giving a list of blunders common to all the MSS. of Maro, concludes:
Atque archetypum illud litteris scotticis scriptum fuerit necesse est, cum a et u, c et t, r et s, s et f, p et f, saepe permutatae videntur.

The conclusion is irresistible. Whether the scribe was himself perpetrating these blunders, or, as his editor thinks, merely copying them from others, the sources of Maro, as we know him, are Irish.

Meyer, in two lists ( Sitzungsberichte der Kgl. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss. July, December 1912), gives,


from Maro's tract, a selection of forty-two names, which he considers to be of Celtic origin. They are as follows:
Aemerius p. (22).
Andrianus (173).
Arca rex (15).
Asp-orius (5).
Assianus (173).
Bi-entius (137).
Breg-andus (162).
Don (15, 30).
Fassica f. (123).
Gabr-itius (126).
Galb-arius (163).
Galb-ungus (10, 122, 133).
Gal-irius (146).
Gall-ienus (129).
Gelb-idius (36).
Gerg-esus (15).
Glengus (122, 133).
Gurg-ilius (173).
Iuu-anus (54).
Lap-idus (19).
Lassius (107).
Lato-mius (123).
Lugenicus (162).
Mart-ulis (92).
Mitterius (114).
Ninus (119).
Oss-ius (163).
Perrichius (163).
Plastus (151).
Prass-ius (61).
Regulus (?) (133).
Rigas f. Rigadis (122).
Rithea Nini regis uxor (119).
Sagillius Germanus (17).
Samm-inius, Virgil's uncle (28).
Sarbon (122).
Sarr-icius (123).
Saur-inus (28).
Sedulus (138, 139).
Senenus (138).
Sulpita (24).
Ursinus (90).

Further examination may shorten the list without seriously disturbing the contention that if Maro had no connection with Ireland, his circle of Irish friends was unaccountably large.

Sua apte (116, 11; 81, 4) has been recognised as an Irish-Latin hybrid, su-apte, which later came into common use in Irish Latin.

There is a sprinkling of the loci communes of Latin Grammar, e.g.—

Maro denies that Latinitas is derived from Latinus, preferring latitudo, p. 5, 6: Aur. 355.
litera ab ipsis etiam cerae caracteribus usque ad quassorum compossitionem hosce ordines directat,’’

p. 7, 10; Aur. 1756.

syllabae monades senas literas transcendere non debent ut scrobs,’’

Maro, p. 11, 7; Aur. 1229.


Grama est litteraturae peruidatio, quae quasi quaedam totius lectionis semitula est unde et a peritis litera interpretatur legitera quod est legendi itinerarium.’’

Maro, p. 19, 11; Aur. 1758.

A certain resemblance is discernible between Maro, 24, 10–23, and Aur. 3244, and between
Nec aperte masculinum nec absolute dicitur esse feminum.’’

Maro, 31, 13; Aur. 614.

verbum est omne quod lingua profertur et voce.’’

Maro, 88, 6, and Aur. 1924.

The device scinderatio fonorum, Maro declares (p. 76, 7), was resorted to in order to sharpen the wits, to adorn expression, and:
tertia (causa) ne mystica quaeque, et quae solis gnaris pandi debent, passim ab infimis ac stultis facile repperiantur.’’

Maro, (p. 76, 7)

The same reason, here called tertia, is alleged for the invention of Ogham:—
Co mbeth in bescna-sa ic lucht in eolais fo leth, sech lucht na tirdachta & na buicnechta,’’

Aur. 5472.

One device consisted in breaking up a sentence into groups of letters, e.g.—
RRR. SS. PP. MM. NT. EE. OO. A.V.I., i.e., spes Romanorum perit.’’

Maro, 77, 12; cf. Aur. 3501–3.

Also, words may be broken up into syllables, and these again may be strewn about in the jingle of a so-called sentence, e.g.—
sicut Lucanus edidit; ge. ves. ro. trum. quando. tum. a. fec. om. ni. libet aeuo, [which is thus explained, quandolibet vestrum gero omni aeuo affectum.]’’

Maro, 77, 6.

Or in single words, e.g. nodo for dono, nesi for sine, germen


for regnum.—Maro 78, 28. This process appears in Irish as delidin sillabacda, Aur. 5312.

Amans may be transformed into manas (Maro, 79, 4), heri into hrei, is into si (78, 31); atat into tata (79, 10), a process which is called delitin litterda, metathesis of letters, Aur. 5308.

A meaningless syllable or disyllable may be introduced into a word, e.g. naviga-be-re for navigare, b-u-onum for bonum (Maro, 78, 17); forti-osi-ter for fortiter, compt-os-e for compte (Maro, p. 70, 6). A meaningless disyllable so introduced into Gaelic is called condall, Aur. 5317.

The unstressed syllable following an accented syllable is sometimes dropped, e.g. rogassem, rogasse for rogauissem, rogauisse; rogarunt, rogarit for rogauerunt, rogauerit (Maro, 78, 10). In Gaelic poetry this is called cotut, Aur. 5287.

Still more does the influence of Maro emerge in the Trefhocul.

The name Trefhocul bears a resemblance to the heading of the chapter De trimodo dicendi genere, Orig. ii. 17 which may have suggested it. Similarly the twelve items composing the Trefhocul might have been originally suggested by the duodecim latinitates of Maro, p. 88, 22, e.g.

  1. lumbrosa, hoc est perlonga, cum pro uno usitato totus uersus scribitur, with perlonga, cf. (can) rofota, Aur. 5060; and for the matter, cf. Aur. 5943 where each letter besides being written is spelt.
  2. sincolla, hoc est perbreuis, uersa uice cum totus uersus usitatus in uno continetur fono. With perbreuis, cf. (can) rogair, Aur. 5059, and for the matter, cf. Aur. 1326.
  3. belsauia, hoc est peruersa, cum casus nominum modusque uerborum transmutat. With peruersa, cf. (can) chlóen. — Aur. 5057, 5086.
  4. spela, hoc est humillima, quae semper res terrenas loquitur, with humillima, cf. a irisel, used of an appended syllable, a. — Aur. 5079, 5346.

  5. p.xliv

  6. polema, hoc est superna quae de superioribus tractat. With superna, cf. a irard, an appended syllable, aib.— Aur. 5078, 5341.
  7. Assena, hoc est notaria, quae una tantum littera pro toto sono contenta est, cf. Q for ceirt, Aur. 5816, and R for Ruis 5820.

These coincidences are too numerous to be accidental. Omitting other lesser similarities, to lay stress on which might be regarded as fanciful, we come to the solid ground of quotation, (Hereon Zimmer, not having the whole tract before him, could find no footing.)

  1. metrofia, hoc est intellectualis, ut dictantabat, id est principium; sade, id est iustitia; gno utilitas; bora, hoc est fortitudo; ter hoc est dualitas coniugalis; rfoph, hoc est ueneratio; brops, hoc est pietas; rihph, hoc est hilaritas; gal, hoc est regnum; fkal, hoc est religio; clitps, hoc est nobilitas; mymos, dignitas; fann, hoc est recognitio; ulio, hoc est honor; gabpal, hoc est obsequium; blaqth, hoc est lux solis; merc hoc est pluuia; pal, dies et nox; gatrb, hoc est pax; biun, hoc est aqua et ignis; spax, longeuitas.

With the exception of y and z, which may have been added from another source, the explanation following hoc est, id est, is in each case identical with that given in Aur. 4211–4223.

Perhaps more important than all is the following:
De h autem hoc dicendum est, quod semper inspirat, nunc ad fortitudinem, nunc ad motationem tantum. Nam cum semiuocalem praecesserit f, solum sonum pariter motabunt ut hfascon et faciunt f pro hf, si uero mutam c uel t uel p, suum sonum non amittit ut hcorda, htronus, hpalanx, Maro, p. 10, 9–14.

This passage throws light on Aur. 432, 1264–1279. Bogad there means aspiration (and apparently on finals) ut cloch,


both. It has also another meaning, fortitudo, influenced by Ogham usage, where B + H = P, thus supplying the P which is non-existent in pure Gaelic. Semigud, again, means lenition and apparently on initials, but on this point the examples are inconclusive (cf. beith mo hsuidhe CZ 10. 266). Here the aspirating H precedes the consonant it aspirates, and thus Maro and the Auraicept are at one.

The warrantable conclusions to be drawn from the facts are few but very important. Bigerro sermone clefabo (Maro 8, 13) ‘in the speech of Bigorre,’ which Zimmer presses to show that Maro was a native of that district, though in the tenth century he is called Tolosanus, proves merely that Maro was more or less conversant with Baskish. He was acquainted with viro athensi, a man belonging to the town of Ate south of Limoges (Maro 141, 28). He mentions a Sibylla Carginiensis, belonging to the town of Carca, in the Department of the Iberian Bastitani (p. 48, 25), and he knew a great number of Irishmen. Except perhaps in the passage last quoted in which h ad fortitudinem may be compared with b cum aspiratione pro p ponitur (432, 2879), no connection is traceable between him and Ferchertne fili, whose work belongs to a much earlier period than the Trefhocul. The influence of Maro's book on Irish grammar is confined to the Trefhocul, the last stage of the growth of prosody. The Auraicept proper, of which Ferchertne fili was one of the authors, or one under whose name ancient material was incorporated, shows no trace of Maro's influence.

Interesting questions arise in the text itself, some of which need only be mentioned, e.g.:—

The so-called mutes l, n, r, pronounced el, en, er in Latin, le, ne, in Gaelic (490, 511, 2981).

The frequent absence of aspiration, or aspiration by omission, of f and s,
ni aimser fota 1576, ae aiges (408,9).


The confusion owing to the distance of the gloss from its text; e.g., 1515 is glossed at 1637, 1533–5 at 1675, 1577 at 1686, 1579 at 1687, 1591 at 1692, 1609–14 at 1695.

The tendency of words and phrases like alt co fesear (827, 1686), and fogni (1336, 1871) to become technical terms.

The French pronunciation of Latin, sirqundimus (4125), sircuim (4132), sircumplex (4784), siicuitas (2531), resulting in important changes in Gaelic, isinn Asia (2571) for isind Achaidh (251).

The rhymes, some apparently without sense (806), some without metre (1546), and some in metre but obscured by glosses (253, 4360, 5932).

The etymological reconstructions:—
co-fid for cubaid (1512),
ciallabair for ceileabar (1594),
fegait for fichit (4735), for fégait, sedhait (4737), segait (4739),
co, hógfégad for cóic (1637),
ré huamma for réim (1638),
so-fis for seis (479),
ae gnithi for aicned (501),
suad for uad (495),
conod miait (508) for conid muiti (495),
dorrae for trá (573), smitai, smit ai (= aue) for smita (4649).

The constant modernising of the text:—
ceithri gne (872), ceitheora gnee (3747),
moosom for moam (658),
lugusom for lugam (659),
cinntechsom, cinntichu son (1258) for cinntechem (4368).

Syllable, the ultimate element of everything in Gaelic except gender (1457). Number, case, person, degree, tense, mood, are indicated by syllables, whereas there is no


distinction of gender indicated in spelling; and mod, tod, traeth, secundum, quosdam is aurlond (1496) or leading word that indicates gender.

The ascription of the same poem to Colum Cille (938), and to Cormac (1596, 3867, 5351).

The repetition of the same passages 1487, 1502; cf. 2616, 2622, shows that the present text is made up from at least two versions which sometimes contained the same material in different order. Hence no doubt comes the disjointed character of many passages.

The following terms, however, are of importance in order to understand the text:—

The word inrocomraircnigsiomairne gives the key to the plan of inflection called filltigthi, prepositional cases (1515). These eight syllables are held to form one word. According to our present grammatical methods the basis or unity is the compound word of five syllables comroircnigsemmar. It is preceded by a relative pronoun an- and by an enclitic or pre-verb -ro-, and it is followed by an emphasising pronominal suffix -ni. But the native Irish grammarians regarded all these syllables as parts of one word, and the scribes wrote the whole as one word. In their opinion proclitics were not separate words, but rather filltigthi, inflections, of the accented word. Accordingly, they wrote frissinfer as one word, an inflected form of fer, and gave it a distinct technical name. This also explains how is fer (1529) comes into the scheme. Is was an unstressed proclitic, and as such was treated as part of the word following. They did not observe that is fer, a thúarascbáil, had already been dealt with under the head of fer, a ainmniugud; nor did they recognise identity of case and inflection in the words which they wrote
lafer, frissinfer; fofiur, iarfiur (1525).


Classification of prepositions, or any explanation of infixed pronouns (653) was thus rendered unnecessary.

Another flexion is réim, which later means oblique case (786). Of this flexion there are three kinds outward, inward, and both combined: outward ut est, fer. There is no flexion in the word as it stands in the nom., but there may be flexion in the context, e.g., in the accus., lasin (bf)fer; fir is an inward flexion of fer; and in fer is capable of both, e.g., dond fiur.

Taebreim prosta -i- fadéin (795) is the side-flexion, i.e., the external flexion of mé, tú, etc.

Tréfhocul rhymes with glé-accur (2179), and hence has é and f (f dot). It means ‘three words’ (2018), ‘and the knowledge of its secret,’ i.e., probably how it came to be so named, ‘is very hard,’ considering that ‘already thirty-six words have been found comprised under its species in Irish’ (2021). Tréfhocul came to mean a collection of precepts for the correction of incorrect versification. For each of the twelve technical faults (anocht), there were two correctives, each having its technical name, one belonging to the class called sciath, the other to that called gnúis. Thus the whole system of correct versification would have been comprised under a set of mnemonics, each mnemonic consisting of three heads, the name of the fault and the name of its two correctives—in short, it was a three-word scheme, and accurately named Tréfhocul. The original scheme of two correctives for each error is commended (2010–3), and still adhered to in rudrach (2047), and in uathad fri hilar (2057). But later refinements led to overlapping in the application of the correctives. Hence we find in the poem that a particular fault may be corrected or avoided by having recourse to more than one device of each class, sciath or gnúis.

We read that the 24 helps are increased to 47 (2126). The first list (2035–2071) totals 48, not 47; the second list


(2083–2118) totals 51; the third list (2131–2176) totals 48. The discrepancies may be purely scribal, and due to a misreading of the Roman numerals, e.g., iii. read as iv., ii. as v., a constant source of error.

What is the difference between the two kinds of corrective? It will be found that all those called scéith, except lugugud, the addition of a diminutive suffix, are purely artificial distortions of the words; whereas those called gnúisi, except cennfochrus túis, airichill, dechned, and dichned, are in accordance with strict grammatical usage e.g., the use metri causa of sofer instead of fer (sóerugud); dofer instead of fer (dóerugud); the addition of two proclitic syllables (lorga fuach), or of one syllable (dialt n-etarléme); the use of issé, issi, issed (urlonn insce), where they might be omitted, e.g.—
issí ind ala gnúis dég dil,
urlonn insci ria hairim,
(where issí completes the number of syllables required but might be dispensed with, if the number were complete without it); the use of singular for plural (óen), e.g.—
creid uaim féin, is fíor mo rann,
‘my quatrain,’ meaning (all the quatrains of) ‘my poem’; the use of plural for singular (lán), e.g.—
meni fhuilet (2198) = meni fuil.

There must be some distinction of ideas in the two terms. The gnúisi are or were originally the natural devices, and the scéith the artificial devices for avoiding metrical faults, and perhaps the words were adopted on that principle, gnúis being the natural part of the man on the outlook to ward off an enemy, sciath the artificial implement for the same purpose.

A similar touch of imagination emerges in regarding


head and heart as being supports of man, the male being (1808, 4994), and the further refinements of lánomna and their gene, mated pairs and their progeny. In the original notion doubtless the distinction was based on gender, but that fact was forgotten, and among the examples are lánomna deime (4999), mated couples (mas. and fem. in grammar), belonging to dem (a thing which is neuter in nature). This usage is even extended to quantity, which is still more remote from the original idea of gender.

The same tendency to personification appears in the suggested distinction among forcomét, frecomét, and degcomét (1818); forcomét, defensive armour, as kneecap on knee; frecomét, armament of offence, as knuckles; and degcomét, that which protects by supplying life and vigour.


Ogham alphabet was not of Irish origin (388, 2771).

‘Vielleicht,’ says Zimmer, ‘schon dem 2. Jahrhundert n. Chr. ist der Verkehr des keltisch-römischen Westgalliens mit seiner alten Kolonie, dem keltischen Irland, die Einführung des Ogamalphabets in Irland und die Sitte, dem Dahingeschiedenen aufrechtstehende Steinpfeiler zu errichten, zuzuschreiben’’’

(SPA., 8th Dec. 1910, p. 1096)


According to MacNeill (p. 335) the origin of the Ogham alphabet must be placed after the Roman conquest of Gaul, because prior thereto the Western Celts of the continent used the Greek alphabet, and Ogham is based on the Latin alphabet.

In our knowledge of written Gaelic, Ogham inscription bounds the horizon, and the identity in value of the Ogham symbols with later MS. tradition is clear, with a few exceptions.

B Group.

Oghamists are agreed that F, the third letter of the group, must be read as V in inscriptions.

H Group.

In the Kilkenny Arch. Journal, July 1874, p. 231, Mr G. M. Atkinson suggested that this group is named after the first five Gaelic numerals, haon, do, tri, ceathar, cuig. This suggestion, without touching on the origin of H, is open to the objection that óen in O.I. is used only in composition with a substantive; but in the meantime it furnishes a useful mnemonic, and, as it stands, it indicates a possible connection between this group and numerosa, No. IV. of the duodecim latinitates of Maro, p. 89,9.

The difficulty is with regard to H, the first letter of the group. According to Maro H has two powers, ad motationem and ad fortitudinem, distinctions which correspond to the values in the text: (1) H non est litera sed nota aspirationis (767), and (2) B cum aspiratione pro p ponitur (433).

There is no demonstrated instance of H occurring in any of the Ogham inscriptions, and the sign may have originally been devised to represent a consonant value which became rare or obsolete before the time of the extant inscriptions; and the first value of H was attracted to, and became identified with, the symbol when the letter became familiar through Latin sources.

An endeavour is here made to establish the second or Ogham value of H from the following considerations.

A stop sibilant existed in Gaelic (cf. Pedersen, Gr. [sect ]51), corresponding to Gaulish [ETH ], which is sometimes written S, e.g., Lat. i-uuenc-us, Ir. ó-ac, Cym. ieu-anc; also without c, Ir. óa, Cym. ieu. The sibilant representing i appears also in Ir. as s-ó, s-óu, s-ó-om. That this sound is represented by Ogham H is rendered probable by the occurrence of the form ihuinnéis, Lat. juvenes, Ériu, viii. 5.

But this sibilant sound is also written d, e.g., Tadg = Tasg-os, and probably r, e.g., do-bidc = -dibirc (cf. Brér


Garad for Brég Garad g .s. of Brí Garad). This value following B would give the Ogham B + H = P.

Again the three Ogham accents are represented in the text by the letters d, s, n, (4800). At lines 430, 2877, however, are found the three supplementa written h, s, n, except that at line 2878 for s = forsail is written the Latin sign of length (T has a sign that may be meant for s), and a particular sign is substituted for n. This leaves a probability that here H has the same value as D.

Teora fuillti ind Uraicepto (430, 2877) seem to be the three supplementa (cf. Origg. i. 3, 6), not of the Ogham but of the Auraicept, that is, they are additions made to the Ogham orthographic system by the grammarians of the MS. tradition. If this limitation be correct, examples of supplementa need hardly be looked for in the ancient Oghams. No opinion on this point is obtainable from modern Oghamists; for the word forbaid is hardly known, and Oghamists have hitherto ignored it. The word, however, occurs with definitions and examples in the Book of Ferchertne (810, 3633) one of the oldest parts of the text, and some of its provisions are exemplified, e.g., n (of cenn) is not doubled in Ogham (439) e.g. QENVENDANI, Penno-ouindos (Pedersen, Gr. [sect ]357). On the other hand a large number of inscriptions contain double letters. While some of these, dd and s, may perhaps be accents as indicated in the Auraicept, others like cc (1358, 1825) and ll (4788) obviously are not. Rhys Pedersen (Gr. [sect ] 4), and others incline to think them signs of lenition.

M Group.

The fact that the third symbol has the effect of two letters ng proves nothing as to that combination (4925).

In Ogham inscriptions the letters, if they belong to different syllables, are written separately, Studies in Irish Epigraphy i. 49.


The fourth symbol is said to represent sr or str, and the examples Stru 247, 2562, Streulae 5690, Strannan 5795, seem sufficient to establish that sound. The other examples point to a rare or obsolete sound like English z, e.g., stmólach 5695, sréghuindeacht 5801, súst 5727, srorca 5700.

No authenticated instance of this symbol has been found in inscriptions.

A Group.

The simple vowels have the same order and value as in Latin.

In epigraphy no distinction of long and short vowels has hitherto been observed.

Ea or Diphthong Group

The first and the last symbols ea and ae are interchanged.

The doubling of each letter in the explanatory script (1143) shows that the symbols stand for long vowels as well as diphthongs. Examples are given of é and ó (2873), of é and e (1285).

The symbol for í (1369) is also used for p ( Irish Epigraphy ii. 83; cf. MacNeill, p. 335, 6) and for medial y.

The symbol for ae (1365,70) is also used for x, which is regarded as a double c.

Prof. MacAlister ( Irish Epigraphy ii. 144–8) has called attention to an excellent example—perhaps two—of Nathair im Ceann (5821). Owing to his axiom that the Oghams were not Cryptograms ( Irish Epigraphy i. 66), he is unwilling to allow that the B and H groups were consciously interchanged (ii. 26, 140). But this interchange is contemplated ( Aur. p. 306, 42), and since the study of the Oghams was elementary work prescribed for junior students, the wonder is perhaps that so many of the epigraphs are in regular Ogham.1


Auraicept na n-Éces


{BB fo 314a16}{E fo 19b14 }
Incipit Auraicept na nEges .i. eraicept, ar er gach


Cid dianad toisseach seo? Ni ansa. Don tebi
rotebed isin Gaedilg, uair is ed toisseach arricht la Fenius
iar tiachtain din scoil gusna berlaib ammuich: gach son
forrdorcha robae in gach bescno & in gach berlu, is ed
5] doradadh isin Gaedilg, conad airi as foirleithiu quam gach
berla. Ar gach toisseach didiu, uair is ed ba toisseach laisna
filedaib gach son fordorcha do riachtain i tossuch .i.
beithi-luis ind ogaim arbithin dorchadad. Cest, cia tugaid
ara n-ebarar berla tobaide din Gaedilg? Ni ansa. Uair
10] rotebedh as gach berla; & gach son fordorcha gach berla,
fofhrith ined doib isin Gaedelg ara forleithi seach gach
mbescna. Cest didiu, ina raibi Gaedelg resiu rotobaidhe?
Robae emh, ar ni fagbaiter na da berla sechtmogat
ar cheana. Cest, cia tir i rrugad Gaedeal? Ni ansa.
15] I nEgipt. Ocus cia airm sonnrud? Ni ansa. I
mmaigh Ucca i rraind iartharaig descertaig Egipti.
Cia din scoil dus-cuaid gu suidhe? Ni ansa. Gaedel
mac Etheoir mic Toe mic Barachaim do Grecaib Scitie
(no Scithie) {BB folio 314b1}. Cest, cia met don-uc di? Ni ansa.
20] A huiledeto genmotha inni rothormachtatar filid tria
fordorchadh iar torrachtain gu Fenius. Cest, cia berla


{BB folio 314b18} {E folio 19b33}
duna di berlaibh sechtmogat rotaisealbad do Fenius i
tossuch? Ni ansa. Berla Feni . . .ar is e ba tochu lais
dia scoil & is e rodn-alt asa oetid & is e ba soom din scoil &
25] ar a forleithi seach gach mbeascna & is e berla toisseach
rugad on tur. Et robae Eabra & Greic & Laitin la Fenius
riasu tissad on Scithia & ni rainig a leas a ndeimniughudh
icon tur, conidh aire sin toisseach rotaissealbad. Cest,
nach raibi isna berlaib ilib ni bad uaisli du riachtain
30] i tossuch quam (.i. inas) in Gaedelg? Ni ansa em.
Ar a cuibdi, ar a edruma, ar a mine & a forleithiu.
Cid ar nad lethiu quam (.i. inas) gach mbescna? Ni
ansa. Uair is e cetna bescno rugad on tur, ba mede
co mbad leithiu quam gach mbescna, conid aen dia taisealbad
35] i tossach. Caide loc & aimsear & perso & tugait
din Gaedelg? Ni ansa. Loc di in tor Neamruaid,
ar is aga arricht i tossuch. Aimsear di aimser chumtaigh
in tuir la claind Adaimh. Persu di Sachab mac
Rochemhurcos & Gaedel mac Etheoir mic Thoe mic
40] Barachaim do Grecaib Scithia. Caidhe tugaid? Ni
ansa. Tor Nemruaidh di cumtuch. Asberait araile
conid tugait Gaedel {BB folio 315a} du dul isin tir i rrugad, conidh
he toissech roscrib i taiblibh & i llegaibh isin lug sondrud
dianad ainm Calcanensis. Is and roscrib Gaedel in
45] Gaedealg. Cid ar a n-abar bescna domunda din Gaedhilg
& nach di ata briathar lasna hegnadu eolcha? Ni ansa.
Arinni aisnedes du ceastaib & du chaingnib domundaibh
eter tuaith & eglais. Cid ara n-eper comad borb fiadh
Dia inti legas in Gaedhelg? Ni di ata briathar and eter


{BB folio 315a8} {E folio 20a6}
acht do uilideataid na feallsamnachta eter gramadaigh &
dileachtaigh & rim, amal atbert in fili:
    1. Foglaim, feallsamnacht is fas,
      Legeand, gramadach, is gluas
      Litirdheacht leir ocus rim
      55] Is beg a mbrig for nimh thuas.
Cest, nach fellsamnacht in Gaedhealg? Ni ansa em, acht
na ndenaid min-ughdair fri dereadh in domain ar thucait
a nderscnaighthi seach na n-ughdaru toisseacha, no is ed
as bescna domunda and & is fhellsamnacht dimhain: ind
60] eireteacht & ind aibres dorigni neach i n-aigidh na
firindi diadha & daenda & is ed sin is borb fiad Dia and.

Caidi log & aimser & perso & tugait scribind in Uraicepta?
Ni oenlog tra lasna cethri libro, amal atbert in fili:
a n-as tuiseach, is ed is deghenach, a n-as dedhenach, is
65] ed as toisseach .i. a n-as toisseach iar n-urd lebhurda, is
ed as dedhenacho arricht .i. lebor Cindfaeladh mic Oilella.
Log & aimser & perso & tucait scribind in libhuir sin
Cindfaeladh, log do Daire Luran, aimser do aimser Domnaill
mic Æda mic Ainmireach. Perso do Cendfaeladh
70] mac Oilella, tugait a scribind a hinchind dermait du beim
a cind Chindfaelad i cath Muighi Rath. Ceithri buadha
in catha sin: Maidm for Conghal ina gaei re nDomnall
ina firindi; et Suibni i ngealtacht, acht is ar a mhed du
laidib duroni; in fear d'Albanachaib do breith in Erennaich
75] 'na chois dar muir gen airiugudh .i. Dubhdiadh a ainm;
et a inchind dermaid du bhem a cind Cindfaeladh ar a mhed
do fhilideacht & do bhriathraibh & do legeand rothaisigh.

Asberat tra augdair na nGaideal: Cid ara n-ebairt-seom,
asberat na hughtair robadar remi? uair is e Cendfaelad


{BB folio 315a39} {E folio 20a29}
arainig in lebar-sa .i. brollach ind Auraicepta. Ocus na
ugdair na nGaedheal, roba he sein Fenius Farsaigh & Iar
na n-ilberla mac Nema. Ni ansa. Ar uaisli na haimsiri
asrubairt .i. aimsiri frecnairci uair gebidh in aimsir frecnairc
arna huilib aimseraib, ut dicitur: Praesens tempus pro omnibus
85] temporibus ponitur .i. sam(l)aigther in aimsir frecnairc
forna huilib aimseraib. Cinnas on & se ig a rádh int aen-fhocul
i mbit in da shillab nach cantar i n-aenaimsir ut
dicitur lego .i. leghaim, quando dicis (col. b) le-, futurum est
-go [quando dicis -go] preteritum est le- .i. intan raide
90] int shillaib toisich todachaiche chugut int shillab dedenach
& seachmadhato seachat int shillab thoisenach. Defir on
amal asbert in Laidneoir: Tempus non diuiditur sed opera
nostra diuiditur .i. nochon i in aimsear fhogailter and
acht ar ngnimradh-ne. Ni hi dno is frecra dona
95] haugdaraib robadar i n-aenaimsir ris fen tuc Ceannfaelad
intan roraidh, asberait auctair na nGaedeal. Cidh ara
tuc-somh a ar tus sunda? .i. uair is i is sruithiu i fedaibh
& is uaisli i nguthaigib.

Co mbad si tugait in berla Feni (.i. berla Feniusa)
100] gnim n-ingnad n-indligtheach .i. is gnim n-ingnadh .i.
ingnath ara ainmenci, indlightheach ara uaibrigi .i. triall
for neam ina corpaib collaidib gan comairlechudh fri Dia.

Forcaemnacair and .i. cumtach in tuir Neamruaidh.
In Neamruadh sin tra trenfhear sil Adaimh
105] uile ina aimsir e, Neamruadh mic Cuis mic Caimh
mic Noe. Ni bai iaramh aenrigh for in doman
gu haimsir Nin mic Bel acht mad comhairlidhe &
toisig nama badar and go sin anall. Da comhairlidh
sechtmogat iaramh robadar isin domun isin aimsir i


{BB folio 315b22} {E folio 20b1}
ndernad in tor. Ba he dno in dara comairlib sechtmogat
Neamruad. Trenfear sidhe dno & fer an i selg .i. for
aigibh & fiadhuch .i. for mila muige & arrcheasaib .i. for
mucaib alltaib & fornelaib .i. for enaib, co mbidis sochaidi
do dhainibh ica leanmain samlaidh co mba lia .i. hi sloghaib
115] & co mba nertmairi oldas comhairlid samhlaidh. Conid
he dorimtas (.i. rotimairg) na da comairlib sechtmogat sin
i n-aencomairli do dhenum in tuir la hua brathar a athar
.i. la hiarmo derbbrathar a shenathar .i. la Fallec mac
Ragua mic Arfaxat mic Sem mic Noe; & ba he sen in
120] dara comairlib sechtmogat cena go sin. Et asberatsomh
iarum co mad aencomairlib & inann tuismidh doib uile
in Faillec. Is imchomarc sund anmanda na da fhear
sechtmogat lais a ndernad in tor, acht chena ni airmed
scribenda acht anmanda na seacht fear ndeg ba hairegdu
125] dib .i. Faillec, Neamruad, Eber, Latinus, Riabad Scot,
Nabgodon, Assur, Ibath, Longbardus, Bodbus, Brittus,
Germanus, Garath, Scithius, Gotius, Bardanius, Sardain.
Acht chena is e in cetri iar ndilind iar n-aicniud .i. Neamruadh.
Is e sin in cetri iar n-eladhain in Fallec remraite.
130] Is e dono iar n-ugdaracht .i. Nin mac Bel mic Ploisc mic
Pluliris mic Agomolis mic Fronosis mic Gitlis mic Tiris
mic Assuir mic Semh mic Noe. Atcotaidhi-seom dno
anni sin. Et asberat Neamruadh co mbad a ainm-seomh
forbeith in gnima sin. Adrodamas (.i. rodaimed) dno dosom
135] anni sin. Tredhe didiu ar a ndernad la claind nAdaim
cumdach in tuir sin .i. ar imuamhan na dileand duridhisi


{BB folio 315b49} {E folio 20b23}
& do dul for neamh doib 'na corpaib don talmain &
d'urdairciugud a n-anmandh dia n-eis, conid de sin asbert
righ nimhi fri muintir nimi {BB folio 316}: Uenite ut uideamus &
140] confundamus lingas eorum .i. tait co rofegam & gu romelachtnaighem
berla innani sin. Ba mor tra cumachta sil
Adaimh & a nneart isin aimsir sin ic denum in tuir co
festais iaramh in robhae cumachta righ nimhi uaso, conruammesc-sen
.i. conremesc impu. In tan asberad neach
145] dib fri aroili 'tuc damh cloch' ba crand doberead .i. na
lecca forsa suaitea in chre & na forchai dia suaitea, is iat
sin croind & clocha no-imluaighdis eturru. Dolodar tra
filid asin Scithia riab cianaib iarsna gnimaib-sea du
cuingidh fogluma na n-ilberla icon tur, air dorumenadar
150] (.i. rotoimtnigedar .i. dodochusaigeder) magen asa
fordailte & i n-arnechta na hilberla do shil Adhaimh,
romeartis and iarna comlani. Dolodar iaramh gu mag
Seannair dochum in tuir .i. mag n-Ucna no mag nDoraimh
i n-iartharthuascert maigi Sennair ainm sondrudach na
155] rrindi forsata in tor. Coigiur ar sechtmogait a lin na filed
.i. fear gach berla & na tri saidhi .i. sai gach primhberla
dona tri primberlaibh .i. Eabra & Greic & Laidean. Ceithri
berla sechtmogat as gach berla dib-sen, is ed rofadlad and.
Fenius Farrsaid, is ed ba hainm a tuisigh & ba sai
160] sen isna primberlaibh (cid siu na-tisad a tuaid asin
Scithia). Is e fath ara cuirther primhdhacht i lleith na
tri mberla sin ara med do eladhnaibh dorighnedh estib


{BB folio 316a23} {E folio 20b44}
& arin cumasc rocumaiscit tri gach mberla, no dno is
arin titul roscribad estib 'na triur i clar na croiche.
165] O na fuair Fenius comhlainius na mberladh icon tur
forfodhail a scoil & a desciplu fo chaithrecha & fo cennadcha
in talman ar gach leath du fhoghlaim na mberla
& rosn-othrastar Fenius etir biathadh & etghudh i cen
badar oca fhoghlaim .i. secht mberla & anais Fenius icon
170] tur & adrotreb co torracht a scol ina dochum di cach
aird & bai ic forcedul hilchenel in domain icon tur
inn ead sin. Conad de sin asbert i curp libair:
is and roan Fenius fadesin icon tur & is and
adrothreabh. Asberat aroili auctair ni raibi neach
175] di cloind Ionan mic Iafeth mic Noe dia roghenedar
Greic & dia rochin Fenius ic cumtuch in tuir.

Debthir on, ar ni raibi cland etir ic Ionan no ni raibi
fen in mac sin oc Iafeth ut Hieronymus dixit. Cest,
caite genelach Feniusa? Ni ansa. Farrsaidh didiu mac
180] Baath mic Magogh mic Iafeth mic Noe. No Fenius
Farsaidh mac Eogain mic Glunfind mic Laimfind mic
Etheoir mic Agnomain mic Toe mic Boinb mic Semh
mic Mair mic Ethecht mic Aurtecht mic Abodh mic
Aoi mic Ara mic Iara mic Sru mic Esru mic Boath mic
185] Riafath mic Gomer mic Iafeth mic Noe & rl. Et dno is
Sgithegdha Fenius & cuga berthar Scithi & Gothi
iarna ngenelchaib. Et robadar sil Nae ar ceana. Berla
nEbraidi 'na tengtha robai isin domun ri araile cumhdach
in tuir .i. Gorthigernd & is ed dno bhias iar


{BB folio 316a49} {E folio 21a12}
mbrath & asberat araile co mbad eadh nobeth la muintir
nimhe. Iar tiachtain tra dona desciplaib co Fenius o
foglaim & iar taispenad a cuarta (.i. a n-imdeachta) & a
{BB folio 316b1} n-gresa (.i. a foghluma) is andsin conaitchitar
gusin saidh .i. gu Fenius berla na beth oc neach eliu do
195] thebiu doibh asna hilberlaib acht comad acco a n-aenur
nobeth, conad airi sin conairneacht doib in berla tobaidhi
cona fortormaigib .i. berla Feni & iarmberla & a mberla
n-edarscartha eter na fedhaib airegdhaibh amal duiruirmi
isin Duil Feadha Mair & berla na filed asa n-acaillit cach
200] dib aroile & a ngnathberla fogni do cach o ilcenela.
Goedeal mac Etheoir mic Toe mic Baracaimh di Grecaib
in dara sai robai i coemtect Feniusa, conad uadh
rohainmnigead Gaedealg .i. ealg airdirc in sin .i. Gaedheal
ros-irdarcaistar. Gaedeal dno glas mac Agnoin no Aingin
205] mac senbrathar athar do Fenius & ba sai sen dno cid he.
Is esside dorothlaigestar a mberla-sa gu Gaedheal mac
nEitheoir conid Gaedealg o Gaedel mac Etheoir. Et Gaedil
o Gaedhel mac Agnon no Aingin. Berla Feni tra arricht
sund & iarmberla & berla n-edarscartha etir na feadhaib &
210] berla na filed a ceathramad & an gnathberla fogni do chach
a coiced. Fenius Farsaidh tra mac Eogein & Iar mac
Nema & Gaedel mac Etheoir na tri saidh doreipsead na
berlu-sa & apud Eotenam (uel Athena) civitatem arrictha.

Cest, caidhead a n-anmandh na da chenel sechtmogat
215] o rofoghlaimet na hilberlae? Ni ansa. Beithin, Scithi,
Scuit, Germain, Meid (no Moid), Sicil, Hircain, Guit,


{BB folio 316b25} {E folio 21a33}
Point, Morain, Lugoil, Circir, Gailli, Paimpil, Luidi, Oigii,
Ciclaid, Creit, Corsic, Sardain, Sicil, Reit, Reicil, Roid,
Romain, Inair, Massail, Mair, Maigidon, Morcain, Nairn,
220] Narmais, Narboin, Norith, Nobith, Barais, Bethain,
Bretain, Boid, Maguich, Armoin, Amuis, Goircc, Galaid,
Achid, Athain,Taeasail, Ardair, Alain, Albain, Hircain,
Itail, Esbain, Goith, Guith, Gruind, Sarain, Frainc, Freisin,
Longbaird, Lacdemoin, Lodain, Essill, Tracdai, Troiannai,
225] Dordain, Dalmait, Dacia, Ethioip, Egept, Bramain,
Innecdai. It e sin tra anmanda na da cenel sechtmogat
lasa mbadar na da berla sechtmogat. Fer gach berla tra
dona berlaibh-sea, ba he lin na scoile & tri suidh & rofaided
gach fear dib fria berla & ni cach comceniuil dochuaidh and
230] dochum a comcrichi dun fhoghlaim sin acht is cach
comberlaidh amal rogab Cai Cainbrethach dalta Feniusa
in dara descipul sechtmogat na scoli. Ba do Ebraib a
bunadhus & ba co hEgeftagda rofaidhedh fobith is and
robatar a tusdidhe & ba hand rodn-alt & tuargabat fodesin
235] as a aetidh, conid desin asbeir-som i curp libair . i. Is cach
comberlaib dochuaid and & ni cach comcheneoil dochum a
chriche. Seacht mbliadna tra robatar na descipuil forsin
cuairt & teora bliadna doib ic taispenad a ngresa i fus iar
tiachtain comdar a deich samlaidh, conid desin asbeir-som
240] this i curp libhair: A cind {BB folio 317} deich mbliadan iar
scailiud doib on tur for gach leath durebeadh doib am
berla-sa. Bai tra cuigiur ar xx ba huaisliu dib. It e a


{BB folio 317a3} {E folio 21a36}
n-anmanda foratait feadha & taebomna in ogaim. It e andseo
a n-anmand .i. Babel, Loth, Foraind, Saliath, Nabgadon,
245] Hiruad, Dabhid,Talamon, Cae, Kaliap, Muiriath,
Gotli, Gomers, Stru, Ruben, Achab, Oise, Urith, Essu,
Iachim, Ethrocius, Uimelicus, Iudonius, Affrim, Ordines.

Iss iat sin anmand in choigir ar xx ba huaisliu bai i
scoil Feniusa. Asberait araili dno is i sin in aipgitir
250] arricht isind Achaidh & ic Tochur Inbir Moir arranig
Amairgin mac Miled in mbeithi-luis in oghaim.

‘Cia litir, cia nin, cia son In nach forbaider focol?’ (.i.
dinin disoil no fern). "‘Is cia son ger fogabar O nach fuach
tren tindscanar?’ (.i. ernin getal). Na coic feadha aireghdai
255] immorro inn oghaim, ba hon choiciur ba huaisliamh dib
rohainmnighthea {illu20.1}. Asberat araile
dn>o it vii feadha aireghdha filet and & is on morshesiur
ba huaisleam and rohainmnigthea & it e in dana fidh
duformaighet frisna cuic feda ugut {illu20.2}.

Cest, caidet airme cinnteacha tuir Nemruaidh? Ni
ansa. A viii .i. da comairlibh sechtmogat, da descipul
sechtmogat, da chenel sechtmogat na ndaene, da berla
sechtmogat du berlaibh ina scoil, da thuaith sechtmogat
lasa mbatar na berla sin & na cenela, da saer sechtmogat
265] fria gnim, da aicdhi sechtmogat eter ael & bitumain & talmain
& tathluib ina comhegur, da cheim for sechtmogait
inna leitheat amal asbert:—

    1. Airimh in tuir togaidhi
      Nemruaidh, ba din do dhainib,
      270] Ceithri cemeand sechtmogat,
      Coic cemend ar choic milib.
    2. Da chomairlib sechtmogat
      Tugsat saithiu for sluaighedh;
      Da berla for sechtmogait
      275] Rothidhnaic Dio fria mbuaidhred.

    3. p.22

      {BB folio 317a34}{E folio 21b8}
    4. Da cenel saer sechtmogat
      Dona dainib, ba dodhraing;
      Da descipul sechtmogat
      Faete Fenius fri foghlaim.

    5. 280]
    6. Da thuaith saera sechtmogat
      Forofoglaid, fir talman;
      Da primshaer ar sechtmogait
      Fri heladhain na n-adhbar.
    7. Da aicde for sechtmogait,
      285] Inna cumhat, roghnathaigh,
      Eter ael is bitumain
      Ocus talmhain is tathluibh.
    8. Seacht cumat deg demnighthi
      Ag nim suas im gaeth ngairigh,
      290] Is da cheim ar sechtmogait
      Inna leitheat fria airim.

      Airim in tuir.

Asberat araili immorro is noi n-adhbair nama badar
isin tur .i. cre & uisgi, oland & fuil, ros & ael & sechim & lin
& bitumain. de quibus dicitur:—

    1. Cre, uisgi, oland is fuil,
      Ross is ael is lin lanchuir,
      Sechim, bitumain go mbuaidh
      Nai n-adhbair in tuir Nemruaidh.

.i. ainm & pronomen & briathar & doibriathar & ranngabthach
300] & comfhocul & reimshuidhiughudh & interiacht a n-anmanda-seo:
Nomen, pronomen, uerbum, aduerbium,
participium, coniunctio, prepositio, interiectio .i.

  1. cetpearsu uathaid. . . . sum .i. ataim
  2. persa tanaisti huathaid . . . es .i. ata tu

  3. 305]
  4. treas persa uathaid . . . est .i. ata se
  5. cetfear {BB folio 317b1}) illda. . . . sumus .i. atamait
  6. persa tanaisti . . . estis .i. ata sibsi
  7. tres persa . . . sunt .i. atait.

Sum, es, est, a uathad.
310] Sumus, estis, sunt, a illda.



{BB folio 317b4} {E folio 21b18}
Attaat da earnail forsin n-aibgiteir Laitindai .i.
guttai & consain.
Atait .i. sunt a frithindleadach Latinda
.i. a bunadh forleathan: totus a bunadh ruidleasa
.i. dearbadh in sein .i. freagra du thoit na haibgitrech
315] dobeir sund. Coich raind indsce in focul is sunt? ar
itat viii randa insci and .i. nomen, pronomen, uerbum,
aduerbium, participium, coniunctio, prepositio, interiectio. It
e a n-anmand lasin Laitneoir, ainm, & briathar, &
pronomen & doibriathar, randghabthach, & remshuidhiugud,
320] comhfhocul & interiacht ocon Gaedel. Is demin eimh
conidh briathar in focul is sunt & ma seadh cia ball in
brethir? air itait amh a tri i n-uathad .i. sum, es, est;
& a tri i n-illda .i. sumus, estis, sunt .i. cetperso in
uathaid sum; perso thanaisti in uathaid, es; tres perso
325] in huathaid, est. Cetperso in illda, sumus; perso thanaisti,
estis; tres perso in illda, sunt.

Attaat .i. ata ae i n-ait .i. ata ae dligidh i n-ait
in ollaman a inne: no attaat .i. atai ae uait, ar in
descipul frisin maigistir.

A inne beos attaat a tuitead doaitneat doaigbead
dotiagat. A airbert .i. atat i n-aigniudh na guttaighi & na
consaini. Dotuitead i litrib .i. tinntuit asinn aicniud sin i
llitrib. Doaitnead .i. taitnit asna litrib sin i foclaib.
Doaidhbead .i. du-aispenait do eolchaib eistib .i. a cialla
335] & a caireachtaire .i. fuatha na liter. Dotiaghat asna foclaib
sin i comighib & i sreathaibh roscaigh & fasaigh & airchetail.


{BB folio 317b31}{E folio 21b40}


Da ernail .i. da fhirinnell, no da fhir-inaill, no da
fhir-dhual, no da erdhul, no da erdhail, no da erdhual,
no da orru-dhul, no da orru-dhedhail, no da orru-dhail.
340] Iss ias sin a tri or, & a tri er, & a tri fir nUraiceapta.
Cadiad da dual & tri duail & cethri duail & coic duail
in Auraiceapta? Ni ansa. Lanfogur & defogur da
dual na nguta: leathgutta ocus mudi & tinfeadhaigh-the
tri dual na conson .i. intan is a ceathair immorro
345] .i. da dual na nguta & da dual na conson .i. leathguta
e & muiti, air is muit h. Intan is a coic dno .i. da dual
na nguta & tri dual na consan.

Forsin n-aibgitir .i. forsind epe audair no forsind epe ic
duar .i. ic foclaib no forsin epi ic tur: no ondi as apigitorium
350] .i. in tinnscedul: no is ed aibgiges a mbescna do chach:
no aipgitir .i. abcor: no is ed aipgiges a Gaedhelg, incipit
a Laitin, apix a Greic, a be ce de dybum a Ebra.

Latindai .i. luaidit inni .i. inna foclu: no a Laidinta .i.
on Latindacht .i. a latitudine .i. on leithet in bescna: no
355] o Latin mac Puin.

Edun .i. ed a oen erniud no ed a oen an eolaig.

Gutta .i. guth fotha .i. fotha in ghota in sein no guth
fuiti iarsani fuidhit gotha treothu: {BB folio 318} no guth seta
iarsinni as seta gotha, ut Priscianus dixit: Litera quassi
360] legittima eo quod iter legendi prebeat .i. in litir amal intech
legend iarsinni fuires set in legind: no guth aite .i. doghniat


{BB folio 318a4} {E folio 21b59}
guth i n-aitt: no guthetait .i. iarsinni doetait guth treothu
a n-aenur, ut Donatus dixit: Uocales sunt quequidem profertur
et per se sillabam faciunt .i. atat na guthacha it iat-
365] side dourgbad treothu fein & dogniat sillaib a n-aenur.

Consain .i. cainsuin .i. suin taitnemcha, no consain onni
is consonantes comhfhograightheacha .i. fograigit malle fri
guthacha: no consain .i. com a sain .i. tercfograightheacha
ar bec a fogair a n-aenar. Cid ara n-eibert-sium
370] guta & consain, uair guta uathaid & consain ilda? Ni
ansa. Guttai & consain is maith and. Cidh ara n-ebairt
guta guth fotha no guta guth fuidhit, ar ni fotha in guth
do fein, & ni fuigheand guth trit fein. Cid ara nd-ebairt-sium
consain comfograighthid, uair ni comhfhogur in
375] consain fria fein no fria guth? Cest, caite in condelg in
etechtu in cheternail ind Auraicepta? Ni ansa. Fors
is ferr a fis is edechta sain, ar ni maith anfhis. Cid ara
n-eabairt guta .i. guth shet, ar ni set is i fen.

Caide ruidhles & dileas & coitchind & indles in focail is
380] guta? Ni ansa. Ruidhles di guth shet, uair etaidh guth
a haenur. Diles di guth fuiit, uair nos-foidend fein.
Coitchind di .i. guth fotha, uair is fotha hi isna foclaib.
Indles di immorro guth fotha, uair ni fota hi inti
fein. Cid ara n-ebairt aibgitir epe ic tur, ar ni tindscaintea
385] na h-aibgitri amal asbert Fenius ba sai isna tri
berlaibh cid siu tisad a tuaid & ni saithi cen aipgitri.


{BB folio 318a28} {E folio 22a17}
I ndAchia immorro arrichta aibgitri in domuin. Cet-doichnedh
& cet-dichnedh ind Auraicepta sund .i. A cet-doichnedh
for .i. ar in focul: A chet-dichneadh dno .i. epe
390] augdair .i. tepe in focul fadesin.

Atat dano di ernail forsin beithi-luis-nin in oghaim .i.
feadha & taebomnai. Dano
i da n-ui in sein uea caingen .i.
in caingean forsin beithi-luis-nin in ogaim .i. inn oguamma
no forsin bitheolus litterdha inn oghaim. Fedha: fidh
395] immorro, dorimter da gne for suidiu .i. fidh saerdha &
fidh aicenta. Fid saerda .i. fid inn oghaim & fid aicenta fid
na caille. Fid saerda immorro feghthair da gne do bunad
oca. Fidh didiu ondi as funo fwnew, fograigim: no ondi
is fundamentum .i. fotha & is coitchend do fhid saerda & do
400] fidh aicenta in bunad sin .i. fundamentum. Fid dono fo edh
a inde eter saerda & aicenta. Fotha dno a airbert eter saerda
& aicenta. Ingnad cidh fodera na da bunadh icon fid
saerda & aenbunadh icon fid aicenta .i. funo & fundamentum?
Ni ansa. Funo a dualus foghair & fundamentum a dualus
405] fotha & caitchend do fidh saerda & do fidh aicenta .i. fotha.

Fidh .i. fedh ae uair itat coic ae and .i. ae ailes & ae chanas
& ae aiges & ae mides & ae suides. Æ ailes dno .i. i cein
mbis for menmain, & ae chanas ica gabail & aei aighes ic


{BB folio 318a48} {E folio 22a35}
cuinchidh a lloige & ae midheas ima meit no imma
410] laighedh & ae suidheas iar n-icc a loigi.

Taebomnai .i. taebuaim n-ai; no do thaebhaib na n-omnadh
bit .i. do thaebaib na fidh n-aireghdha biit; no
taebomnai {BB folio 318b1} .i. toba damna .i. iarsinni teipiter damna
na focul eistib. Cid dia n-ebairt taebuaim n-ui .i. taebuaim
415] n-airchedail, air ni fil int airchetul inna n-ecmais na
taebomna. Cid ara n-ebarthar do taebhaib na n-omnadh .i.
na feadha, ar ni do taebhaib bit acht rempu no 'na ndhiaidh
isna foclaib bit na taebomna. Toba ndamna immorro, is e
a ruidhles in focail sin. Freagra du breithir tug isin
420] aibgitir Latindai intan roraidh .i. Itat da ernail forsin
aibgitir Latinda.
Fregra du aicniud immorro tuc intan
roraidh: Atait da ernail forsin beithi-luis in ogaim.

Cuin is aenda in beithi?

Ni ansa. A huile. Cuin as deda .i. feda & taebomna. Cuin
425] as treda .i. fedha & forfedha & taebomna. Cuin as ceathair
.i. tri aiccmi na taebomna & na x feadha airegdha. Cuin as
choicdi .i. fedha & forfedha & tri aicmi na taebomna. Cuin
as sedha .i. na tri foilcheasta inn ogaim .i. {illu32.1}
Cuin as seachta .i. teora fuilti ind Auraicepta .i. huath
430] & forsail & arnin.

Huath cetumus: is ed fhuilleas b co ngeib greim p amal
asbert in Laitneoir: b cum aspiratione pro p ponitur .i.
samhaighthir b cu tinfiudh ar p conid fuilleas h, ar is p


{BB folio 318b20} {E folio 22a55}
tinfedh in Gaedhil. Forsail is e in fuilled eile. Dobeir
435] cumang fedha forin son dia fot amal ata srón, slóg & rl.
Arnin, is e in tres fuilled. In baile a rreagar a leas da
thaebomna geibidh greim indala n-ai arnin, ut est ceand
& rl., ar ni bhi eamhnad in n-ogam. Tri foilcheasta inn
oghaim .i. ceirt & gedal & straiph. In baile i mbi c ria
440] n-u is queirt is scribhtha and, ut est cuileand & rl. In
baili i mbi n ria g is gedul is scribtha and, ut est uingi
& cuing & cingit & rl. In baile i mbia s ria d is straiph
as scribtha and amal ata st an stial, & rl.

Da earnail forsna consainib laisin Laitneoir .i. lethgutai
445] & mutti. Inna lethgutai ceatamus, a tuistidi rempu.
In muite immorro, a tuistidi ina ndiaid do suidib.

Da ernail dno .i. da firdedail didiu forsna consainib
cumaidhi lasin Laitneoir .i. lasin litertreoraidh no lasin
legtreoraid no lasin leathanthoirnidh .i. lethguttai &
450] muitti; lethgutai .i. leth gotha focertad dia fograigud; no
luithguith; no lethguthait no lethguthshet no lethguth
fotha: & ni hiarsanni co mbad leath gotha co cert nobeith
intibh acht nad roichet lanfoghur; unde Priscianus dixit:
Quicquid in duas partes diuiduntur altera pars dicitur
455] semis .i. secip ni fodhlaidir i ndibh randaib, raiter in
dara rand gu rub leath, ut Priscianus dixit: Non qui
demediam partem habent deorum uel uiuorum sed qui
pleni dii uel uiri non sunt .i. cia raidhiter iarum lethfir
& lethtii ni arsinni bhatis dii leithfir no batis lethfir dii
460] acht nach at comlana. Is amlaid sin na leathghuta nidat
comfhocail, ut Donatus dixit: Semiuocales sunt que per se


{BB folio 318b49} {E folio 22b17}
quidem proferuntur et per se sillabam non faciunt .i. atat na
leathghutai nahi dourgabtar treothu fen. Quicquid
asperum dicitur auditus expellit .i. innarbaid int eisteacht
465] {BB folio 319} secib ni raiter co hagarb.

Muiti .i. mifothai no maitha no maidthi .i. bec caithte
a foghur; no mette, no moite na gotha a mbeith maraen
friu; no onni as mutus .i. amlabar & ni airsinni batis amlabar
di raith, air itat a fhoghuir intib cidh diat becca, ut Priscianus
470] dixit: Informis mulier dicitur non quia caret forma sed
male formata est .i. atberar in bannscal dodheilb & ni iar-sinni
seachmallas o dheilbh acht midhealb fuirri nama. Is
amlaidh sin iarum na muiti nidat nemfograigh acht is terc
fogur intibh tantum. Unde mute .i. mifhotha dicuntur ut
475] Donatus dixit: Mute sunt que per se nec proferuntur et
per se sillabam non faciunt .i. atat na muiti & it e na denat in
sillaib treothu fen & noco turcbaiter treothu & rl. Na
leathgutai chetamus .i. in cetna ae for seis .i. iar fofis no in
cetna fis no in cetna amus forsin n-asneis. A tustidi
480] remibh
.i. in lucht ota a tusmiud .i. na feada. Na muiti
immorro a tustidi ina ndiaidh i suidhibh
.i. isna feadhaibh
dlightheachaib. A tustighthidi .i. in lucht ota a teasargain
no a tinnscital .i. a nguthaidhe. Cid ara n-ebairt
a tustidhe 'na ndiaidh maso thustidhi tinnscital, uair
485] ni gnath in tindscedul fo dheoidh. Ni hedh eimh as
ail dosum sund ar mad tustidi in tinnscedul etir, acht
mad ae roscichestar inna menmain .i. dliged gotha fil
i tosuch na leathguta do airisim leis fo dheoidh &
in dliged consonata fil intib fo deoidh do chur uad
490] prius.


{BB folio 319a24}{E folio 22b41}


Nir bu immaircidi son lasin nGaedel, ar mbad aicnead
doib dib linaib a nguth remib & ina ndiaid air is ed
rob imaircidi la suidi co mbadh an toseach doairesedar
lais & an dedhinach du chur uadh conid muiti uili
495] beithi-luis-nin in oghaim acht feadha nama .i. nir bo
im(airgidi seon)
.i. nir bu em ae aireic son; no nir bo eim
aireachtain suad son; no nir bo imuca urasa soon; no nir
bo uca immorro soon lasin nGaedel; no nochor bo reim
im gothaidhi .i. lasin ngaeth dul .i. lasin fear iga raibi in
500] dul gaeth; ar mad aicneadh, no ar mad ae gnithi doibh
diblinaib .i. duna lethguthaibh & dona muitibh a ngotha
remibh & ina ndiaid .i. remib & ina ndhiaid .i. remib dona
lethguthaib & ina ndiaidh dona muitib: acht ata acht leam
and cheana & is ed robo em airechtain suad la sen co mbad
505] ind ae rosechastar ina menmam .i. in guth fil isin leathguthaibh
no-airised lais fo dheoidh, & a ndeidenach fuach do
chor ae int shuadh .i. in taebomnai do chor ar tus conod mi-ait
labartha in bitheolais litterda in ogaim: acht feadha
per inistrofen a ainm sin .i. traide den impsoud .i.
510] amal ata l co mbadh le nobeith and, & n co mbad
ne nobeth and. Cid ar mad fearr leis-sium a mbith
comtis muiti huili quam (.i. inas) a mbeith leathguta
& muiti amal robatar icon Laitneoir? Ni ansa. Ar
sechem Grec, ar ni filet lethgutai la suidibh & roba do
Grecaib do Feinius; no dno is ar uaisli uird na nGrec ut
515] dicitur: Omne uile priuspomitur, omne bonum postponitur


{BB folio 319a51} {E folio 23a1}
.i. samaigthir gach ndereoil {BB folio 319b1} ar tus & gach sainemail
co forbu.

Innsci tra cis lir innsci dochuisin la Feni (.i. ifin che).
520] Ni ansa. A tri .i. ferinnsci & baninnsci & demhinsce
lasin nGaidel .i. mascul & femen & neodar lasin Laitneoir.
Cest, caide deochair eturru? Ni ansa. Nosdeochratar
a tri urluimi indsce .i. hic hec hoc .i. ise isi ised .i.
ise in fear, isi in bhean, ised in neam.


Cest, cuin immairigh eter in innsci & in duil dia
n-innisin? Ni ansa. Intan feadair a hinsci choir fuirri
iar n-aicniudh. Ni imaircidi immorro eturru intan feadair
innsci for a n-aill .i. ferinsci for baninnsci no baninsci
for ferinsci no deiminsci for neachtar n-aei. Feadair em

530] ferinsce for baninnsce intan asberar ise in banmhac-sa,
ut dixit poeta:

    1. Dia mbadh missi in banmacan,
      Nocechrainn cach faelmacan;
      Fer nad fintar gu gcluinnter,
      535] Slancheill chein duib, a muindter.

Fedair dno baninnsci for fearinnsci intan asberar
isi in gabur

    1. Isi in gabuir uair is each,
      Ise in gabur cid meighleach,
      540] Isi in chorr cid reil nos-rel,
      Ise in mintan cid banen.

Fedair dno deiminnsci for ferinnsci no baninsci intan
asberar is ed a cheann sechis ceann fir on no mna
ut dicitur:

    1. Ceand mna romannair mo mod,
      Dos-farraidh don, ni deilm ndil,
      Is ed ceand is grannium sain
      Do neoch fil for muin fo nim.



{BB folio 319b27} {E folio 23a23}
Fedair dno baninnsce for deiminnsce intan asberar
550] is i in chloch
, ut dicitur:

    1. Is he in lia, lith rolas,
      Iar srethaib suadh in senchas;
      Is ed onn iar n-aicneadh ail,
      Is i in cloch iar saerdataid.

    2. 555]
    3. Is e in daigh derg dighdi dath
      Frisna geibthi cath na cith;
      Is ed ceand is chaemu cruth;
      Fail gu mbruth forsmbroeniu bith.
    4. Samail a dealba can chleith
      560] Ealbha ingine Idhaidh;
      Fri goir ngreni glaine ar gurt,
      Is fris samlaim a caemtucht.

Mad iar n-urd choir na ndula, immorro, ni ainm
ferinnsci no baninsci acht du neoch dufuisium & o
tuisimar; & ba deme chena aicneadh na huile.
Duepenar dno deminnsci a ferinnsci no a baninnsci.
Doepenar dno ferinnsci & baninnsci a deiminnsci, amal
ata isna rannaibh2, & it he sin na deime tebede & na
lanamna deme & a ngeni-se.

Insci .i. scientia (.i. ecna) a bunadh Laitne. Scothegna
a airbert. Innische a inne .i. innisiu iar caei iar conair:
conar .i. ceangar: tra .i. dorrae cucunn no durae uaini .i.
inn asneis; no tra .i. a tri .i. na tri hinnsci .i. ferinsci
& baninsci & deiminsci. Ferinnsci immorro forinnsci
575] no firinnsci no fofherinsce no firenninnsci no ferdha
innsci no ferr inda innsci na mmna bis indsci in fir
no ferinsci nama bis. Baninnsci dno .i. baninnsci .i.
ba fir no buan innsci no bonenninnsci no bona scientia


{BB folio 319a51} {E folio 23a42}
.i. dagfis no {BB folio 320} fo innsci in fir bis innsci na mna.
580] Demindsci dno .i. deim insci, no deme insci, no deiminsci
fuirri no in dem is onni as demo .i. dighbaim ita: no
dibeo insci .i. insce dimbeoaighthi .i. ni hinnsce sluinnes
du biu.

Cuin is erlunn? Is erlonn em intan dosbere fri a
585] n-aill, ut est, is e in fear & rl. Is etargaire dno eter fhemem
& mascul insin: no is etargaire intan deifriche fri neach
n-aili co n-anmairm a athar senrud. Innsci intan asberar
is e nama gen eraill maille fris, ut Priscianus dixit:
Oratio est ordinatio congruam dictionum perfectam
590] que sententiam demostrans .i. ata in innsci ordugud
comimaircide na n-epers faillsiges in ceill foirbthi.
Erlonn inund eter da erlonn nach it inund .i. fri se no
fri sed, air ni erlond is sed, is remshuidiugud.

Ferinnsci aicnid, is e in fer: ferinnsci saerda, is e an
595] neam. Baninnsci aicnid, is i in bean: baninnsci saerda,
is i in chloch. Deminnsci aicnid, is ed an neam:
deminnsci saerda, is ed in ceand. Aicneadh caem and &
aicned etigh. Aicned caemh cetumus: is i a sron no a
suil na mna. Aicned n-eitigh immorro, is i a fhiacail
600] no a bhel na mna & is cail gotha fodera sin .i. ni ni acht
neamgnathugudh amal atat na focail berlai na athgennmar
.i. nit binde lenn uair nis-gnathaigem. Mascol & femen &
neodur lasin Laitneoir .i. mas fear & cul comet: no
comfhiscol .i. moo a fis & a col quam col na mna; no is onni
605] is masculinus .i. masculini. Femen dno .i. femder .i. feme


{BB folio 320a26} {E folio 23a63}
Graece, uirgo Latine: ander gach slan. Femdeir didiu .i.
ogh-ingen; no femen quasi femer .i. a femore .i. femur .i.
sliasat, air is and is ben-si intan fognaithir dia sliasait;
no femen .i. flesc no maitnechas unde femina de flescda no
610] maithchnechas dicitur; no is onni as feminina, femina .i.
banda no banecoscda no bangnethach no bangnimach.
Neudur .i. ni fetur cia cenel, uair nach si no se; no neutur
onni as neutrum neimhneachtardha .i. nec hoc nec illud .i.
nec masculinum nec femininum. Cest, onni as sciscor,
615] comaircim. Caite deochair eturru? Ni ansa. Nas-defrigidar
a tri urlundinnsci .i. a iii remslonnudh .i. slointi
rempu .i. riasna hinscibh .i. ise isi ised: acht ata urlaind
sin a tindscedul a nd-edargnu remsluind dona foclaib ina
ndiaidh; & insce femen & mascul & neutur tuicthear trethu.

Etardheilighther dno eter na tri cenelaibh. Cest, cuin
imaric (.i. cuin as aenairectain suad) eter in insci & in
duil dia n-innisen? Ni ansa. Intan fogabhar a hinnsci
choir fuirri. Acht do neoch dofuisim & o tuisimar atat da
thuismiudh and, tuismiudh aicenta & tuismiudh saerda.
625] Tusmiudh aicenta geine .i. mac sceo ingean o mnai:
tusmiud saerda .i. fer o thalmain, amal asbeir Uraicept:
mor easba in talman meni tusmedh clanda. Cetheora
fodhla saerdhatadh .i. deifir rainde & tugait bindiusa &
illugud labartha & cuimri raid. Deifir rainni, ut est, is e in
630] banmac-sa .i. din raind oigi fil and isin ingin is


{BB folio 320b1} {E folio 23b18}
ainm: Tucait hindiusa, ut est, is i in ghabair & d'eoch
ban is ainm .i. goar .i. solus isin Fenichus (no isin Breatnais)
co tuc in file be fris ar ttucait mbinniusa: Hilugud
labartha, ut est, is ed a cend & is liate in da urlabra:
635] Cuimri raid, ut est, rusc immi & criathar arba; uair ropad
emilt rusc im imim & criathar im arbor do rad. Air is e da
modh labartha fil and .i. modh n-aicenta & modh saerdatadh.

Secht n-eatargaire tra dochuisneat .i. a ngrad condeilg
lasin Laitneoir is eatargoiri a n-ainm lasin filid. Etargoiri
640] in incoisc i persainn, etargaire n-inchoisc persainni,
etargoire persainni i gnim, etargoire persainne i
cessadh. Etargaire derscaigti i nderscugud .i. possit &
comparait & superlait lasin Laitneoir .i. fothugudh &
forran & formoladh lasin filid: maith & fearr & fearrson
645] lasin nGaedeal; etargoire meite i mmetughudh, etargoire
lughaghthe i lugugud. Etargoire n-inchoisc hi
persaind cetumus: unnse (.i. in fer) unnsi (.i. in ben)
onnar (.i. in nem): etargoire in inchoisc persainni, me
faden, tu faden, he faden, sinni fadesin, sibsi fadesin,
650] siat-som fadesin. Etargaire persainni i ngnim: darignius
, darignis, darigne, darignisam, darignesaib, darigensad.
Etargaire persainni i cessadh: rom-char-sa,
rot-char-su, rocharsom, roinchar-ne, rom-charabair-si,
roscarsad. Etargaire derscaigthi i nderscugud .i. maith
655] & ferr & ferrsom
(.i. lasin nGaedel coitchend a n-ecmais in
filed, fothugad immorro la sidhe). Etargaire mete i
mmetugud: mor & moo & moosom. Etargaire lughaighthi
i llughugudh: bec & lugum & lugusomh.


{BB folio 320b28} {E folio 23b43}
Secht n-etargoire .i. is soighthi dia mbe inna eolus;
660] no is saighthi dia mbe i n-aineolus. Etargoire .i. isinn
etechtu ata .i. isin sechtmad ernail in sechta ita in condelg
uile ut est: Pars pro tota & tota pro parte .i. in rand dar
eis na toiti & in toiti dar eis na rainni. Etargoire .i.
etardheilighthi i treidhib & etargairi .i. gair guth .i.
665] etarghnughud in ghotha andsin; no etargleodh .i. iar
ngleodh a fheassa etarru.

In chondealg lasin Laitneoir is etargoiri lasin filid:
filidh .i. fialsaighi no fialshuighi: no fi ani aerais, & li ani
molais: no fili onni is philosophus .i. fellsamh ar dliged in
670] filed guru fellsumh. Cidh ar nach treidhi lasin Laitneoir
in condelg amal as treidhi lasin nGaedel inn edarghoiri .i.
meid & inni & inchosc? Dedhe immorro lasin Laitneoir .i.
meid & inni namma .i. bonus et malus is i in indi: magnus
et minus is i in meid. Is ed a inni lasin nGaedel .i. maith &
675] olc immalle. Is i a meid .i. mor & beg: & is mor lais-siumh
a mbeg i coneilg in neich is lughu. Inchosc immorro agon
fhilid, ni condelg eside etir lasin Laisneoir, acht pronomen
et uerbum.

Cidh fodera dosumh a radh a ngradh condeig lasin
680] Laitneoir is edargoiri a ainm laisin filid & ni fuil acht
tri graidh condeilg lasin Laitneoir, & atat secht n-etargoire
icon filid? Ni dia chutrumugud eim dosum dno, acht
ita etargoire lasin filid is condelg lasin {BB folio 321} Laitneoir .i.
etargoire derscaigthi i nderscugud. Ni cach etargoire is
685] condeilg & is cach condealg is etargoire. Cidh ar madh
condelg las-sium posit? Ni ansa. Ar is i as fotha, & ata


{BB folio 321a4} {E folio 23b63}
derscughudh di, ut dicitur, airim fri unair, ut est: Unus non
est numerus sed fundamentum numeri .i. nochon fhil int aen
co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, & amal ita alt
690] icon Gaedhel, & ni dech fadesin, cidh la deochu adrimther, &
tria saerdataid insin .i. int alt aicenta immorro de posit.

Cid arnid ainm comparaiti doberat-somh forin condelg
uili? Ni ansa. Poisit cetumus: Ni derscaigh do ni:
Superlait dno, ni derscaigther di. Comparait immorro
695] derscaighidh di neoch, derscaigther di, conid airisin is
ainm foriata in condelg.

Caite condelg ceilli cen son, & condelg suin cen cheill, &
condelg suin & ceilli molle? Condelg ceilli cen son, ut est:
bonus, melior, optimus. Condelg suin cen ceill, ut est:
700] bonus, bonior, bonimus; nobhiadh iar sun sain & ni fil iar
ceill. Condelg suin & ceilli malle, ut est: magnus, maior,
maximus is i in sin in condelg techta. Bid dno maith, &
ni bi derrscugud de, ut est Deus.

Caite deochair eter se & uinse? Uindse cetumus: sluind
705] persainni sainraidchi insin, ut dicitur: unse uait in fer-sa
saindriud cona anmaim, ut dixit poeta:

    1. Unse chugut in gillgugan,
      Mac rearrgugan;
      Bid cach maith lat ar cingugan,
      710] A ceallgugan.

Sluind ceniuil immorro amal ata is e in fear, & ni
fes cia sainriudh, acht is fer tantum. Cidh fodera ind


{BB folio 321a26} {E folio 24a14}
irlond conidh innsci & conidh etargoire .i. intan is innsci
is ac sluind innsci bis, acht isa oen; & atberat is e
715] in fer uair is erlond i suidhiu. Is ann is etargoire intan
asberar unse. Sluind ceneoil amal ata in etargairi
inchoisc i persaind .i. isin persaind fein ita a hinchosc
co n-aichniter trit ic sluind cetpersainde & persainde
tanaisti & tret persainde atat na hetargaire uili.

Cidh ar nar ba leor leis-sium a rad me i n-etargaire
inchoisc persainne? Ni ansa. Etargaire deifrighudh na
persainde tria hinchosc di fadein .i. in chetpersu uathaid,
conar bo leor a radh me co n-abair me fadein, air is
demniti & is deligidi fri cach persaind a radh me fadein, ut
725] dicitur: imponendo egomet ipse enim ego feci & non alius cum
dicitur egomet
uair is me fein & ni neach eli intan asberar
egomet. Quicquid iteratur ut firmus fiat .i. biaid corob
demnite gach ni athairrigthir. Fogabar dno in comparait
cen phosit, ut est: Dulcius est mare Ponticum quam cetera
730] maria .i. is somillsi muir Point andat na muiri ar chena,
& condelc in etechta in sin. Condelc in etechta dano in
cetna ernail in Auraicepta .i. fors .i. ferr a fhis. Is etecta
insin; ar ni maith int anfis.

Finit primus liber.
Incipit do lebur Ferchertne.


Loc don libur-sa Emain
735] Mhacha. I n-aimsir Conchobair mic Neassa. Persu do
Ferchertne fili. Tucait a denma du breith aesa faind & boirb
for seis {BB folio 321b1}.

Seachta frisa toimsiter Gaedhelg .i. fid & deach, reim
& forbaidh, alt & indsci & etargoiri.


{BB folio 321b4} {E folio 24a36}
Seachta .i. septim a bunadh lasin Laitneoir. Seacht
n-ae a hinni .i. seachta da aeib doimiter and. A airbert .i. a
airimh .i. vii primeillge na filideachta; no brosnacha bairdne;
no vii ndeich na filidheachta i n-ecmais dialta, ar ni fil in
seachta annside: is aire rofacbadh. Coitcheand & diles &
745] ruidhles conadar don focul is seachta: Coitchend do cach
airimh seachta. Diles do a seacht diuidib. Ruidhles do in
cetairimh sechta fris a nd-ebradh .i. fri seacht laithib na
seachtmaine. Innleas a tabairt íor airimh n-aili acht for a
seacht. Tomus .i. mensura a bunad lasin Laitneoir.
750] Toimes a hinni. Toimhes a airbert .i. to tenga & meas
airi fen .i. meas doghnither o theangaidh. In gne
no in cenel tomhus? Is cenel eimh. Cest, caitet
a gnee? Ni ansa. Tomus filideachta & tomus bairdni
& tomus prosta. Cadé ruidhleas & dileas & coitchend
755] & indles hi tomus? Ni ansa. Ruidhleas do filideacht
.i. a breith ria seacht. Diles do bairdni .i. a
tomus fri cluais & fri coir n-anala. Coitchend immorro
de prois o dhialt immach.

Indles do sen immorro, air ni fil alt and. Seachta fo
760] vii for sechta inso sis.

Fidh .i. fundamentum a bunad Laitne: Fo edh a hinni:
fotha, no fidh ae a airbert. Ruidhles & diles & coitchend
indiles do fedhaib .i. ruidhles do fhedhaib aireghdhaibh,
diles do forfhedhaib. Coitchend immorro do thaebomnaib
765] acht huath. Indles do sen immorro, air ni taebomna etir, ut
est: h non est litera sed nota aspirationis .i. nocho nfhuil
h co mbad litir acht ata conidh noit tinfidh. Tinfedh .i.


{BB folio 321b30} {E folio 24 a 55}
tiniudh feadh .i. nemnigudh feadha do radh friu sin uili. Is
ed is ruidhles & is diles & is choitchend doib.

Deach dno troich (no ar frithindlidhach) a bunadh Laitne.
Degfuach no defuach dano a hinni: dibh uaighthir immorro
a airbert intan is sreath. Caite ruidhles & diles & coitchend
indles isna deachaibh? Ruidhles doib a n-anmand
fein do rad friu amal ata dialt. Diles doib dialt do radh fri
775] cach n-ai dibh, air is dialt duformaidh gach n-ae dib for
araili. Coitchend doib deich do radh fri cach dib. Indleas
do dhialt immorro deach duna seacht ndeachaib ele do radh
fris, air ni fil alt and.

Reim dano .i. re huamma ai a hinni intan is filideacht,
780] re huam intan is bairdni .i. ni huaim tomais dligthig.
Reim dano .i. raid uaim intan is phrois. Reim dano a
airbert, diall no tuiseal a bunadh: no reim onni as
robamus .i. comhshuidhiughud a bunadh. Ruidles do reim
do fid for fid i filideacht: diles do taebreim ceatharcubaid
785] filideachta & bairdne. Coitchend immorro do reim suin
cen cheill & do reim suin & cheilli immaille: diles do
prois: indles immorro do reim suin namma, uair ni filltir.
Cid dosum nar bo lor lais a radh me namma
co nn-earbairt me fadein, ut supra?

Ceithri gnei immorro for prois o {BB folio 322a1} reim .i.
reim suin, amal ata fer. Is as remnigther. Reim ceilli,
amal ata Patraic. Ni airicar a reim suin, air is aendealb


{BB folio 322a3} {E folio 24b9}
fora ainmnid & fora genitil: reim suin & ceilli amal ata
Fland Flaind. Taebreim prosta .i. me fadein, ar is
795] taebreim cach ni nach lanreim. Treda ara togarar reim .i.
reim as, ut est, fer, air is as remnigther. Reim ind, ut
est, fir, air is ind reimnigther. Reim as & ind
malle, ut est, in fer .i. a ainmniugud & a inchosc
ann malle. Reim dano ceim a airbert:
    1. Bellat mathair Niuil neimnigh
      Do chloind Laitin langeimligh
      Fuair bas i llo grene glain,
      Cele Feniusa Farsaidh.
.i. reim do fidh for fidh ut est:
    1. Sian sleibi sirlata serind
      Senshaili senim snechta snac
      Slisiu slice samad saball
      Snaithe snithe saland sacc.

Forbaid dno .i. aiccentus lasin Laitneoir, a bunad onni
810] is firmarius .i. ilghnuiseach: forbid (.i. forin focul) no for
fust no for cumair. Forbaid no forbeoidh no forbaid a inne.
Forbeoidh intan is forsail .i. sail fair; no forsail .i. is for
fuilliudh, iarsanni fothaighes in focul for fut. Forbaidh dno
forbaidh intan is dinin dishail .i. sech nin ni sail acht duir;
815] no dinin dishail .i. disein di-fuilliud .i. nemhfhuilliudh.
Forbaidh dno .i. fair bidh intan is ernin .i. ernid nin, no fairnin.
Forbaidh dno .i. gor fhidhbait a airbert: ruidhleas
do forsail: diles do ernin a beith for fut no for gair.

Coitchend do dinin disail, no dona huile forbaidibh
820] forbaid do radh friu. Indles immorro do forbaid
dib dul i llocc araili .i. do da forbaid na nguthaige


{BB folio 322a26} {E folio 24b22}
& d'aenforbaid na taebomna .i. forbaidh uathaid & forbaidh
ilair no ilair for uathad, no forbaid fuit for cumair: no
indles gan a fuath do sgribeand.

Alt onni as altus .i. uasal a bunad lasin Laitneoir: alt
dano onni alteir ina menmain a imne. Alt co feser immorro
a airbert .i. co feser cia halt aircetail bera fri sechta .i. in
nath, inn anair, inn anamain, in laidh, in setrad, in sainemain.
Alt in anma prosta in re n-aimsire bis eter in da shillaib a
835] inni: alt co feser a airbert. Caite ruidhles & diles &
coitchend, indles alta? Ni ansa. Ruidhles .i. do aiste do
alt filideachta: diles immorro do alt bairdne .i. do aiste.
Coitchend indles do fhoclaibh na proise .i. coitchend do cach
focul i mbiat alta; indles immorro do dialt, ar ni bi alt and.

Indsce dano .i. scientia a bunad Laitne: in deschae a
inne: scothecna a airbert: no insci, co feser in aisti urdalta
.i. co feser in si no in se in aisti bera fri sechta amal roghabh
is e in nath, is i in laid. Indsci in anma prosta .i. ferindsci
& banindsci & deminsci. Cate ruidles & diles & coitchend,
840] indles, na hinsce? Ruidles don insci aicenta caemh: diles
don insci aicenta ecaem: coitchend indles don insci saerda
.i. coitchend ara gnathugud, indles immorro ara aindilsi.

Etargaire dno onni is etargradimus .i. foruaslaigeach:


{BB folio 322a45} {E folio E 24b34}
etargnaghudh gotha a inne: etardeliugud a airbert. Cate
845] ruidles & diles & coitchend & indles etargaire? Ruidles
do etargaire derscighthigi i nderscughud, air is i frecras
in condelc. Diles immorro do etargaire inchoisc i
persaind, uair is sloinniudh persainni saindredaigi. Coitchend
indles immorro dona etargairib ar chena .i. coitchend
850] in uird comairme: indles immorro do neoch dib na frecair

Cest, in gne {BB folio 322} no in cenel in fidh? Is cenel emh:
& masa chenel, cadet a gnee? Ni ansa. Fid saerda & fid
aicenta .i. fid saerda fid inn ogaim; fid aicenta immorro
855] fid na cailli. Et fid inn ogaim, in gne no in cenel? Is
cenel ecin, ar techtaid gne .i. fid aireagda, & forfidh, &
taebomna. Is e insin in cenel cenelach gneach .i. fid.
Cest, in gne no in cenel in deach? Is cenel emh, ar
techtaidh gne .i. secht ndeich na filideachta. Is e sin in
860] cenel gneach baghabhat ocht n-ernaili ceachtar ngne na

Cest, in gne no in cenel in rem? Is cenel .i. techtaid
da gne .i. filideacht & bairdne .i. reim do fidh for fidh &
taebreim do fidh for fidh, ut est:

    1. Coluim caid cumachtach & rl.

Taebreim immorro ut est:

    1. A Fhlaind at luam in gaiscidh grinn
      Co Maistin maill.
      At glan, at gaeth, is garg do rind,
      870] At laech, a Fhlaind.



{BB folio 322b12} {E folio 24b52}
Ceithri gne for prois o reim .i. reim suin cen cheill, &
reim suin & ceilli, & taebreim prosta, & reim suin namma.
Reim suin cen cheill cetumus .i. fer fir: reim suin & cheilli
.i. Fland Flaind: reim suin tantum Patraic Patraic: &
875] taebreim prosta .i. fadein. Tri gne ara togarar reim .i. reim
ind, & reim ass, & reim ind & ass malle: reim ass ut est fer;
reim ind ut est fir isin reimniugud: reim ind & ass .i. in
fear .i. ind teit & ass teit a lanreim ind i ndualus fogur
huathaid & ina dualgus foghar ilair. Reim ind & ass
880] maille .i. ind a dualgus foghur uathaid & ilair immalle
inna dualus ceilli: no reim ind .i. Patraic, ar ni fil
ind iar ceill: reim ind & ass malle .i. Fland Flaind,
ar ita ind iar ceill & ita ass iar suin.

Is e sin in cenel cenelach gneach cenelach rochumadh
sund forsna secht remendaib & rl. Cest, in gne no in
cenel ind forbaidh? Is cenel, ar techtaidh tri gnee. Is
e sin in cenel for a tarrasa tri gnee na Gaedelge. Cest,
in gne no in cenel int alt? Is cenel ecin, ar isas tri gnee
fai .i. als saerda & alt aicenta & alt co feser. Int alt co feser
890] techtaid coic ngne & coic cenela. Cest, in gne no in cenel
indsci? Is derb conid cenel & techtid na tri indsce. Is
saincenel deochraides in doman. Cest, in cenel no in gne
in etargoiri? Is cenel eim, uair dianairmidi a gnei. Iss
e in cenel etardefriges na huili & rl.

Cest, caide esse in sechtu frisa tomsigther in Goedelg?


{BB folio 322b35} {E folio 25a7}
Ni ansa. Esse feda cetamus .i. in blog aoir tebide gebhes
in fid i n-elluch focail, unde poeta dixit:
    1. Esse feda is fretede
      Ferr duib a aicne occaib
      In blog aeoir thepide
      900] Techtas i n-elluch focail.

Caite esse deich? Ni ansa. In lin no inn uaite son n-oencongbalach
airimther o dialt co bricht cona n-atghabail
diblinaib. Caide esse remme? Ni ansa. In bruudh fillti
905] fogurda forbriste foil otha in ainmiudh n-uathaid co foxlaid
n-ilair. Caite esse fuirbhthe? Ni ansa. In tormach no in
digbail n-aimsire airighes aicned i comhshiniudh fri fogur.
Cate esse alta? Ni ansa. In toe tengadh fil don filid
ac ceimniughud don litir for araill mad alt saerda, no
910] don sillaib for araili mad alt aicenta. Cate esse insce?
Ni ansa. In foludh firen foirbthe fegthair isna tri cenelaibh.
Cate esse etargairi? Ni ansa. Int athfegadh
mete no laiget no inde no inchoisc no edardeifrighi no
etardelighthi no edarderscaigthe rodealbh Dia eter
915] duilib.

Cate tomhus fri sechta? Ni ansa. In fid tuisseach
bis isin rand {BB folio 323} & in taebomna tuissecha do thabairt
ar aird, & co festar na feda bes isin taebchubaidh in raind,
& gu robe in fidh cetna bes isind imrecru na tarmthortcheand,
920] & gu rub inund a lin do thaebomnaib bes impu,
& co festar cia deach dona ocht ndeachaib daroigh i n-aisti,
& co festar in taebreim no in reim do fid for fidh, & co festar


{BB folio 323a6} {E folio 25a28}
cia forbaidh bes for son ceneoil ind imfrecrai, & co festar
cia halt dona seacht n-altaibh ind aircetail .i. na filideachta.
925] Insce .i. co feasar in se fo in si inn aisti. Etargaire
.i. co feser cia gne in aircetail do gne do thomus
fri sechta. Et intan ba roscadh na tomaiste and, cindas
nothomhsidhe? ar ni bidh lancubaidh no taebchubhaid and.
Ni ansa. Do focul forba anaile no-taispenta don choiceadh
930] focul, uair is coic focail romesadh i n-anail in filed. Cate
sechta in ochta ind Auraicepta? Ni ansa. Insan is ocht
ndialta i mbricht is and is secht n-alta. Cate in focul
oenchongbhalach dechongbalach treconngbalach? Ainmnigther
o trian: & ni ruidhilsi do in trian o n-ainmnigther
935] nadat na da trian o n-ainmnighther iarcomarc.

Caitiat na da taebomna gabhait greim guthaige? .i.
c & r ar essi a, ut est: Coluim Cille cecinit:

    1. Im ba sessach im ba seng,
      Im ba tresach, tuirme glonn,
      940] A Chríst! in congebha lind
      O thi co teacht ar lind long?

Caite tomus fri fid! Ni ansa. Co feisear a llín & a
n-uaite, a met & a laiget, a cumung & a n-ecumung, a
neart & a n-aimneart. Is ed a lin: coic aicmi ogaim
945] .i. coicfear cacha aicmi, & oen co a coic cach ae, condadeligitar a n-airdi. It e a n-airdi: deasdruim, tuathdruim,


{BB folio 323a27} {E folio 25a43}
leasdrum, tredruim, imdruim. Is amlaid
imdreangair crand .i. saltrad fora freim in croind ar tus
& do lam dess reut & du lam cle fo deoid. Is iarsin is
950] leis & is fris & as trit & as immi. It e a ndeiligte feada
& forfheda
ut est: as sedha .i. na tri foilcheasta inn ogaim .i.

Cest, cid ara n-ebertar feda fri suidiu? Ni ansa,
fobith domiter friu & co n-uaigiter3 condaib,
ut dicitur luis
ailme, beithi ailme. Cindas domiter frisna taebomna
955] amal fidu? Ni ansa. Cach da thaebomna ar fid hi
cubaid, cach da cobfid i cubaid: is ed is cubaid
iarum co robe an fid cetna beas isna fociaib in imfreccrai,
& co rob inund a lin du taebomna beas intib, ut
est, bas & las: & bras & gras: ceand & leand: dorn &
960] corn: dond & cond.

Caite tomus fri fid? .i. co fesser a lin & a n-uaiti .i.
a lin a coic aicmib & a n-uaiti i n-aenaicmi; a met
& a llaiget .i. a met hi coic flescaib & a llaiget i
n-aenflescaib. Caite deochair eter a cumang & a neart?
965] A cumang cetamus: Intan gabaid guth a n-aenur .i.
a no o no u. A nert immorro intan dos-bere
primshuidhiugud i sillaib, amal ata bais & lais. C'aite
deochair eter a n-egumang & a n-aimnert? Ni ansa.
Ecumang intan bithi {BB folio 323b1} fo nihilus ina guthaige amal
970] rogab find. Fir em, air ni thuicter na feda dedhencha filet
isna deghfoghraibh sin triana cansain fochetoir: aimnert


{BB folio 323b3} {E folio 25b4}
immorro intan bit i comsuidigthib cutrumaib na defogair
& isna forfedaib amal ata fer & ben.

Coic feadha cach aicmi: & is oen co a coic cach ae .i.
975] aenfleisc co coic flescaib, ut est, beithi a aenur, nin a coicur:
no dno gne ele? Ni ansa. Ecumang cetamus: intan bite
fo nialus ut quoniam quidem lasin Laitneoir, no intan bite
tri guthaighe a n-aenshillaib lasin nGaedhel, ut Briain,
gliaidh, feoil, beoir, lasin nGaedel. Aimnert immorro intan
980] bite fo consonacht, ut seruus, uulgus lasin Laitneoir,
ut iarum cian & ceir & uull & aball lasin nGaedhel & rl.

Lanchumang dano intib etir fedha & taebhomna co nd-urba
uath Conda-delighetar tria n-airde (.i. tria n-ecosc)
.i. is caindeifriges a n-aradu. It e a n-airde:
985] Deasdruim .i. bethi do deas in droma, is ed aicmi beithi:
Tuaithdruim .i. don leith atuaidh din druim bis aicme uatha:
Lesdruim .i. leas uait & fris cucut, no leatarsna darin
druim bis aicmi muine: Tredruim, is ed aicmi ailmi:
Imdruim .i. andiu & anall aicmi na forfidh. Is amlaid
990] imdrengar .i. is amhlaidh eimh ceimnighthir isinn ogam
amal cemnigther isin crand .i. do lamh dess reut .i. aicmi
beithi: & do lamh chle foi diudh .i. aicmi h. & iarsin is
leis & is fris aicmi m .i. les uait & fris cucut: trit immorro
aicmi a: tairis immorro & immi aicm i na forfidh. Is
995] amhlaid sin imdheilighter na fedha & na forfeda & na
taebomna. Cid ara n-eparar fedha fri saidhiu? Ni ansa.
Fobith domiter na taebomna friu & cainuaighter na focail


{BB folio 323b25} {E folio 25b20}
dibh, ut est luis ailme, beithe ailme .i. la, ba. Is e sin in
sealbhadh saerdha cen reim acht reim remraite. Ni ansa.
1000] Amal iaraither fidh aireghdha nama ica breith fri sechtu
sic iaraither in taebhomna bhis and, cach da taebomna ar
fidh, ut dicitur:
    1. Marcach atchonnac anne,
      Etach uaime co ndath cro,
      1005] A dath is gilithear geis,
      Uan tuinni dath a da o.

Deda airegar and: aentugud co ndeliugud amal
ata bas & las & is iar comardadh n-airchetail asa,
air is inand fidh aireg hdha il intib, & is inand taebomna
1010] degheanach. Sain imm orro in taebomna taeseach .i. el.
Cindas toimsiter na taebomna imna fedaibh? Ni ansa.
Cach da taebomna dib imon fidh. Is e in comfhot coir (.i.
lancubaid insin), ut est, bas & las. Is e sin int aentughud
co n-inannus, & int aentugud cen inannus: & is iar comhardugud
1015] n-airchetail ata, uair is inund fidh aireghdha fil
intibh, & is comlin do thaebomnaib; & is ed a choir n-airchetail.

Conagar dno isin aipgitir bunad o aen, & airic o deda,
& a cor a tredhe, & a comhuaim fri ceathardu, & a comdhluthadh
1020] fri cuicthi, a moradh a seda, a fogail a sechta, a
riagail fri ochta, a incosc a naede, a asdadh a ndeichthe. Is e
int aen thuas .i. Fenius Farrsaidh; in dedha .i. mac Etheoir
fris; in tres mac Aingen; in ceathramadh Cae; in coiced
Amairgen mac Naende mic Nenuail; in sesedh Ferchertne;


{BB folio 323b47} {E folio 25b27}
in sechtmad a dalta; int ochtmad Ceandfaelad; in nomad
a dhalta; in dechmad a asdadh i n-aen .i. in trefocal.

Is e seo a thosach in Uraiceapta iar nAmairgein nGlungeal. Locc don libur-sa Tochur Inbhir Moir i
crich h-Ua nEnechglais Cualand: Et aimser do aimsear
1030] mac Miled {BB folio 324}. Perso do Amairgein Glungeal mac Miled. Tucaid a denma mic Miled dia tothlugud fair
amal ata 'nar ndiaidh.

Cia arranic a mberla-sa & cia airm i n-arneacht & cissi
aimser i n-arnecht? Ni ansa. Arranic Fenius Farrsaidh
1035] oc sur Nemruaid i cind dech mbliadan iar scailiudh on
tur for cach leath, & is cach comberlaid dochuaidh and
dochum a crichi & ni cach comcheniuil amal rogab Cai
, dalta Feniusa Farrsaidh, in dara descipul
sechtmogat na scoili. Ba do Ebraibh a bhunadhus & co
1040] Eigipt rofuidhedh. Ocus is and roan Fenius fodhesin ocon
tur, & is and roaitreabh, conid andsin conaitchetar chuice
in scol berla tobaidi do theipu doib asna hilberlaibh tucsat
leo d i muich conna beith oc nach ailiu a mberla sain acht
occaib-seomh a n-aenur, no ic neoch no-foglaindfedh leithiu
1045] dorisi. Is andsain dorepedh a mbelra asna hilberlaibh, &
rotaiselbad do aenfir dib, conid a ainm-sen forta a mbelra-sa.
Ba he in fer hisin .i. Goedel mac Angein, conid
Gaedil de-side o Gaedel mac Angin mic Glunfind mic
Laimfhindh mic Agnumain do Gregaibh. Inand tra
1050] Gaedel mac Aimergin & Gaedel mac Etheoir .i. da ainm


{BB folio 323 a 20} {E folio 25b43}
robadar fora athair .i. Aingin & Etheoir. Is and iaramh
doriaghladh in mberla-sa. I mba fearr iarum do cach
berla & a nba leithiu & a mba caemu, is ed darepedh isinn
Goedilc; & cach son do na airnecht cairechtaire isna
1055] aipgitribh ailibh ol chena arrichta carechtaire leosumh
doibh isin beisti-luis-nin in ogaim, ut est: {illu80.1}.

Rolatha iarumh a fedha for leith & a taebomna dno
for leith, co fil cach ae dibh fo leth o 'rlaile (sic). Ni fail
leathgutai amal na fail la Grego acht na muite namma.
1060] Cach duil do na rabha ainmniugud isna berlaib ailib
airichta ainmnighthi doibh (isin Gaedilg), ut est grus
& cloch & linn.

    1. Atconnac in lis
      1065] Seach a teged glas,
      Inarb imda a grus
      Gen gurb imda as.

A nba ferr & a nba leithiu & a nba caimiu cach berla, is
ed doratad aco isinn Gaedelg .i. i nba socair caimiu fri radh
.i. socarcaine leosum gutta & muiti oca and inat leathgutta
1070] & muiti & guttai amal atat icon Laitneoir.

Ferr i ceill leosum .i. a v fri fat & a v fri gair, & a v fri buga
& a v fri cruas, & a v fri lanfogur & a v fri deghfogur, anda a
haen-choic fothibh uili amal ata icon Laitneoir & is ed asbeir
in Laitneoir: Gabaidh a chuic guthaige-sium an greim sin
1075] uili, ut est Latine he omnes uocales produci & corripi possunt
.i. itat na huili guthaige Laitinda .i. co caemnachtar co regdar
& co timairceter. Leithiu i llitrib .i. ar ni fil a fhregra sin


{BB folio 324a42} {E folio 25by}
lasin Laitneoir: leithiu a ciallaibh & foclaib & litrib .i. lethe
a litribh {illu82.1}. Ni fil a frecra lasin Laitneoir: leithi
1080] i foclaib .i. grus & cloch & lind, ni fil a fregra sin lasin
Laitneoir: grus .i. tanach: galmula lasin Laitneoir, gruth
lasin nGoedel: dia frecra galmarium lasin Laitneoir faiscre
lasin nGaedel: galmalam lasin Laitneoir, gruthrach lasin
nGaedel: grus lasin nGaedel, ni fil a fregarthach-side lasin
1085] Laitneoir: lapis lasin Laitneoir, cloch lasin nGaedel: petra,
lasin Laitneoir, ail lasin nGaedel: sropula lasin Laitneoir,
carrach lasin nGaedel. Cloch (no ael) & onn & ailcne
immorro {BB folio 324b1}, is ias sin cenela cloch do na fuilet
freacarthaich icon Laitneoir: aqua lasin Laitneoir, usce
1090] lasin nGaedel; amnis lasin Laitneoir, aband lasin nGaedel;
piscina lasin Laitneoir, iachlinn lasin nGaedel; linn,
immorro, lasin nGaedel, ni fhil a frecra lasin Laitneoir.
Leithiu didiu in Gaedel i foclaibh & i llitribh desin anda
in Laitneoir. Is ed asbeir in Laitneoir cid leithiu i foclaib
1095] & i llitrib in Gaedelc, ni leithe i ciallaibh; ar cia bet
ilanmann icon Gaedel ic sluinn na raet, tic in chiall
relait asin uathadh focul fil icon Laitneoir. Ni fir on,
amal asbert in Laitneoir fein: Nisi sciris nomen, cognitio
rerum periit .i. atbail int aichnius inna raet meni aichnigther
1100] int ainm.

Is e seo a thossach in libhair-sea iar Fenius & iar
nIair mac Nema & iar nGaedel mac Ethiuir. Is iat sin
a persainn; & is i a aimser .i. aimser tancatar mic
Israel uili a hEigipht. I nDacia arricht ci asberatar alii
1105] co mbad i mmaigh Sennair. Tucait a scribind .i. a


{BB folio 324b15} {E folio 26a17}
thotlugud do scoil mhoir co Fenius & co Iar & go Goedel
mac nEitheoir a thepe doibh inna nUraicept iarna
idnacul do Maissi & iar foglaim do Chae Cainbreathach
occa; conad iarsin arriachta na aipgitri a n-aentabaill,
1110] amal asbeir: Cat iat aibgitri & rl. Aur cach toisseach:
aicceacht dano icht aicce (.i. gnim), air iss i n-aicci bis
in descipul icon aidi: no aiccept .i. acceptus .i. airiten
.i. chucut neach nach fil agut: na nd-egeas .i. na ndaei
cen cheass .i. na fileadh.

Se primthaisigh lasi ndernad in tor .i. Eper mac Saile
& Gregus mac Gomer otait Greic, & Laitin mac Puin
otait Laitinda, Riabad Scot mac Gomer, & Nemruadh mac
Cuis, & Fenius Farrsaidh. Da bliadain coecat o scailed
in tuir co flaithius Nin mic Bel, a do coecat a righi: ceithir
1120] bliadhna deac ar tri fichtib ar secht cetaib o fhlaithius
Nin mic Bel co deredh flaithiusa Tutaines righ in domain.
Is re linn rotoghladh in Trae fo dheoidh: secht mbliadna
ingen Laitin mic Puin: conad tri bliadna cethorchat
ar noi cetaibh o scaileadh in tuir co tuc Æneas Lauina &
1125] Laitin fen doroine a caingen fris. Is follus as sin co nach
certtiaghait lucht in Uraicepta-sa co mbad e Laidin in
sechtmadh primthuiseach in tuir.

Cest, caiteat Aipgitre na tri primberla eter
ainmniugud & charechtair? Ni ansa, em. Aipgitir
1130] Ebraidi cetamus.



{BB folio 324b37}{E folio 26a24}


Is e in fer cetna tra Fenius Farsaidh arainig inna ceithri
aipgitri-sea .i. aipgitir Ebraidi & Grecda & Laitinda & in
beithi-luis-nin in ogaim & is airi is certiu in dedenach .i.
in beithe air is fo deoidh arricht. Bai coiciur ar fichit
1135] isin scoil ba huaisliu dib & is e a n-anmand forta {BB folio 325} in
beithi-luis-nin eter fedha & taebomna
& bai morshesser ba huaisliu do suidhibh o ranainmnighthea
na seacht fedha aireghdha inn ogaim,
1140] conadh oiri rolaithi for leith {illu88.2}.
Aaberat araili it deich feda airegda filet ann & it e indso
a n-anmand: {illu88.3} & it e
a tri doformagat sen frisna secht thuas {illu88.4}.
conid aire sin rolatha a fedha & a taebomna for leith
1145] & it e a n-anmand soin fordotait iarumh.

Asberat immorro araile co nach o dhainibh itir
ainmnighter fedha inn n-ogaim isin Gaedhelg acht o
chrandaibh gen gu haichinter anniu araile crand dibh.
Air atat ceithri hernaile for crandaib .i. airigh fedha &
1150] athaig fedha & lossa fedha & fodhla fedha; & is uaithibh sin
a ceathrur ainmnighter fedha in oghaim. Airigh fedha
quidem .i. dur, coll, cuileand, abhull, uindsiu, ibur, gius.
Athaig fedha .i. fern, sail, bethi, lemh, sce, crithach,
caerthand. Fodla fedha andso .i. draighen, trom, feorus,


{BB folio 325a18}
crand fir, fedlend, fidhat, finncholl. Lossa fedha .i. aitean,
fraech, gilcach, raid, lecla .i. luachair & rl. Beithe dno on
beithe rohainmnigheadh ar cosmaillius fri cois in bheithe
ut dicitur:
Feocos foltchain in beithi,

& is airi sin is i mbeithi roscribadh in cetainm ogaim
tucadh a nErind .i. secht mbeithi tugad do Lugh mac
Ethlenn.. berthair do bean uait nisi eam custodieris
(.i. mine derna tu a coimét)4. Is aire sin beos scribthar
beithi a tosach aipgitre in ogaim. Luis dno, is o chrand
1165] rohainmniged .i. o cairtheand .i. uair luis ainm caerthaind
isint shenGaedelg ut dicitur: Li sula luis .i. caertheand
ar ailleacht a caer. Fernd dono, o chrand rohainmniged
ut dicitur: Airenach Fiann .i. fernd, air is di na sgeith.
Sail dano, is o chrand rohainmniged ut dicitur: Li ambi
1170] .i. nemli lais .i. ar cosmaillius a datha fri marb. Nin
dno, is o chrand rohainmniged .i. o uindsind ut dicitur:
cosdad sida nin .i. uinnius, ar is di doniter craind gae triasa
coscairther in sidh: no cosdudh sidha uindis. Nin .i.
ginol garmna dognither do uindsind .i. isin aimsir
1175] sidha togaibter garmna. Huath dono, is o chrand
rohainmniged .i. sce ut dicitur: comdal cuan huath
.i. sce
5: no ar is uathmar hi ara deilghibh. Duir
dono, is o chrand rohainmniged, ut dicitur airde dossaib
duir. Tinne dono, is o chrand rohainmniged .i.
1180] cuileann trian roith tindi .i. ar is cuileand in tres


{BB folio 325a39} {E folio 26a43}
fidh roith in carbait. Coll dono, is o chrand rohainmniged
ut dicitur cainfidh .i. coll .i. cach ac ithi a chno,
Queirt dano, is o chrand rohainmnighead .i. abhull ut
dicitur: clithar boaiscille .i. elit gelt quert .i. aball.
1185] Muin dono .i. finemhain, ut dicitur, airdi masi muin .i.
iarsinni fhasas a n-airde .i. finemhain. Gors dono .i.
Glaisiu geltaibh gort
.i. edind. Ngetal dono .i. gilcach no raish ut dicitur:
1190] luth lega getal .i. cilcach no raith. Straiph dono .i.
draighen, ut dicitur: aire srabha sraibh .i. draighin.
Ruis dono .i. trom, ut dicitur, ruamna ruice ruis .i. trom.
Ailm dono .i. crand giuis .i. ochtach. Onn .i. aiten. Ur
.i. fraech. Edhadh .i. ed uath .i. crand fir no crithach.
1195] Idho .i. ibhar. Ebhadh .i. crithach {BB folio 325b1}. Oir .i. feorus
no edind. Uilleand .i. edleand. Iphin .i. spinan no ispin
& rl.

Anmand fidh tra sin uile amal fogabar isna Duilibh
Fedha inn ogaim & ni ho dainib ut alii dicunt.

Cest, cis lir a cumang? Ni ansa. Lanchumang intibh
uilibh eter fedha & taebomna co nd-aurba huath .i. conas-firbade
uath .i. amal bes a n-aicnedcidh mor gidh beg e. Is
amhlaidh innister isin Cin Ollaman .i. cethirshlicht feghthair
for fedhaibh .i. cumang & egumang, lanchumang &
1205] lenchumang. Lanchumang i fedaib, cumang a forfedaibh,
egumang a mutibh, lethchumang a leathgutaibh.
Atberat araile is treshlicht as choir and .i. lanchumang a
fedaibh, & cumang a forfedaibh, & ecumang a muitibh; ar ni


{BB folio 325b13} {E folio 26a45}
fil leathguta la Gaedel. Cest, cate fos i fedhaibh & i forfedhaibh
1210] & gair hi taebomnaib .i. gair suidigud, air is leathaimser
for taebomnaib do gres a corus forfed.

Cest, cis lir dech docussin? Ni ansa. A ocht: dialt
& recomrac & iarcomrac, felis & cloenre & luibenchosach &
claideamnas & bricht. Oenfidh airegda i ndialt, a da i
1215] recomrac, a tri i n-iarcomrac, a ceithri i filis, a coic
hi claenre, a se i luibenchosach, a secht i claidemnas, a
ocht i mbricht, cenmota taebomna. Cest, cia roig
dialt i mmeit & i llaiget .i. dialt co ceill coic litri and a
n-as mode: rosaigh i llaiget co oenlitir & is focal son, ut
1220] est a, o, i, amal ata á (.i. ard) slebhi. Amal isa Ard
(Á) Cuis, & Ard (Á) Cartaind, a Slebh Luachra .i.
anmand slebhe saindriudh ut dixit Mac Da Cerda:—

    1. Damh conngair eter da a,
      Fon-gluaisi gaeth gulbanda,
      1225] Is uallach int arganda
      Re trichait sed lurganda
& o (.i. cluas) for cind & i inis Coluim Cille. Rosaigh
didiu i mmeit co a coic littri, ut est, bracht tract druct
scalp. Scriuthair & ni hairimther uath isna foclaib dedenachaib
1230] arna litrib, acht nod tinfid. Cach ndialt iarum na
tormaig fri araili comcumung cach ae focail. Deich co a
ocht a mbricht & is e met & laigett cacha Gaeidelgi o dealt


{BB folio 325b33} {E folio 26ay}
co bricht cona n-athgabail dlblinaib .i. co cumangar du
gach dialt iarna tinol deach. Is bricht a mbith ocht sillaba.
1235] Is ed bunad cacha Gaedelge dialt acht mod & toth & traeth.
Domiditer alta uad fri alta duine amal domiditer fri cach
n-indsci. Cest, cindus domiditer fri cach n-indsci? Ni
ansa. Corop cach dialt friscara di araili, ut est, tis tuas
tair tiar tes tuaid; gu rub recomarc friscara di araili, ar
1240] is cubaid a comfid & a comdeich.

Coig airmi cintecha in tuir .i. da tuaith sechtmogat &
da comairlig sechtmogat acco & da berla sechtmogat for
fodailt doib & da deiscipul sechtmogat tancadar la Feinius
do foglaim ba mberla sin & da ceimend sechtmogat in
1245] airdi in tuir.

Cest, caidi deifir eter indeall & tindell? Ni ansa. Innell
int imcomurc & tinnell int eirniud.

Seacht primtoisigh lasi ndernad in tor .i. Eber mac
Saili, Grecus mac Gomer a quo Greci, Laitin mac Puin
1250] a quo Laitini, Riabath Scot a quo Scoiti, Nemruadh mac
Cuis mic Caim mic Noi, & Faillech mac Ragau mic
Arafaxat mic Seim.

Cest, cate deochraigter erer cinniud & cintechu &
cinntichu son? Ni ansa. Cinniud in aipgitir Grecda, ar is
1255] ceirtiu quam ind aipgitir {BB folio 326a1} Aspin Ebraide. Cinntichu
immorro in aipgitir Laitianda na in aipgitir Grecda.
Cinntichu son .i. beithi-luis-nin in ogaim na in aipgitir
Laitianta uair is fo deoidh arricht.

Cia haenfocul gebes forna ceithri ernaili ind Auraicepta
1260] cen deifir tomuis no tarmfortcind no feda no focail


{BB folio 326 a 5} {E folio 26b19}
na forgnuisi? Ni ansa. In focul is aipgitir, ar gebid ar
aipgitir Ebraide & Grecda & Laitianda.

Treidi doghni uath .i. bogad & semigudh & airdibdad.
Bocad cetumus: for taebomnaib & is 'na ndiaidh doeagmaing
1265] doib .i. do p & do c & do t ut cloch, both. Iarsin
Laitneoir bidh tinfid iar cach taebomna isin Gaedilc. Semigudh
immorro forna taebomnaib chena & is rempo doecmaing
doib .i. for coic taebomnaib .i. for b, c, d, t, g. Bogad
beithi cetamus .i. sop & lop .i. amal ata Bhatraig. Uath
1270] bogas in beithi fil and, ar ni bi p isin Gaedilc. Semigud
amal ata a Batraig, uath and is semiu 'nas i n-aill.
Bocad cuill .i. clach & ach; bocad d .i. sodh & odh. Bocad
for tinni .i. tath & ath. Bocad for gort .i. magh & agh.
Seimigud b immorro .i. a bhen, a bhan, a bhe binn.
1275] Seimiugud c dono .i. o chiun, do chein, o chianaibh, o
chetoir. Semigud d .i. dhamsa, dhuitsiu. Semigud t
.i. a thir, a thuaigh. Semiugud g .i. a ghradh & a

Airdibdad immorro forta taebomna .i. for sailig &
1280] for ferna (.i. taebomna amal fedaib) .i. orro dibdudh .i.
a mbricht ass di raith amal ata ardibdad sailech .i. a
shal, a shuil. Airdibdad ferna .i. a fhind, a fhir, ind

Is sain so frisna cubaid {illu98.1} .i. euad &
edadh in dorusa uerbi (.i. tabair esemplair) gur uinge &
1285] cingit & cuing is ecen di littir Latianda ica scribind na
consani .i. n & g. Ni hecen acht {illu98.2} a oenur ar son


{BB folio 326a25} {E folio 26b34}
in da littre sin isin Gaedilc, ut est, {illu100.1} .i.
uinge, {illu100.2} .i. cuing, {illu100.3} cingit. Ni
1290] dat inunna dno suin fris nad cubaid cach ae dib-seo
{illu100.4}., ut est, seeit in teinid, tria {illu100.5} a scribind.
1295] Seit (.i.) conar tria {illu100.6} a scribind. Neim nathrach .i. {illu100.7}
a scribind: min (.i. beic) iphi and; min arba .i. {illu100.8}
and. Nemh im talmain, neamh im usce {illu100.9} andsen.
Air it trega ar a tugad forfeda eter isin aibgitir in
ogaim .i. do fregra do defoghur amal adberar isna
breathaibh nemedh .i. genmota forfeda a fail defoghur
na nguta & dono do sainigedh foghur forsna fedhaibh, air
is buga fogair bis isna forfedhaibh, ut est, neamh {illu100.10}
1300] and: naemh {illu100.11} and: nem {illu100.12} and.

It e coic gne in berla tobaidi .i. berla Fene
& fasaige na filed & berla etarsgarta & berla forttide na filed
triasa n-agaillit cach dib a chele & iarmberla amal rogab:
Cuic .i. ruin. Et ballorb .i. ball do forbau na filideachta
1305] aicce; no is do chanaid is ainm. Et muirne .i. miruin no
miruine. Gne n-aill do iarmberla .i. iarum & dno & atat &
tra & immorro & edon & iar & ar & cest & cair & cisne &
caidat & ni ansa & rl. Gne n-aill dno .i. forsna (.i. feraib) &
fona & esna & tresna, sechna. It e na lorga fuach in sin
1310] lasin filid. Gne n-aill dano .i. he es em co tre tair do o fo


{BB folio 326a44} {E folio 26b44}
fair. Dialt n-etarlemmi in sin lasin filid. Iarmberla tra
cosin annuas. Is aire raiter iarmberla de .i. ara secdacht
amal iaruinn, da fedtar a thaithmeach: no iarmberla .i.
berla ranig Iar mac Nema fo dheoidh & ni fetar a thaithmeach.

Ocus berla a-edarsgarta eter na fedaibh aireghdaibh
.i. berla tresa fuil deliugud na fid n-aireghda isin aenfhocul
triana n-inde taithmeach, ut est, amal rogabh ros .i. roi
oiss quando (.i. intan) as rois caelli & rass iar lind intan
1320] as ros usce .i. rofhos mad for marbusce ino {BB folio 326b1} roidh
ass mad for sruth & ro as intan as ros lin .i. ar a luas & ar a
thigi asas. Ocus a mberla forteidi .i. fordorcha no
ruamanta inna filideachta, amal asrubairt in file hi scuil
Feniusa: Etaill aro ni anfem de .i. i inis; etall .i. uasal
1325] & aro .i. imramh .i. ni anfem de imram co risam in innsi
n-uasail .i. Eiri no Espain, no is Espain eicin amal rogab
i n- Imagallaim na Da Thuar: Brimon smetrach. Berla
na filed so .i. in gne deidinach is sund .i. bri .i. briathar,
mon .i. cleas, & smit .i. cluas, & forrach .i. rigi: no bri .i.
1330] briathar, & mon .i. cleas, & smetrach .i. smit forrach .i.
co forrgidis neach. Cleas bratharda sin donidis na filid
oc ecnuch .i. smit a cluaisi do gabail ina laimh .i. amal
nach fil cnaim sund ni raib eneach iconti egnaigeas
in fili.

Iss e in coic(ed) gne in gnathberla fogni do cach,


{BB folio 326b15} {E folio 26bx}
(ar) asberad araili comad e in berla Feini fasaigi na filed,
& conach berla fo leith etir.

Cest, caide fot & gair intib & rl.? Ni ansa. Amal ata
neam, forfid fil and. Nem immorro in fid aireghda fil
1340] and & is cruaidiu in fid aireghda fil and & is buigi
in forfhid .i. neam; no didiu is gair n-aicnid & fot suidigthi
a fedaib & gair suidigthi i forfedaib & fot n-aicnid; no
dono na feda fileat sund it inunda & na guthaigi. Na forfeda
immorro it inunda & na deofhoghair. In defhoghur
1345] fil intib iarum, amal ata bean, bein dogenta de meni beith
deofhoghur. Is amlaid na forfeda. Cindus on & ebad
a forfidh ind anma intan asberar fer? Ni codarsna anni
sin arin defoghur. Is cumair sin & ni bi fair acht aimsear
co leith tantum (.i. nama) a n-as modhe. Da aimsir immorro
1350] forsin nguthaige fota. Cia bad gairit iarum in
defoghur remunn inrathaigte. Ceinmota didiu in fid
conicc comardugud fuit & gair indib, amal asbert in Laitneoir:
circumplex forsna sillabaib fotta amal ata do, si; &
amal adberat acuit forsna sillabaib cuimri ut est pax .i.
1355] bacc. Is fon indus sin dobeir in Gaedel forshail for fot
amal rogab sron & slog & rl. et ernin arding dead amal
rogab leacc & ceand & rl. Cid timarta iarum ebad isinni
is fer ni la Greco as defoghur in sain. Cid fotera in
codarsna sin & na coic fedha & n(a secht) fedha & na
1360] deich fedha iar fuilliucht aili? Ni ansa. Na coic fedha
cetamus: ic frecra duna coic guthaigub tug na secht fedha


{BB folio 326b39} {E folio 27a15}
immorro. Na deich fedha immorro .i. iphin ar defoghur
ata: emoncoll ar a n-emnaidi ata intan sin condat a deich
samlaid. Pin immorro ar p ata & amancoll ar x ata conid
1365] a seacht samlaid. Iar n- Auraiccept Muman in so.

Gne aili asberait araili ebad & oir is ar fedaib foda
itat. Uilleann immorro is ar y ata, & is ar u intan bis fo
medontaig. Iphin is ar h-i fo meodontacht, no is iphin is
coir and ar p. Emuncoll didiu is ar x ata .i. for foimdin
1370] na focul nGrecda no Laitinda do thabairt isinn Gaidelg, &
is aire raiter eamancoll ris, ar is coll indarna taebomna fil
ind x, & is airi is coll adberar d' emnad and, & ni sail; ar
is taisechu coll in x ina sail.

Conadar didiu isin bethi-luis-nin: Caidi in fid gabus
1375] greim taebomna & in fid gabus greim da taebomna & in
fid gabus greim focail {BB folio 327a1} & in fid na geibh greim
taebomna na feda na focail? Is e in fidh gabus greim taebomna
quidem .i. fid a ndiaid araile & fidh bis for primfhid
a focail no araen re defhoghur a n-aensillaib, ut est,
1380] beoir feoil Briain & rl., no fidh teit a consanacht .i. u. Fid
gabus greim dá taebomna .i. aenfidh fregras in tomus do
dhib taebomnaibh, ut dicitur: cach da taebomna ar fidh.
Fid gabus greim focail .i. fidh labhras a aenur. Fidh na
ghabhand greim taebomna na fedha na focail .i. u nihelsa ut
1385] dicitur: nec uocales nec consonantes habentur (.i. nach gutai
& nach consoini iat) no fidh bhis a ndiaid araile ut diximus
(mar adubramar).

Conadar dono isin beithi-luis-nin taebomna gabus


{BB folio 327a10} {E folio 27a18}
greim fedha, & taebomna gabus greim taebomna &
1390] feda. Et taebomna gabus greim da fid no da taebomna.
Et da taebomna gabus greim fedha. Et taebhomna
gabus greim coic fidh & se taebomna. Et taebomna
gabus greim tri fidh & ceithri taebomna. Et taebomna
gabus greim focail. Et taebomna na gebhend greim
1395] taebomna no feda no focail. In taebomna ghabhus greim
da fid no da taebomna ng. Is i in taebomna gabhus
greim feda .i. queirt. Is i gabhus greim taebomna
& feda .i. c & u (nihelsa). Et taebomna gabus greim
fedha .i. gach da taebomna ar fid i tomus.

Taebomna gabus greim coic fed & se taebomna .i. duir
i n-inad dine disoil. Ni machtad intan ghabhus greim
na coic fidh & na se taebomna ge gabhaidh greim da fidh
& da taebomna. Taebomna gabus greim tri fidh & ceithri
taebomna .i. sail a n-inad forsail. Taebomna gabus greim
1405] focail .i. taebomna congeb greim forbaidhe. Taebomna
na geb greim taebomna na feda na focail .i. taebomna dia
togaib uath ceand doraith.6

Cest, cislir deich dochuisin? Ni ansa. In traigh lasin
Laitneoir, in dech lasin filid, ut Donatus dixit: pes est
1410] sillabarum et temporum certa dinumeratio .i. ata in traigh
conid armidetu demin inna sillab & inna n-aimser. Ata
dono airmidetu derb sillab & traighed & aimser ocon
Gaidhiul o dhialt co bricht: sillab foirbthe cach deach
dibh di arailiu isin Gaedilc conid a hocht samlaidh


{BB folio 327a30} {E folio 27a22}
i mbricht conid airmidetu dearb sain o oensillaib co
a ocht. Dialt .i. di fo dhiultadh co nach fil alt
and. Recomhrac .i. re i comhraiget na di shillaib
immon alt. Iarcomrac .i. iarum comraigit .i. iar cach
ndedenach .i. comrac na tri sillab forsna da sillabaib
1420] tuiseacha. Feleas .i. fi les na lama no fo lais cibeadh dib
beras .i. lesin filid, uair is cudruma. Claenre, uair ar a re
(.i. claen a rind) is a dho ar indara leith & a tri forin leth
n-aili. Luibenchossach .i. in choss cona luibnibh .i. na
coic meoir & in traigh in sessed. Claidemnas .i. claidebh
1425] manus .i. manus lamh & claidebh na laimi in slindean: & is
e in sechtmad dialt. Bricht .i. bri ocht .i. ocht mbriathra
and, no bricht iarsinni brigtair ocht sillaba and. Cest,
cate deochair eter dialt & a dheach? Ni ansa. In trath is
forfhidh in dialt alt eter defhogur and. Intan immorro is
1430] taebomna & primfidh alt eter in taebomna & in fid and. Intan
immorro is aenguthaige amal ata a, o, alt eter da aimsir
and. Ænfid i ndialt, a do i recomarc & rl .i. primfid no
forfid. Is airi sin ni talla in trefoghur i n-aendialt.

Ocht sillaba isan focul is mo isan Gaedilc, ut est, fiannamailcecheterdarai
1435] & anrocomraircnicsiumairne, & rl.

Tri sillaba deg immorro isin focul is mo isin Laitin
ut est tinerificabilitudinetaitibus.



{BB folio 327b1} {E folio 27a39}
Iss e int ainm airmi .i. a tri no a ceithir. It eat {BB folio 327b1}
na hanmanda uird airmi immorro primus et sequndus et
1440] tercius .i. anmand a n-airmi iar prois & a n-anmand uird
airmi immorro iar n-aicned.

Is i sin an deochair, airim anforbthe amal ata a iii
no a v, ar nocho nfuillter (fogailter) o choitibh. Airim
forbthe, ut est, a se, a aen fo se, a do fo thri, a tri fo do.
1445] Airim forbthi in sin, uair airissid o choitibh co coir.
Airim ollforbthe ut est a do dec .i. a haen a haile dec,
a do a sessed, a tri a ceathramthu, a cethri a trian, a
se a ceirtleath samlaidh, amal rogabh a do dec .i. a aen &
a do & a tri a se sin; & a ceithri iarsin conid a deich sin;
1450] & a se iarsin conid a se dec samhlaid. Conid airimh in sain
is fuilliu anda coit tria taithmet a lethe. Is cach coitidi
is randaidhi, & ni cach randaigi is choitide, & rl.

Cest, cia roaig dialt i mmeit & i llaiget? Ni ansa.
Dialt co ceill .i. coic litri and a n-as mode: aenlitir
1455] immorro a n-as lughude .i. ic sluinn cheilli comlaine
amal ata o no i. Dialt didiu bunad cacha Gaedelge acht
mod & tod & troth. Cid fodera nach bunadh doibh-sein?
Ni ansa. Ar is dialt cach ai dhibh, & ni bunad in raet
do fen, no dono is bunadh cach Gaedelge dialt acht mod &
1460] tod & troth. Acht is momo lem and chena ni dat bunad
Gaedelge acht is bunad ceilli. Caite in cenel dianad
bunadh? Ni ansa .i. mod cach ferda .i. gach ball ferda
& cach comna ferda; & todh cach mbanda .i. cach ball
banda & cach comna banda; & troth cach neoturda .i.


{BB folio 327b23} {E folio 27a54}
nach neachtardae .i. cach comna nemeguscda: no dano
nidat diadta etir & nidat bunad Gaedelge iarum mod
& dod & traet acht ad bunada ceniuil ut dicitur acht
atat arae sin araile Gaedelge dianad bunad amal roghabh
mod .i. mo a ed i n-airde; no mod .i. mo od .i. od ceol
1470] intan is mascal .i. moo in ceol. Is moo quam in ceol is
lughu amal roghabh ind aidbsi i n-Druim Ceata .i. tood
no to od, tae a ed intan as femen: no tod .i. to od .i.
tod in ceol .i. in ceol bec .i. cronan no certan bec i n-aithfhegad
in moir (.i. in ceol is mo). Traeth .i. treith
1475] a ed no a odh fri fedhadh mascail & femin: no traeth
iarsinni traethait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda .i. stocairecht
no cornairecht. Gne n-aile no mod .i. mo a ed i n-airdi
intan is torand no is crand. Todh .i. tae a ed intan is fod,
. . . son aile is taitiu innas in aill. Traeth .i. traethait,
1480] a thraethas intan is fet; fo bith is caeli & is cruaidhi inas
inni eli is traet. Asperaid araili comdis anmand aidmi
ciuil. Caidi a ndemnigud? Ni ansa. Mo a od intan
is cruit. Tod .i. tai a od: intan as bindi is tuiu &
is isliu ata na a n-aill. Traeth .i. traethaid in dis eili
1485] intan is stocc, fo bith is airdi a fhaidh. Is airi is
traeth doib. No dono mod & tod & traeth .i. anmunda
ball ferda & banda & neudarda sin amal asbert
in Laitneoir: nomen membri uiri vel nomen membri
muileiris vel nomen membri neutri; & it focail Grecda sin


{BB folio 327b46} {E folio 27a61}
ciasu Laitine ata deismireacht dib & nach dad dialta, ar nis-filet
o neoch & ni fuilter uaitib acht mine derntar mod
for mod & tod for tod & traeth for traeth. Secundum
quosdam cumad etarscarad indsci: Isse, issi, issed, iar
Macaib Miled: uindius, uindsi, ondor, iar Feraib Bolg:
1495] mod, tod, traeth, iar Tuathaib De Danand. Iss e so tra
a cumair {BB folio 328} .i. is e bunad gach Gaedelge .i. dialt .i. o
recomrac co bricht; & ni bunad he d' aensillaib amal (rogab)
mod & tod & traeth; & iar cach dialt tucad-side sund, & is
aire rotathmetaid-side sech gach dialt, ar dochuaidh
1500] menma friu comtis recomraig: air fogabar a condaill .i. a
caindeligud, ut diximus. No dno mod & tod & traeth a
n-anmand na mball ferda & banda & neoturda amal asbert
in Laitneoir: Nomen membri uirilis et nomen membri muliebris
& nomen membri neutri, & it focail Grecda sin cidh i
1505] Laitin ata desmireacht dibh: & is airi nach at dialta, ar
ni filet o neoch & ni filter uaidibh acht meni derntar mod
for mod & tod fri tod & traeth fri traeth. Domiditer alta
uad .i. toimsiter aisti inn aircetail fri haltaibh na ndaeni
amal toimsiter fri cach indsce.

Cindas toimsiter fri cach insci? .i. corop cach dialt
frecras-sa di araili amal ata tis tuas, air is ed a chubhaidh
intan is cobfhidh, & is cobfhid in focal ind imfrecra & is
comdeach in tarmfortcend.



{BB folio 328a16} {E folio 27b6}
Coic filltigthi fichet hi remim amal ros-gabh andso

Fer a ainmniugud.     Fir a sealbad.
I fiur a aitreib.     Ar fear a airicheall.
Co fer a ascnam.     In fer a inchosc.
A fir a togairm.     Hi fer a innothacht.
1520] Sech fer a sechmall.     Oc fir a furmiud.
O fhir a foxaul.     For fer a fortud.
Fri fer a freslige.     In fir a tustidhi.
Fo fiur a fothud.     Do fiur a dhanad.
De fhiur a digbhail.     Iar fiur a thiarmoracht.
1525] La fer a thaebtu.     Im fer a imthimcheall.
Ar fiur a fresgabhail.     Dar fer a thairsce.
Frisin fer a thormach.     Tre fer a thregdhadh.
Is fer a thuarasgbhail.     Ri fiur a remiudh.

Fedar dno a n-illar .i. fir a ainmnigud, na fir a tuarascbhail,
1530] ac feraib a inchosc (sic), na fer a shealbad, dona
a danadh, sic in sequentibus.

Fear didiu ebadh a fhidh in anma asberar fer; e a
guta; dialt a diach .i. son oencongbalach cen alt etir.
Dichongbail and io no iphin a fidh ina remim no ina
1535] shealbhadh intan asberar fir .i. ar bit in dis ina reim io
and amal ata fir iphin and amal ata do fir io amal ata a
; iphin amal ata o fhir. Is aire nach airimh ebhadh ina
reim ce beith i n-araileib and amal ata co fer, & rl., air ni fil
acht reim ceilli namma in gach baile i mmairend in fhidh
1540] bis is in ainmnid. Isna filltib as io no iphin bhis intib


{BB folio 328a38} {E folio 27b21}
in gach baile nach mairend conid aire sin adberar io no
iphin a fhidh ina reim no 'na shealbhad & rl.

Dinin disail a forbaidh .i. a aicnid lasin Laitneoir; air
it e teora fuirbhthe dochuisnet .i. arnin & dinin dishail &
1545] forsail .i. arnin arding ded, forsail for fot fedair, dinin
disail for gair gabhaidh:

Arnin, ut est glonn & donn & crann & glenn: forsail,
ut est, sron & slog & mor: dinin disoil, ut est, fer
& cor & ler & tor & cach timarta ar chena. Intan
1550] scribthar int ainm ogaim is and scribtar na forbaide-sea
uasu fri realadh fuid & gair no fri tennad, ar ni
tuigfidhea cheana: uair amal dobeir in Laitneoir acuit
forsna sillabaib cuimre, ut est, pax & rl., & forsna sillabaib cuimre, ut est, pax & rl., & circumplex forsna
sillabaib fota, ut, res, sic dobeir in Gaedel dine dishoil
1555] arna cuimribh, ut est, fer; & forshail forna fodaib amal
rogab {BB folio 328b1} lamh; & amal bis graib in gach aenebert
ilfoclaig la acuit no la circumplex, sech is arnin araen re
dine disail no araen ri forsail i n-aenfocul ut ceann & sron.
Airnin iarum ernid nin: no airnin .i. fair nin, air is nin
1560] scribthar ag fuacra na forbaidi sin .i. nin ainm coitcheand
do gach litir eter feadaib & taebomnaib. Forsail dano
sail fair air is sail scribthar ig incosc na forbaide
sin ar is for fut bis forsail, & is siniud na haimsire do
forin sail: no forsail .i. foruillid in focul conad foda: no forsail
1565] .i. furail seach in cumair. Dinin disail .i. di fo diultad
and co nach nin & co nach sail acht is duir scribthar ac
inchosc na forbaidi sin .i. ar is digbail na haimsire toirnes
duir amal as tormach tormaiges sail: no dine disail de
sin dofuilliud .i. nemfuilliud. Asberait araile is aire
1570] scribthar duir ar dine disoil, air is duir fil ar dtus an dine


{BB folio 328a14} {E folio 27b28}
disoil, & is aire scribthar nin air nin ar is nin fil fo deoidh
and, & is aire scribthar sail ar forsail ar is sail fil a medon
inte; no ut alii dicunt ail .i. aimser furail seach in cumair.
Dine .i. dinin .i. ni nin .i. ni fid acht is forbaid. Dishail
1575] .i. ni aimsir fota no dishail .i. nemhfhuilled no nemfurail.

Alt co fesear cia halt huad dona secht n-altaib .i.
anamain, nath, anair, eamain, laid, setrud, soinemain,
dian cona nduanaib. O sein inund is o dheachaib sluintir
alta nan huad ar na rob indsci cumascda. Nath .i.
1580] noaid anair. Anamain .i. an somain. Laed .i. laitir no
luaitir: no leoaid intan is air: no is onni as laus .i.
moladh. Sedradh .i. sed raid; no raith air set. Sainemain
.i. sain a maine risin aisti reamaind. Dian .i. di air:
no dian .i. adbol an no ni ain. O sin anund .i. ota na
1585] seacht primaisti amach is o deacaib is ni de na deachaibh
foricfa & is uaidibh ainmniugud doib a forba gacha
rainde a nduain, & recomrac a forduain, & iarcomarc
bairdne, ar na rop indsce cumaisci ar na rob prois amal
aisti na ndaerbard.

Lorga fuach .i. lorg ua focul .i. amal bite lorga i
llamaib duine for portaibh sesga og immtheacht o
purt do phurt ar na torchrad inna lighi, imtha is amlaidh
it he in so na lorga biti a ciatlabair no i ngenaib na filed
ic fosugud o focul co focul. Lorca fuach iarum .i. remsuigeadad


{BB folio 328b36} {E folio 27b35}
da sillaeibh eter in da comuaim, ut Cormac
bard cecinit:
    1. Im ba seasach, im ba seang

      & rl.

.i. in ba in lorga fuach.

A dialt n-etarleme .i. aensillab eter in da comuaim,
1600] ut est:—

    1. Cia leth gu brath iar cuairt cros
      Cosluidfea mo coblach creas?
      In ba sair ba siar ri suail,
      In ba tuaid no in bodes?
Cia eter lond & leath in dialt n-etarleme; & ata lorga
fuach & dialt n-etarleme isin rand ar medon .i. in
ba & is ba.

Fertot a thelgud noe .i. a telgud duine, ar is nae
duine, ut est dia ndama nae for tir .i. duleice in duine
1610] cessad fair, teit iarum dia fothrugud din uisciu, dolece
don bruch sis isin usce, tot ol in tond fae .i. fa tot dno
a ainm in foghair sin doghni in tond: tott; tott dano a
ainm forcmachta (no forcumascda) di sun, ut est, bu bo
go ged: no in guth trom dogni in dae oca lecon forsin
1615] usce. O fodhar na genemna rohainmnigthea go go i
fogur, no bu bo .i. tot: no dano arfoem in duine a etach
immi o nach ailiu. Is ed asber-sum i suidi fertom (.i.
ferdo dam .i.) feartot ar du chele frit, briathar chesta sin
.i. feartot ar a chele {BB folio 329a1} fris, briathar gnima so.

Aurlond dno ainm d'oreill gaei .i. ind adarc dub bis
mon gai, is di arsisidar in gai, imtha is amlaid arsisidar in
indsce don trediu-sa .i. ise isi ised: no dona deich n-urlandaib-sea
.i. se da tri cethre .i. urlanda ferinsci sin .i.


{BB folio 329a5} {E folio 27b45}
ise .i. in fear, da .i. da fear, tri .i. tri fir, ceithri .i. cethri fir:
1625] no urlonn indsci slondud reimmi .i. ferinsci & baninsci &
deiminsci. Inunda immorro urlann ferinsce & baninsce o
sin amach. Is aire nach indister seach a ceathair.

Si di teora cetheora urlanna baninsce andsin. Is i .i.
in bean, di .i. di mnai, teora .i. teora mna, ceitheora .i.
1630] ceitheora mna. It e & at iat immorro urlanna coitcheanda
eter banindsci & ferindsci. Is ed immorro urlann demindsci
ut dicitur is ed a cheann. Fri hurlainn ferindsci dono
aentaigis demindsci a n-urlandaib ilair .i. da nem ut dicitur
da fear & rl. No urland indsce .i. ferindsce & banindsce &
1635] demindsce. Conige seo corp ind Auraicepta.

Coic filltigthi fichet i reim .i. a coic gu hogfegad na
filed i ffilliud re uamma na hai & fiche gne saerda
olchena. Et in fiche gne saerda catead a n-araide foraib?
Im berat cach ae dibh dochum a ndilis fen? Berait ecin,
1640] uair it dealba filltecha. Is ed a lin a tri i n-uathad & a
tri i n-ilar conad a se amlaid. In fichi gne saerda prosta is
deimin is e so a n-araide, a do dec dibh i forgnuis ainmneda
& ainsida, a oen dibh i forgnuis genidli & togartada, a secht
i forgnuis tobartada & foxlan: no aon dec dibh a ndelb ainmnedha
1645] & ainsida & a tri a ndelbh genidli & togartada &
a tri a ndelb tobartacha & foxlacha .i. tri fillti a n-uathad
.i. fer, fir, ic fir; a tri a n-lar na fer, na fir, na firu. In


{BB folio 329a27} {E folio 27b54}
da filliud deg dibh tiaghait i forgnuis ainmneda & ainseda
it e andseo a n-anmand .i.

Ar fher a airceall; co fer a ascnamh; i fer a
inotacht; seach fher a sechmall; for fer a fortudh; fri fer
a freislige; la fer a thaebtu; im fer a imthimcheall; dar
a thairrsci; frisin fer a thormach; tre fer a tregdad;
is fer a thuarascbail, ut dixit poeta:

    1. Is iat sain da filltech deg,
      Anndar leam nocho lanbhrec,
      Tiaghait i forgnuis feda
      Ainmneda ocus ainseda.
Na secht filltigh immorro tiaghait i forgnuis tobartadha &
1660] foxlada, i fiur aitreibh; oc fiur a furmidh; fo fiur a
fothudh; do fiur a digbail; iar fiur a thiarmoracht; ar
a fresgabhail; ria fiur a remid, ut dixit poeta:
    1. Is iad so na seacht fillti,
      Nit ernaili admillti,
      1665] Tiagait i ngnuisibh glana
      Tobarta ocus foxlada.
Oenfilltech immorro teit i forgnuis togarthada & genitli,
ut dixit poeta:
    1. In fhir a thustidhi thiar thair
      Do sealbhadh do thogartaidh
      Ocus doibh ar aen ni ric
      Acht mad int aen don fichit.
Is iad sin in fiche gne saerda cona n-aradnaibh & rl.


{BB folio 329a44} {E folio 28a5}
Fer didiu, ebadh a fid, io no iphin ina reimim no 'na
1675] shealbad & rl .i. is idad inna selbad & ina thoghairm. Is
iphin immorro ina thobartaid & ina foxlaid. Euad
immorro ina n-ainmnidh & 'na ainsid.

Cate diles fedha i fedhaibh, & dilis feda i fidh, & dilis
fidh i fedhaibh? Diles fedha i fedhaibh cetamus .i. a
1680] riasna ceithri guthaigib, ar is i cetlabrad cach bi & iachtad
gach mairb. Dilis fed i fidh dno .i. is dilis in forfidh ogaim
secepe fid i scribthar. Dilis fidh i fedhaibh .i. {BB folio 329b1}
amal ata in forfidh as defogur .i. is ed as diles and in
foghur tuisech, ar ni airimhtear in fogur dedhenach.

Alt co fesear .i. co festar in n-aisti dona seacht primellgibh
na filideachta do ghne do thomhus. O sein inunn is
du deachaibh sluinter alta iad ar na badh insce chumascda
.i. o sin inunn isna degfhuachaib .i. is do dadfoclaib sluinter
aisti airchetail ar na rabi in indsci cumascda amal dogniat
1690] na daerbaird.

Lorga fuach .i. lairce lorchaine .i. remshuidigthi desillaebaig
biith riasna foclaib ica saerad ar da n-ernail .i.
rogair & claenre (no claen celle).

Ferthot a thelgud noe. Et bu bo & go ged .i. anmand
1695] sin tria eladain rancadar na filid do reir a fogair .i. fertot
.i. fer rothoit and; & bo a uerbo boo no buo .i. fograigim .i.
on geimim nobeth & ged go mbadh on geig gotha dober


{BB folio 329b14} {E folio 28a24}
ass nobeth, amal asbert in Laitneoir: Nomen de sono
factum est .i. forcaemnacair int ainm don fogur ut est
1700] connall stip is ed a fogur ica loscudh. Is de sin ranic
stipula do anmaim do icon Laitneoir.

Aurlond no insce dno d' oreill in gai is ainm. Caidi
int erlonn saerda fogabar conad aicniud? Ni ansa. Erlonn
in gae. Cate int aurlonn indsci do nach asand insci acht
1705] insce bais .i. graini in gae. Cate int aurlonn is iarlonn &
int iarlonn is urlonn & int urlonn is remlonn .i. urlonn .i. in
gai .i. urlonn fadesin iarlonn dotess, ar is iar cach ndedenach;
conid he sin int urlonn is iarlonn & is urlonn int urlonn
is remlonn .i. intan rosaig lar ind airiall. Cate urlonn
1710] urlainn urlainni i n-urlonn .i. urlonn ferurlonn banurlonn
nemurlonn: urlainni ben in fir: urlunna a ndis i n-urlaind
.i. i nem no i n-ifern.

Aurlunna ilair mascul & femen in so sis: se, da,
thri, cethri: si, di, teora, cetheora. Inunna insci airme
1715] o sin imach. Is andsain fogabar comrorco ilair neodair
.i. cena urlanna ilair oca acht i n-uathad tantum. Cate
insce saerda fogabar co n-aicned? Ni ansa. Is ed in
ceand air is saerda a radh & se for in duine. Is aicenta
immorro a radh fris iarna buain de.

Cia haenfocul recomhracach isna remendaib gebes
ingrecus .i. greim na ceithre n-ernaili du remendaib .i. in
focul as treghdad ar geibit arin focul is tregdad & as aitreib


{BB folio 329b37} {E folio 28a45}
& is innuttacht & as ascnam; ar ni bia in tregdad cen (ind)
aitreib, ni bia inn atreib cen in innotacht, ni bia int inutacht
1725] cen inn ascnam, conid tregdad o thuind co tuind teachtas.
Cia bricht i mbit ocht feda ocon filid co ngeb int aenguta
greim a leithi ut est sliachta & is ogleith in sin ni certleath
.i. a haenar a n-agaid na secht litir. Cia baili inn
Auraiccepta ata in sealbadh saerda cen reim acht reim
1730] remraiti, ut est, {illu134.1} alme {illu134.2} alme .i. in selbhad ata do
[plus ] forin {illu134.3} & for {illu134.4}.

Cia baili i fogabar comtoth consan cen tinfed treothu?
Ni ansa. In baili i mbi n ria g cen gutaigi eturu, ut est
uinge. Cia baili i fagabar in fidh forthormaigh iar forbu
1735] na n-ocht sillab isin focul is bricht? Ni ansa. In baili
i mbia defogur isin ochtmad dialt is fidh forthormaigh
indara fogur.

Ocht sillaba dno isin focul is mo isin Gaedilg, ut est,
fiannamailechardaai{BB folio 330a1}: tre sillaba dec immorro in
1740] focul is mó isin Laitin, ut est, tenerificabilitudinitatibus.

Cia taebomna gebes greim feda & focail & taebomna?
Ni ansa. Queirt. Cia taebomna na geib greim feda no
focail & taebomna? Ni ansa. Uath.

Cate bunad ruidlesta in focail is aipgitir? Ni ansa.
1745] A b e c e d i b o n .i. copulatio literarum per se .i. ata isin
aipgitir comhthinol na litir cona fialus.

Ocus littir fodesein, cia bunad o fil? Ni ansa. Onni


{BB folio 330a8} {E 28a62}
as ligitera .i. ainm tighi araili anmand aitrebas i traigh
mara dianadh ainm Molosus & gibeadh neach atchi teghdhais
1750] in anma sin foillsigter do fis cen eledain. Amalis set
iarum faillsighthi eolais & fessa do neoch aiscin in tighi
sin, is amlaidh sin as sét faillsighthi eolais do fis & faiscin
littri, conid airesain tugadh int ainm is littera o ainm
tighi in anma remraiti for littir in gach baili ita. No
1755] littera a litura .i. on foillgiud .i. on chomailt doberdis na
harsata forsna claro ciartha, ar intib nacetscribtha leo:
no litera .i. inteach legend .i. set legind.

Do bhunadhaibh na remend andseo sis.

In tiasca7 di fedaibh & deachaibh & remendaibh &
1760] furbhthi & altaibh & inscibh & etargairib amal rosuidigthi
la filedu ina scuili cetna robhadar & la Fenius Farsaidh iar
tebiu na Gaedelge asna di berlaibh sechtmogat. Co taiselbad
do Goediul mac Angein ar is e sen dorothlaigh tepe na
Gaedelge .i. int aenberla ba ailliu & ba cainiu cach berla
1765] conid aire fognith & conid iarum dotaiselbad conidh aire
dogairther Gaedelc & Gaidhil. Nel (no Nin) mac Fenius
dothuc Scotai ingen Foraind conidh dia ainm-sie dogairther

Fer a ainmnid uathaid.     Fir a ainmnid ilair.
1770] Fir a shealbad uathaid.     Na fer a shealbad ilair.
Do fir a radh n-uathaid.     Do feraibh a rad n-ilair.
In fer a inchosc uathaid.     Inna firu a inchosc ilair.
A fhir a thoghairm uathaid.     A fhir a thoghairm ilair.
O fir a oxail uathaid.     O feraibh a oxlaid ilair.
1775] Og fir a thurmeadh uathaid.     Oc feraib a fhuirmed ilair.


{BB folio 330a41} {E folio 28b24}
Co fer a ascnam uathaid.     Co feraib (no co firu) a ascnam ilair.
Sech fer a shechmall uathaid.     Sech feraib (no sech firu) a seachmall ilair.
Tre fer a thregdad uathaid.     Tre feraib (no tre firu) a thregdad ilair.
1780] I fer a inotacht uathaid.     I firu (no a feraib) a inotacht ilair.
I fir a aitreb uathaid.     I firu (no a feraib) a aitreb ilair.
For fer a fhortud uathaid.     For firu no for feraib a fhortud ilair.

1785] Fo fhir a fhotudh uathaid ilair.     Fo fhiru no fo feraib a fhotud ilair.
Tar fer a thairrsci uathaid.     Tar firu no tar feraib a tharrsci
Ar fir a fhrescbail uathaid.     A firu no ar feraib a fhrescbail
1790] Fri fer a fhreslighi uathaid.     Fri firi no fri feraibh a fhreslighi
Feron a formoladh.     Fer a chodad.
Feer a mhallrughudh.     Refer a delidhmi.
Ser a chendfhochrus tuis.     Fel a chendfhochrus deidh.
1795] Ni airghear a dhiabhul .i. ferfer.     Firini a ludhughudh.
Sofer a shaerughudh.     Dofer a dhaerughudh.
Ni airecar a urard .i. fera.     Feraib a aurisel.
Et forsna firu & fona firu et tresna
firu et isna firu et seach na
1800] firu {BB folio 330b1} a lorga fuach.     Fefrier a chonnail.
E, es, in, co, tre, tar, sech fer a
dialt n-etarleime.
Fertot a thelgad noe.    Fe a airchill calaid.

Ni airicar (a) arichill fuit no feir a airchill fuit, Ferr a
1805] dechnead, Fe a dichneadh. Ise, issi, issed, uinnse, unnse,
onnar a urlunn indsci.

Ceand cridi fulang a dhe8 demi tebidhi in fhir. Suil &
fiacail lanamain in chind. Srebann & cru lanamain


{BB folio 330b7} {E folio 28b32}
(lanamain in srebuinn .i. bainne & glaiss, lanamain in chru
1810] .i. ruaidi & dergi) in cridi. Lurgu & traigh lanamain
ind fhulaing. Gene dno na lanamnaide deme .i. ebrachtur
.i. abhrochtur (no imcained) & malu, lanamain (no gene)
na sula. Bun & lethet lanamain (no gene) na fiacal.
Croiceann & feich lanamain (no gene) na lurgan. Lith &
1815] tond lanamain (.i. gene) (na traiged. Alailiu dano, it e gene
na lanamaide demi a forbhthi, air it hi tri gne dochuisnet
gein forcomeda & gein daghchometa & gein fricometa.
Gein forcometa cetamus, ut est, ailmne for glun, immta
samlaidh, ar is fair annuas ata gai ind fhir forsail & is leis
1820] fochetoir geindir as do beolaibh i fut & i nn-airdi. Dinin
disail biit amal rogabh fuil arrad feola & is isin feoil. Is
amlaidh dinin dishail co ngaib lasin focul o thosuch gu
dereadh gan urgabail gan airditin. Arnin amal roghabh
cnaim mullaich & leicni & cnuicc & find, & na hai nad
1825] genat lasin duine fochetoir, uair fo cosmaillius alta duini
doniter alta huadh. Ni taidbet dno int airnin lasin focul
fochetoir forsa tochradar co mbi fo deoidh arding in focul.

Ferdialt gu sin.

(Incipit bandialt.) Bean.
1830] mna.     o mnai (no o bein).     tri mnai.
na mban.     o mnaibh.     tria mna (no mnaib).
do bein.     oc mnai.     i mnai.
do mnaibh.     oc mnaa (no oc mnaib).     i mnaa (no mnaib).
in mbein (no in mnai).     co mnai.     for mnai.
1835] inna mna     co mna (no co mnaib).     for mna (no mnaib).
a bean.     sech mnai.     tar mnai.
a mna.     sech mnaa (no sech mnaaib).    tar mnaa (no mnaib).


{BB folio 330b30} {E folio 28b51}
benon a formoladh.     no mna a lan.
ben a codut.     ni airecair a dhiabul .i.
1840] been a mallrugud.     benben.
neb a delidind.     ciasberat araili ni bhi
befrien a chondail.     nach lan ina dhiabul.
ben a oen.     benine a lugudud.
ben a lan.     soben a saerugud.

doben a daerugud, ni airicair a aurard (no i nn-uathad .i.
benna). Mna i n-ilur a aurard. Ni airecar a airisel .i.
(benaibh). Forsna, & fona, triasna, isna, sech na mna a
lorga fuach: o, do, sech, for, in, is ben a dialt n- etarlemi.
Bentot a thelgud noe. Be a airichil calaid. Ni bhi a
1850] airicill fuit no ni airicar airicil (.i. fuit). Bel a cennfochrus.
Benn a deichneadh. Be a dichneadh. Cich & glun a
ndemi thepide, fair & sridit a llanamnai: blass & millsi
a ngeni-side. Almnae & ecsait lanamnai in gluini.
Cnaim & feoil a ngeni-side. No hit he a ngene a forbthe
1855] amal rom-ebhartmar.

Bandialt conigi sin.

Incipit do deim-dialt andseo sis.

Nem. Nemon a formolad. Nime a cotut. Neem a

na nime.     oc nim.     tre nem.     for nem.
do nim.     oc nimibh.     tria nime.     for nime (no nimib).
do nimib.     co nem.     i n-nem.
a n-nem.     co nime.     i n-nime.     tar nem.
inn nime.     sech nem.     i n-nim.     tar nime. {BB folio 331a1}
1865] o nim, o nimib.     sech nime.     i n-nimib.     fo nim, fo nimib.

Nefriem a chonnail. Nem a oen. Nem a lan. Ni airecar
a lugugud (no a diabul). Ni fail a saerugud, nach a


{BB folio 331a3} {E folio 29a12}
daerugud, nach a aurard. Nimib a airisel. Forsna, fona,
tresna, isna, sechna nime, a lorga fuach: o, do, in, co, es,
1870] fo, for, de, sech na nime a dhialt n-etarleme. Ni fognae
a thelgudh noe. Ne a airichill (.i. calaidh) ut est, nem ind
usce, no nem nathrach, ut est, nem im thalmain. Ni bi
airichill (.i. fuit). Nel a chennfochrus. Nemm a deichnead.
Ne a dichneadh. Ised, isi, ise; ondar, uinnsi, unnse a
1875] erlonn indsci. Ni airecar a deimi tepidhi, ar is deiminsci
fadhesin. Nel & tuagh nimi a lanamnai demi: dath &
airdi a ngeni-sen: no it he a fuirbhthi a ngeni.

Nemdialt co sin.

A ainmniugud fer. A shelbad fir. A rath
1880] do fhiur. A inchosc in fer. A thogairm a fir.
A foxlaid o fhiur. A fuirmid oc fhiur. A ascnam
co fear. A sechmall sech fhear A threghdad tre
. A inotacht hi fir. A aitreibh hi fhir. A fhorthudh
for fer. A fhothudh fo fhiur. A tharrsce tar fear
1885] A fresghabail ar fiur. A airchelladh ar fer. A frecnarc
cia fer. A imthimcheall im fear. A dighbhail di fhiur.

Doformaighet alaile dano a tri frisna hii sin a dighbhail
.i. den fir; & a thuarascbail .i. in fer; & a tustidi in fir:
acht is inunn a dhighbhail & a fhoxlaidh; is inund a
1890] thuarascbhail & a inchosc; is inund a thuistiudh & a

Incipit do ernailibh in imchomairc in so sis.

Atat da aithfeghad for imchomarc .i. imchomarc iar
n-inni thoirni & imchomarc iar n-airbhirt nan-airbirenn
1895] bith. Atat ceithre ernaili fair .i. meit & inni & inchosc &


{BB folio 331a28} {E folio 29a45}
aicnead. Imcomarc iar n-inni thoirne: Atat ocht fothoirnde
fair & cethri primthoirnde na n-ocht fothoirnd. It he gabair
fona iv primthoirndib conid ocht primthoirnde samlaid,
cenmota comacomul & comfhilltighe & comshuidhigthe .i.
1900] comacomul ceilli & ceneóil & cetfaidhi cuirp & anma &
folaidh & airmhi & aicenta. Is e int aicned hisin
adasramed uili. Is e in met co fester in met no in
laighet bis isin focul. Is i in inni co fester in inni uilc no
maithiusa bis fond focul. Is e int inchosc co fester coich
1905] indsci, in indsci no in rann indsci. Masa rann indsci cate
defir eter raind & indsci. Maso indsci coich in indsci, in
ferindsci no in baninndsci no in deimindsci. Maso banindsci
.i. indsci banda, ut est, nutrix .i. muimech lasin
Laitneoir, int uili gne feminda dachuisin dar beolo duine
1910] is nutricis in cenel sin, ar is nutrix is bhuimeach doaib uili.
Maso ferindsci .i. indsci ferdha, ut est, pater .i. athair
lasin Laitneoir, int uile gne mascuil & femin & neodair
dochuisin dar beolu nduine is pater is athair doib uili .i.
Dia Uilichumhachtach, Athair na n-uili dhula. Maso
1915] dhemindsci .i. indsci dimbeoaighthi, ut est, caelum .i. neam
lasin Laitneoir, int uile gne neoturda dochuisin dar beolo
nduine is o nim ainmnigter. Is inni in cetna diall & diall
tanaiste & tres diall & ceithreamad diall & cuiced diall & rann
& res & rece. Issi in res in primthorand. Is i in rece in
1920] fothorand. In fhothorand i sen, atat cethri ranna fuirri .i.
seacht n-airm & seacht n-acenta & secht ndescena a dheiscin
iar ceill & iar {BB folio 331b1} ceniul & iar nguth & iar mbreithir & iar


{E folio 29b2}
labradh. Is do comachomol in gotha & na breithri sin &
labartha asait ernaili imchomairc.



Trefocul in so amal rocumsat na baird & na patreni .i.
trefocul cen cuail cnam. Cen craip cainti. Cen comman.
Cen comsiudh. Cen dichur n-ecoir. Cen dallbhach dona
1930] dallbaigib. Cen ellach duna ellgib. Cenmota oenellach.
Cen tar. Cen tamall. Cen faicit9 co cuibdius. Cen faicit10
cen chuibdius. Cen a focul frisin n-aprait filid frisuithi.
Cen imsechfaidh indsci. Cen asneis for araile. Cen ecnach.
Cen ecnuadh. Cen scath dofarce cuitbiud. Cen ae for
1935] an-ae. Cen saebsuidhiugud dialt ic frecra d' iarcomruc i n-urd
bairdni. Conach in ceatharcubhaidh cummait baird.
Cona friortud tecta forna focla masa oe congabhthar amal
asbert: Trefocul tachraid filid.

No (mar so) ita trefocul: cen chlaen, cen rudraigh, cen
1940] rofot, cen rogair, cen dimbrigh, cen forbrigh, cen ecnairc fri
fregnairc, cen uathad fri ilar, cen ecenel, cen ecomuaim,
cen ecuibdius, cen anocht .i. da locht deg na hirlabra in sin.

Dia nditen-sidhe cethri cenela fichet .i. corraib ann: a
formoladh, a codut, a mallrugud, a diabul, a deiliden, a oen,
1945] a lan, a lugugud, a saerughudh, a daerugud, a aurard, a
airisel, a dhichneadh, a dhoichnead, a chonnail, a chendfochrus,
a airchill fuit, a airchill calaid, a thelgudh noe, a
urlonn insce, a hinsce mod, a lanamna deimi, a demi thepidhe,
a ngen-side, co ndath & tothucht, co tomus fri fidh


{BB folio 331b26} {E folio 29b24}
& dech, reim & forbad, alt & insci & etargoire ar cach cenel
labartha dotuisim ar beolu duine dohuisimar, ar is a
dealt domiter recomhrac, a recomrac domiter iarcomrac, a
hiarcomrac dno feles, a feles domiter claenre, a claenre domiter
luibenchosach, a luibenchosach domiter claidemnas, a
1955] claidemnas domiter bricht: ar comititer alta uad fri haltaib
in duine, ar ita coic alta sescat ar tri cet in duine, a coic
sescat ar tri cet aisti archetail, & coic laithi sescat ar tri cet
isin bliadain & a coic sescat ar tri cet du luibib tre thalmain
conastacmaing tlacht in trefocuil de quibus dicitur:
1960] Trefocul tacrait filid.
    1. Trefocul tacrait filid
      Do didin a n-indligid,
      Ni mo na lucht cuibrind cland
      Di neoch tuirmim notuigeand.
    2. Sceith ocus gnuisi glana
      Aincit lochta linmara.
      Immar roscum Adna ogh,
      Ni tarba gen a tintodh.
    3. Da anocht deg is derb libh
      1970] Dleghit a fis na filid;
      A main nocho n-fuair Etain,
      Rofuaigh aib inn aircetail.
    4. Da sciath dec is da ghnuis deg
      Roordaigh dia n-imchoimet
      1975] Na lochta cen lomrim lac,
      Da da comlin noscobrat.
    5. Na gnuisi diten atbér
      Cotut is aen nach aimger,
      Saerugud daerugud des
      1980] Na lorga fuach fria firmhes.

    6. p.152

      {BB folio 331b44}{E folio 29b42}
    7. Dialt n-etarleme n og,
      Airichill fuit, is fir on,
      Airichill calaid, ni cam,
      Cendfochrus tuis ria thodall.
    8. Dichnead tuis, dechnead tuis tair,
      Insce mod cona modhaib,
      Is i dara gnuis deg dil,
      Urlonn insci ria hairimh.
    9. Na sceith ditin fon domun
      1990] Formolad is mallrugud,
      Fuaradar senfilid sain
      Da deilidin is condail.
    10. A lan ni lan cen bunad
      A diabul, a lugugud,
      1995] Memur fri cach sobard sen,
      A fhorard, a fhoriseal.
    11. Airmim telgud nae co nneim
      Ocus cendfochrus derid,
      Dichned derid {BB folio 332a1}, is docair,
      2000] Dechned deirid degfocail.
    12. Is iat sin na da sciath deg,
      Eolaig ica n-imcoimet,
      Is na da gnuis deg rodet
      Na ceithri fodla fichet.
    13. Na filid ma fitir so,
      Ni muin fedm eicsi forro.
      Cindas fhailgit a n-ulcu?
      Cindas aincit anuchtu?
    14. In n-aengnuis no in ensciath ard
      2010] Icas ar cach locht langarg,
      No in dias im cach locht rolad?
      Ni de bias olc dia imrad.

    15. p.154

      {BB folio 332a7}{E folio 29b56}
    16. Cip he chanas cona cheill,
      Tria intliucht n-amnas n-acbeil,
      2015] Is duiligh is is docair
      A tuirim in Trefocail.     Trefocail.
    17. Trefocul in tri focail,
      Fis a ruine is rodocair,
      Tricha ar a se cose
      2020] Fritha tria gne nGaedilge.
    18. Da anocht ar a deich dib,
      Ni cubaidh cen a comrim,
      Nit carit a daini dam
      Scarait maini for molad.
    19. Claen atberim dib ar tus,
      Im eolach ina imthus:
      Ni haenchloen acht is tri claein,
      O nach saercaem cach saerchaem cach
    20. Claen creiti rochuala cach,
      Im rannaibh ni ba rognath,
      Re taeb cach duilghiusa de,
      Claen cuibdiusa, claen ceille.
    21. Claen crete ni claen cen cheass,
      2035] Is at deich millti milles,
      Taibgit fiach in molta amaig,
      Da sciath corcra 'na chomair.
    22. In claen cuibdiusa is cubaidh,
      Da gnuis riasan gliaphudair,
      2040] Ocus da sciath 'na ndegaid,
      Nocho liach a llandegail.
    23. Da sciath, da gnuis in gelli,
      Is ed ainces claen ceilli;
      Cobigi celli, gan col,
      2045] Is ernail di anacol.

    24. p.156

      {BB folio 332a22}{E folio 30a7}
    25. Da ernail ainces rudrach,
      Co nach be in gres glephudrach,
      Tri sceith, tri gnuisi, gan glor,
      Aincit in rothat romor.
    26. Cuic sceith, tri gnuisi, gan goimh,
      Is ed ainces ar rogair;
      Oengnuis ainces dimbrig dib,
      Is aengnuis ainces forbrig.
    27. Oengnuis diten, na ron-dairt,
      2055] Ainces egnairc fri frecnairc:
      Sciath maraen ocus gnuis glan
      Aincit uathad fri hilar.
    28. Nai sceith diten co nduilgius,
      Aincit uili ecuibdhius;
      2060] Cia nach labair con a luis,
      Ocus no-ainic aengnuis.
    29. Na tri gnuisi, gruaid fri gruaid,
      Is maith aincit ecommuaim;
      Ocus da sciath, ni saeb lib,
      2065] Aincit ecommuaim n-eitig.
    30. Ecenel, nocho n-ord mear,
      Non-anaig aengnuis diten;
      Anocht no-aincet da sciath,
      A beith ranocht is roliath.
    31. Anocht ainm coitchend cubaid
      Dolean do gach lanphudair;
      Int anocht, ni hainm cen cheass,
      Cia ralocht dian ruidles.
    32. Anocht mas ainm do cach locht,
      2075] Cid dia n-aidera d' oenlocht?
      Uair nocho n-aenlocht cen on,
      Is taebhnocht i Trefocul.     Trefocul.

    33. p.158

      {BB folio 332a37}{E folio 30a23}
    34. Sceith is gnuisi fogeib daib
      Amal iccait cach n-anaebh;
      2080] Dingbaid din, ní socht solam,
      Da locht co fir formolad.
    35. Oenicc ic catut, cen col,
      Is oenícc ic mallrugud;
      Ni gne mergnima midid
      2085] Sei deigdina ic delidnid.
    36. Aichnid dom' anmain, cen ail,
      Se cabartha 'na condail,
      Ar aenlocht ainceas a haen
      Ocus a lan co lanchaem.
    37. Diabull dingbad din, gu daith
      Na tri lochta co lanmaith;
      Aincid, ni holc in monor,
      Ar da locht a lugugod.
    38. Aincit ar da locht, gen log,
      2095] Saerugud is daerugud:
      Aincit da firlocht masead
      A urard a uiriseal.
    39. Aincit lorga fuach a bos
      Ar da locht gu lanfhollus:
      2100] Dialt n-etarleimi n-oll
      Icaid da anocht aconn.
    40. A thelgud nai, niamda a bhlas,
      Is ar da anocht icas;
      Airichill fuit is ferr de,
      2105] Ni dingaib dín acht deide.
    41. A airchill calaid, can cheass,
      Ronn-anaig ar da ainges
      No dos-díngaib gan tochrus
      Amal atchi cendfochrus.

    42. p.160

      {BB folio 332a51}{E folio 30a38}
    43. Dingbaid dichnead tri phudra {BB folio 332b1}
      D'ar n-anochtaib anumla
      O dechnead gan tromsnimh tra
      Foirther in comlin cetna.
    44. Innse mod nocho mod n-olc,
      2115] Nocho n-ainig acht aenlocht;
      Aurlond insci, ainm cubaid,
      Ni ainic acht aenphudhair.
    45. Is iat sin gnuisi is sceith,
      D'eicsib nochon at anfheigh;
      2120] Ni ma teit du rigi rand
      Cach fili nachasforband.
    46. D'icc na da fichet, gan ail,
      Frith d'fhoghlaib for anochtaib,
      Adharta don righ dos-rat,
      2125] Secht gcabartha cethrachat.
    47. Na filid tancadar tall
      Maraen re Tuaith De Danann,
      Rob imda ollam ocaib
      Ag tolladh in Trefocuil.     Trefocul.
    48. Da sciath ainces claen creiti,
      Uaim 'sin rand-sa is rochreti,
      Deilidi foclach faebrach
      Is deilidi sillaebach.
    49. A airchill fuit, is feidil,
      2135] Naroi cendfochrus deiridh,
      Codut mallrugud measa
      Aincit in claen cuibdhiusa.
    50. Aincit ar in claen ceilli
      Lorga fuach, dialt deglemi,
      2140] Ocus cobfighe, cen col,
      Is ernail dia n-anacol.

    51. p.162

      {BB folio 332b15}{E folio 30a52}
    52. Cach rand romilleadh immaig
      A llus rudraighe i rrandaib,
      Rudhrach noco n-airisead
      2145] Dar urard, dar uirisel.
    53. Na da condail mar itclos
      Na da airichill i fos,
      Na dichneda, Dia dos-rat,
      Tarso noco ria rofat.
    54. Formolad, diabul, cen on,
      Telgudh noe, ocus lugugud
      Uaitighit cach rogair rib
      Lorga dialta, deichnid.
    55. Saerugud doine in domain
      2155] Ar dimbrig is degcobair,
      Daerugud gach duini dib
      Nos-aincenn uili ar forbrig.
    56. Aen ainces ar ilar ndan,
      Ar uathad ainces a lan,
      2160] Ecnairc fri frecnairc co fir
      Indsce modh ica mordhin.
    57. Aincit ecuibdius a fir,
      Formolad, da delidin,
      Telgud nor, niamhda in monor,
      2165] Condail litri, lughugud.
      Airichill calaid, mo chean,
      A dichned, is a dheichnedh.
    58. Da delidin, diabul des,
      Foirit ecommuaim n-indles,
      2170] Ocus na-foiret hi fus
      Deicned, dicned, cendfochrus.
    59. Ecenel airm idir and,
      Is luath non-anaigh aurland.
      Aingit ar anocht ria head
      2175] Diabul, aurard, auriseal.

    60. p.164

      {BB folio 332b30}
    61. Milliud remi gach reim n-olc,
      Do ni ainm ni acht anocht;
      Lemm ni gleaccur a gait
      Asin trefhocul tacrait.
    62. t. t. f. Trefocul.


Do dhligegaibh dunta na nduan inso sis.

    1. Dunta for nduan decid lib,
      A aes in dana dlighthig,
      Cest, nocho caingen falaigh
      2185] In daingen ros-dunsabair.
    2. Menip dunta cach duan dron
      Cia locht isin Trefhocul?
      Air is e tall rostecair
      Lochta imda airchetail.
    3. Mini dunta a duan ndremain
      Cach fer dona filedaibh,
      Cia heraic dlegair uaid ind,
      On fir doni in laid lanbinn?
    4. Cia ainm cach dunsa dibh sein
      2195] Sluinnet na baird dia mbraithrib?
      Caisted cach, cluined in fis,
      Meni fhuilet 'na anfis.
    5. Comindsma do Dondchad Do,
      Ascnam Dond, im cach deglo,
      2200] Saighid so, is e in slicht amra,
      Dondchadh int ainm ollamda.
    6. Ascnam iar saigid suairc ,
      ‘Dondcad dia fich in domon,’
      Uaim do rind ‘Dondchud na ndrech’
      2205] ‘Dia fich in domun daightheach.’
    7. In inund dunad dlegair
      Finntar ona filedaib,
      Ar curp na duaine 'na ndan
      'S ar in iarcomarc n-imslan.

    8. p.166

      {BB folio 332b46}
    9. Saighith, ascnam, uaim do rind,
      Dunait curpu duan, derb lind;
      Cach iarcomarc is gloir glan,
      Comindsma is coir dia ndunad.     Dunta.
    10. A aes dana in domain tiar tair
      2215] Eter Erinn is Albain,
      Ni dleghait seoto sona
      Cach duaine na ba dunta.     d. d. d.     Dunta.
    11. Da cuincead neach a ndliged
      Cia lin dam na firfhiled
      2220] For feacht feili, for cai cuir,
      For gnathlessaib, for fledaibh: {BB folio 333a1}.
    12. Ceathrur ar fichit iar fir
      Fecht feili ollaman righ,
      Ochtur for caei, cen chessa,
      2225] Da fer dec fria gnathleassa.
    13. Deichenbhur fri fleadha fuair
      Dlegair do in ghleiri caemshluaigh,
      It e sin fri bagha bladh,
      Ceithri damha in ollaman.
    14. Da fer dec d' anrush donfa,
      Coicfhiur fer fria gnashlessa,
      Seissiur for coe, caemthuit cluidh,
      Ochtar iar fir tri fleadaibh.
    15. Tobair do chli ar a dhan
      2235] Ochtar, uasal a fordamh,
      Seser for fleadaibh na fess,
      Coicer cae, cethrar gnathless.
    16. Seissiur du canait, na ceil,
      For cach feacht feili feithith,
      2240] Cethrar for fleadaib fessa,
      Triur cae, dis fri gnathlessa.

    17. p.168

      {BB folio 333a11}
    18. Ceathrur do dus, damh as deach,
      Is triur fri fleada filed,
      Dias for coe, ria meass dun mhal,
      2245] Is fria leass a aenuran.
    19. Triar for fecht feili dofhidh,
      Dam thoga do mac fuirmidh,
      Dias for fleadhaibh, co fathach,
      Oen coe, oen leas roghnathach.
    20. Ni theis dar diis iar sin,
      In da daim do fochlocain,
      Aen for coe, oen for fleid fead,
      Oen fria leassa: dia cuinged.
      Dia cuincead neach a ndligedh cia.

Finit Amen finit Solamh O Droma nomine scripsit.

Murchertach riabach O Cuindlis do scrib so da
aide diles .i. do Mac Fhirbisig & ar mbennacht leis da



[An céd leaphar]

{YBL folio 219a23} {Eg folio 63 1b26}
Incipit eraicept na n-Eiges .i. eraicept, uair er gach
2260] taoiseach: aicicht dono .i. icht aici, ar is i n-aici bios in
deisgiopul agin maigister; no dono aicept, id est, acceptus,
airiti cugad ind neiche nach bfil ogat: na n-eiges .i. na nai
gan ches .i. na bfiled. Cid diana toiseach so? Ni
ansa. Don teipi doteiped asin Gaoidilg, oir iss ed toiseach
2265] arricht la Fenius ier dtiachtain gusan sgoil amuigh.
Gach son do na hairnicht cairechtaire & gach son fordhorcha
ropui in gach beusgna & in gach berla, fofrith ionad
doibh isin Gaidilc, conid aire sin is forlethi quam gach
mbesgna: er gach toiseach dano, uair is hed is toiseacha
2270] lasna filedha, cech son fordorcha duo riachtain i tossach
.i. bethe-luis-nin an ogaim ar bithin a ndorchaideta. Cest,
cie tugait ar a n-abar berla tobidi don Gaoidilc ? Ni ansa.
Uair as gach perla roteiped, & gach son fordorcha roboi
in cech beusgna, fofrith ionad doibh isin nGaoidhilc ar a
2275] forleithe sech gech mbeusgna. Cest, dono, in raibi
Gaidelc resiu rotopad? Ropuoi eimh. 11 Ar ni fagbaigter in dá berla sechtmogat
ceana gan in Gaoidilc. Ceithri hanmanna dono
for Goidilc docom nuibir a ranna no comadainm gach
2280] primberla dona tri primberlaib .i. Ebra & Greig & Laidin,
& ainm dilis o Gaoidiul .i. Gaoidelg, ud dixsit:

    1. [Ticalod a hEbrad aird,
      Is malot a Greig glegairg,
      Legulus a Laitin le,
      2285] Tinoltach fir a fine.

    2. p.172

      {YBL folio 219a45}{Eg folio 63 2a4}
    3. In berla teipidii tric
      Roleasoig Gaoidel {YBL folio 219b1} glanglic,
      Uatha do tsiol Gaoidil gairg
      Duine aga mbia a firainm.
    4. Gaoidel aderaitsim fris
      Lucht aineolais is ainpfis,
      Ni neasa dho Gaoidel glic
      Indas do gach ealg oirdeirc.
    5. Ma hail dam a radh fri cach
      2295] Co (rubh) co follus an fath,
      It iat re garmain gan gai
      Cethri hanmanda an berlai. 12

Cest, cie tir a rugad Gaoidelc? Ni ansa. A nEigeipt.
Et cie hairm sonnradach a ruccad? Ni ansa. I muig
2300] Uga a rand iarthardeisgertaigh na hEigipti. Cest, cie
don sgoil dochuaid co suidhe? Ni ansa. Gaidel mac
Eithiuir meic Tai meic Barachain do Gregaiph Sgeithia.
Cest, cie méud don-uccaddi. Ni ansa. A huiletaighie cenmotha
indi dotormachtadar filid trie fordorcha ier dtorrachtain
2305] co Fenius. Cest, cie berla don da berlaib sechtmogat
rotaisealpad do Fenius i ttosach? Ni ansa. Berla
Feine .i. Gaidelc, ar is he Gaidel pa tocha leis die sgoil, et
is he ron-alt asa oighe no asa oidig, et is he pa soam don
sgoil, & ar a forlethe sech cech mbeusgna et is he berla toisech
2310] rucad on tuor & ropoi eimh Ebra & Greig & Laitin la
Feinius riesiu thisad on Sgeithia et ni rainig a leas a n-ai(t)-denamh
icc in tor, conid aire sin is toisech a rotaisealpad.
Cest, nach raibi isna berlaiph ni bud uaisliu do riachtain
quam in Gaoidelc? Ni ansa. Ar a cuibhdi, ar a hetruime,
2315] ar a forleithe, ar a mine. Cest, cidh ar madh forlethe quam
cech mbesgna? Ni ansa. Ar is he cetna besgna rugad
on tor, & pa mete co mad lethe quam cech mbesgna conid
aon die taiselpad a tosach.


{YBL folio 219b25} {Eg folio 63 2a25}
Caite Log et Aimsear et Persa et Tucait Sgribinn na
2320] Gaoideilge? Ni ansa. Tor Nemruaid cetus Locus Faciendi,
ar is aici irricht a tosach. Ocus aimser di
aimser cumdaig an tuir la cloinn Adaim. Persa di
Sacap mac Ruicimorcus, uair is he rodus-fucc on tuor &
Gaoidel mac Eithiuir meic Tai meic Barachain do
2325] Gregaip Sgeithia. A tugait sgribhinn tour Nemruaid do
chumdach. Esmberat araile conid tugait di Gaidel do
duola isin tir a rugad he, fobith is he toisech rosgribh a
dtaiphlibh & a lecaiph isin lucc tsenradach dienat ainm
Calcaneinsis. Is and rosgriph Gaoidel in Gaidilc, no dono
2330] is he Sacab mac Ruicimorcus rosgribustar, & adberait
araile comad aonleapar int Uraicept uile, & comad he
so a log-aimser.

Cidh ara n-aparthar besgna doumanda don Gaedilg &
nach di ata briathar lasna hecnadaibh eolchu? Ni ansa.
2335] Iersinní aisnedes do cestaibh & do caingnibh domundu iter
thuaith et eclais. Cid ar a n-abar co mad borb fied Dia
inti leighius Gaedilc? Ni di ata briathar sund, acht do
uiledetaidh na feallsamnachta iter gramataig & dilliochtaig
& rim, ut dixit poeta:

    1. Foglaim feallsamnachta is fas,
      Leigeand, gramatach is gluas,
      Literdacht leir ocus rim,
      Is bec a mbrigh for nim tsuas.

Cest, nach feallsamnacht an Gaidelc? Ni hedh eter acht
2345] a ndernaid mion-{YBL folio 220a1} ughdair fri deredh an domain
ar tuccait derscaighti sech na hugdaraiph toisecha. No
is ed is beusgna domunda and & is feallsamnacht dimain .i.
ind erritacht et an aimiris dogni nech a n-agaid na firinne
diadha & daonna, & iss ed sin is borb fiad Dia anti
2350] leighius Gaedilc no13 andaidi. Cidh ar a ndebert
aipcitir .i. eibi ioc duar .i. ic focul, ar ni hi iocus na foclu


{YBL folio 220a5} {Eg folio 63 2b8}
acht is iad na focail nus-icainn-si. Is he focul Eg. itbert
sund .i. rand, ut est:
Cie duar donesa nath.

Aaspearat tra ughdair na nGaoidel dano. Cidh ar a
ndepertsim: asberad na hugdair robatar roimhe, uair
is he Cendfaolad arainic in leapar-sa .i. Brolach ind
Uraicepta & ugdair na nGaidel dano, rob iad-siden
Fenius Farsaidh & Iar mac Nema. Ni ansa. Ar uaisle na
2360] haimsire isrupart .i. aimser frecnairc, uair geipid an aimsir
frecnairc for na huilib aimseraiph ut dicitur: presens
tempus pro omni tempore ponitur. Samaigther in aimsir
fhrecnairc for na huilib aimsirib.

Cinnus on & he da radha int aonfocul a mbit na da
2365] sillaba nach gcantar a n-aonaimsir, ut dicitur, lego .i.
legaim, quando dicis le- futurum est -go, preteiretum est le-
quando dicis -go .i. intan raidhi in sillab toiseach, to-dochaidi
cugut in sillab deighinach et sechmatu sechat
in sillab toiseach. Deitbir on amal isbert in Laitneoir:
2370] Tempus non dividitur sed opera nostra diuiduntur .i.
nocha n-í ind aimser fogailter and acht metugud aimsire
bis iter na sillaba, no ar ngnimrad-ne feisin: no dano is
frecra dona hugdaraiph robatar a n-aonaimsir ris fein tuc
Cendfaolad in tan ispert asperat ughdair na nGaidel.
2375] Cid ar a dtugsom a sound ar tus sech na guthaigi aili?
Ni ansa. Ar is i as sruithi a bfedhaib & is uaisle a nguthaighaiph
& is i cetlapra cech pi .i. a, & iachtadh cech mairph
.i. ach Asperdis na cetughdair, asperat na hughdair
deighencha: Comba si tugait airic in perla Feine gnim
2380] n-ingnath .i. nemgnathach ar a ainminci, n-indligthech .i.
ar a uaiphrigi forcaomnaccair isin domun .i. cumdach tuir
Nemruaid .i. do triall dola for neam ina gcorpaiph
daonna gan comairleigud fria Die. Nemruad itsin dono


{YBL folio 220a31} {Eg folio 63 2b40}
trenfer tsil Adaim uile ina aimsir fein e .i. Nemruadh
2385] mac Quis meic Caim meic Nai. Ni pi ierum aonri forsin
doman go haimsir Nin meic Peil acht mad comairlid &
toisich namá batar and co sin anall. Da comairlid
sechtmogat ierum robatar isinn aimsir sin isin doman a
ndernadh in tor & pa he indara comairlid sechtmogat
2390] Nemruad. Trenfear iarum ind Nemruad sin, fer án
occ seilg .i. for aighiph .i. coip & for fieduch .i.
for milaib trachta muigi, & airrcheis .i. for mucaip allta,
& airnnelaib .i. for eunaiph. Co mbitis sochaide do
daoinip oca lenmain, co mba lie samlaidh .i. a
2395] slogaibh & co mba nertmaire .i. im a colaind fein samlaidh
oldas cach, conid he dorimart in da comairlid sechtmogat
isinn aoncomairli, do denam an tuir, la hua brathar a
athar .i. la Faillec mac Regua meic Arafaxat meic Seim
meic Nai, & pa he sin an dara comairlid sechtmogat
2400] chena co sin anall, & isberatsum ierum co mba he an
comairlid & co mba aontoisech doiph {YBL folio 220b1} uile in
Faillec. Is imcomarc sund anmanda in da fer sechtmogat
lasa ndernad in tor; acht chena ni airmit sgribenda acht
anmanda na se bfer ndec ba airecam diph, edon Faillec,
2405] Nemruad, Eiber, Laitinus, Ribat, Nabgaton, Asur, Ybath,
Loncbard, Bodbus, Britus, Germanus, Garad, Sgithus,
Bardanius, Sardain. Ier ndilinn & ier n-aiccnedacht chena
is he Neamruad in cetri: is he cetri ier n-ealadain in Faillec
reimraiti. Is he immorro14. iar n-ughdaras in cetri
2410] Nin mac Peil meic Ploisg meic Piliris meic Agamolis meic
Fronoisis meic Gitlis meic Trois meic Asuir meic Seim
meic Naei. Is he immorro flaith lasa ndernadh in
tor .i. Faillec mac Regua meic Arafaxat meic Seimh meic
Noi: uel Faillec mac Eber meic Saile meic Arafaxat
2415] meic Naoi. Asan panaictti, id est, proprium nomen lipri
tuccad in gluas coir. Adcuodsum dano indi sin adcodastim


{YBL folio 220b12} {Eg folio 64 1a24}
dano anisin. Aspert Nemruad comad a ainm
sin forbeith ant saoirsi sin go brath. Adrodimes dono
dosum anísin
o ua brathar a athar o fuillter go
2420] mad tor Nemruaid he ar chena. Tredi ar a ndernadh
in tor la clouind Adaim .i. ar uaman na dilend
moire do thoigeacht doridhise, ar ni rocretsiot do derpairdip
De .i. do sduaigh nime, & do dol doiph ina
gcorpaip daonda for nem do talmain .i. comadh arad
2425] fresgaphala doip dochum nime & d' oirrdercugud
anmand in fhiallaig lasa ndernad an tor dara n-eisi,
conid e sin itbert Ri nime fri muinter neime: Ueniti
ut vidamus et confoundamus lingas eorum .i. taoit co
raufegam & co romelachtnaigem & co robuaidrem & co
2430] rasgaoilem a dtengta impo. Pa mor tra cumachta tsil
Adaim & a nert ag denam in tuir cona festaois ierum
in roibhi cumachta Righ neime uaistis. Romesgaighti
ierum impo int aonberla poi oca .i. goirtigthern, cona
roaithned nech dip berla aroile .i. antan adbered nech
2435] dip ‘tuc cloich dam’ is crand doberti dho. Dethbir on, ar
ni do clochaib na do chrandaib doroigned an tor acht do
criaidh tsuaiti & do bidmain. Cinnus on, oir intan adbert
nech diph ‘tuc cloich dam’ is crann adberedh do.15
Ni ansa. Na leca fora suaiti in cre & na forchuda frie
2440] suite is iat sin clocha & cranna noimluaidis etorra.

Asbeir dono:

    1. Da aicce for sechtmoghaid
      Arim suas frie gnim ngaphaid
      Iter aol is bitoumain
      2445] Ocus talmain is tathluib.
ut est:
    1. Oel, ola and ocus fuil,
      Cre, uisgi, ros, lin lancuir,
      Tuis, mirr, bitomain co mbuaid,
      2450] Noi n-adhbair in tuir Nemruaid.


{YBL folio 220b33}{Eg folio 64 1b6}

Dolotar tra filedha imda asin Sgeithia reib chianaiph
iarna gnimaiph sin do foghlaim na n-ilperla ogcon tour,
ar doruimnetar maigin as rofoghlointi accus a n-airneachta
na hilberla do tsil Adaim; robatar and ier gcomloinntius.
2455] Doloutar ierum co magh Senair .i. mag in rocumdacht
in tor, coiccer sechtmogat lion na sgoile .i. fer gech
berla & saoi gacha primberla diph sin dona tri
primberlaib .i. Eaphra, Greig, Laitin. Ceithri berla
sechtmogat as gach primberla dipsin, iss ed rofoghlad and,
2460] co n-athgapail na primberla. Filid do radh riu, uair
doboi filideacht osgarda acu cen co raibi filidecht eladnach:
no is filideacht ealadnach ropui acu in tan sin et is ierum
aricht filideacht osgarda & is iadside doniat Gaidelcho.

Feinius Farrsaidh ainm a toisig .i. mac Eogain meic
2465] Glunfind meic Lamfind meic Agnamain meic Toi
meic Semair meic Mair meic Eiteachta meic Urtechta
meic Abosth meic {YBL folio 221a1} Aoir meic Leser meic Seth meic
Sru meic Esru meic Baith meic Ribath meic Goimeir meic
Iaffeith meic Naoi meic Laimfiach.

Pau saoi sidhein isna tri primberla cidh riesiu tisad
atuaidh. O na hairnig iarum Fenius comlainius na
n-ilperla agin tuor, forfodail a sgola et a deisgipla uad
fo crichaib & fo cendadhachaibh bfer dtalman for gach
leith do foghlaim na n-iolperla, & nosnothrustar .i.
2475] adfoirithed uais, Fenius iet ider biathad et etugud in gcein
patar agin foghlaim .i. vii mbliadhna na foghlama & tri
bliadhna in taispenta conad deich samlaidh; occus anais
Fenius icin tor in n-airit sin & roaitreb and co dtorrachtadar
a sgola cuige as gach aird, conid desin asbersim i
2480] ccurp lipair: I gcionn deich mbliadan ier sgaoiled on
tor for gach leth, is and doreibed in Gaedelg. Isperat
araile ughdaor nat pui nech do cloinn Ionain meic


{YBL folio 221a13} {Eg folio 64 1b34}
Iafeth meic Nai die rocinetar Gregaig et die rochin Fenius
ac cumdach an tuir et patar siol Nai olchena. Deithper
2485] oun, ar ni raiphe in mac sin ag Ieffeth mac Noi, & rl.
Cest caiti gein Feinius? Ni ansa. Fenius mac Baath
meic Maghach meic Iaffeith meic Nai & rl.
nEpraide tantum roboi isin doman re cumdach an tuir
& is si dano bies dano ier mbrath, et isberat araile co
2490] mad edh nobeth la muinntir nime. Pa haonberla boi isin
doman intan rogabsat, da berla dec is tri fichit tan ro-sgarsat,
ut est:—
    1. Goirtigern ainm an berla
      Rophui ag mac De den deghergna,
      2495] Ocus ag sil Adaim uair
      Rie cumdach an tuir Nemruaid.

Perla n-Ebraide dano cidh o rahainmniged? Ni ansa.
Is he Eber ainm in toisigh rocoimetustair he iar sgaoiled
na mberla, ar ba he an dara comairlid sechtmogat roboi ag
2500] deanam an tuir no aga cumdach, et is aca aonur doruaraid
an berla dorad Die do Adam, conid de
sin dogarar in berla nEbraidi .i. berla nEberdoigi innsin:
no Abraim .i. siol Aprahaim .i. berla nEbraide dono. Ier
dtieachtain tra dona deisgioblaibh co Fenius on foghlaim
2505] i. ier dtaispenadh i gcuarta .i. a n-imtheachta & a ngresa
.i. a bfoglama, is and conaitciotar cusin saoi .i. go Fenius
berla na beth ag nech aile do theipiu doibh as na hilperlaib,
acht comad acca a n-aonar nobeith, conid airesin aricht
doiph in berla tobaidi cona fortormachtaiph .i. berla Feine
2510] cona fortormachtaiph & iarmberla et berla n-etarsgarta
iter na fedhaiph airedhaibh amal doruirmisim isin Duil
Fedha Mair, id est, nomen lipri, & berla na bfiled asa
n-aigillit cach diph a cheile & in gnathberla fogní do chach
iter fira & mhna. Gaidel mac Eitheoir meic Taoi meic
2515] Barachain do Gregaib Sgeithia in dara sai roboi ag coimetacht


{YBL folio 221a36} {Eg folio 64 2a17}
Feniusa, conid uad rohainmniged Gaedelc .i. elg .i.
oirrderc indsin .i. Gaedel ros-oirdercaigh. Gaoidel Glas mac
Agnoin meic Gluinfind meic Laimfind int en brathair
athar do Fenius & ba saoi sidien dono cidh edh e. Is edh
2520] sidhe dono dorothluigestar in berla so go Gaoidel mac
Ethiuir & conadh Gaoidelc o Gaidel mac Ethiuir & Gaidelc o
Gaoidel mac Aingin no go madh o Gaoidel Glas mac Niuil
meic Feniusa Farrsaidh rohainmniged Gaidel. Is he sin
a fhir. Berla Feine tra arricht so sound, et iarmberla,
2525] & berla n-etarsgarta iter na fedhaib airedhaib ind
ogaim, & berla na bfiled in cethramad, & in gnathperla
fogni do chach in cuicced. Fenius Farsaidh tra mac
Eogain et Ier mac Nema et Gaoidel mac Eithiuir na tri
saidhi doreibsit in berla-sa ocon lug tsainredach dienad ainm
2530] Euateno siicuitas ariacht prius. Caitet anmanda in da cenel
sechtmogat o rafoghluinti na hilberla? Ni ansa: Ut sunt
hic: Beithin, Sgeithin, Sgouit, Germain, Gaill, Point, Paimpil,
Moiet, Morann, Luigdin oic, Ircair, Sgill, Siccir, Ciclait,
{YBL folio 221b1} Coirsic, Creit, Sardain, Sigil, Reit, Reicir, Roait,
2535] Romain mas, Masgusa, Mair, Maicidoin, Morcain nair, náir
mais, Narmaint, Nombith brais, Britain, Boit mais, Magoig,
Armaint, amuis gairg, Galus, Actain, Acain, Tesail airt,
Allain, Alpain, Ircair og, Etail, Espain, Guit, Goith, grinne
sair, Affrainc, Freisin, Longbaird, Laidich, Laicdemoin,
2540] Eisil, Tragianda, Traig, Dardain, Dalmait, Daic, Eithiop,
Egiptda, Indecda, Braghmaint. Perla sain tra cech cinel
dip so, fer tra cech perla dhiph sin, iss ed rofoghlad and.
Pa he lion na sgoile, et na tri saidhe, rofaided o Fenius
cech fer diph fria berla. Ni cech comchiniuil dono dochuaid
2545] and dochum a criche don foghlaim acht is commberlaig,
amal rogabh Cai Cainbrethach, dalta Feniusa Farsaidh,
in dara deisgipul sechtmogat na sgoile, pa do Eaphradaiph
a bunad et pa go hEcipta rofaided, fobith pa hand patar a
tuisdigi & pa hand ron-alt & tuargpad asa aididh, conid aire


{YBL folio 221b15}
sin asper i gcurp lipair: Is cech comberla dochuaid
dochum a criche & ni cech comchineoil. Secht mbliadna
robatar na deisgipuil forsin gcuairt sin, & teora bliadna
doiph ag taispenadh a ngresa a bos iar dtiacht comdar a
deich samlaidh, conid desin asbertsim tsis i curp lipair: i
2555] cind deich mbliadan iar sgailed doiph on tour for gach
leth doreibed an berla-sa doib.

Poi tra cuiccer ar fichit pa huaislem don sgoil dono
et it e tra an anmanda-sidhe16 fordotait fedha & taobomna
ind ogaim, ut est: Bobel, Loth, Forand, Saliath, Nabgadon,
2560] Hiruath, Dabhid, Tailimon, Cainaen, Calebh, Moreth,
Gadmer, nGomer, Stru, Ruben, Acap, Ose, Uriath, Etroichius,
Iumelcus, Esu, Iaichim, Ordinos, Iudonius, Afrim.
Is iet sin anmanda in cuiccir ar fichit pa huaisli poi
a sgoil Feniusa. Na coig fedha airedha ind ogaim
2565] dano, is on coigiur pa huaislé diph rohainmnigter
iet a o u e i (secundum aili tri in trop). Atberat araile it
secht fedha airegda filit and, is on moirseiser pa
huaisli & ba haredha diph rohainmniged. It e na da fidh
dofoirindet frisna cuig tuas {illu180.1}. [ea oi]. Itberat
2570] araile dano is i ind aipgitir aricht isinn Aisia, & ic
Tochar Inbir Moir aranic Aimergin Gluingeal mac
Miled an bethi-luis-nin an ogaim. ‘Cie litir, cie
nin, cie son Ina forbaigther focul?’ i. dinin disail no
forsail, ‘Ar is son ger fogapar O nach fuach tre'n tinnsganar’
2575] .i. airnin no ngetal gilcach .i. ngetal. Cest, caiti iet
airme tur Nemruaid? A hocht. Da comairlid lxx, da
deisgipul lxx, da cenel lxx na daine, da berla
lxx ina sgoil, da thuaith lxx lasa mbatar na berlada
et na cenela. Da tsaor lxx frie gnim. Da aigdi ar
2580] lxx, iter aol is bí is bitamain & talmain & tathluib ina


{YBL folio 221b42}
coimhecar. Da cheim lxx ina lethet amal atber hic:
Airem cinntech an tuir so:—
    1. Airim an tuir togaidi
      Neamruaid, pa din do daoiniph,
      2585] Cethri ceimend sechtmogat,
      Cet ceimend ar coig milib.
    2. Da comairlid sechtmogat
      Tugsad cuigi fri sluaiged;
      Da berla for sechtmogait
      2590] Rothidhnaic Die dia mbuaidred.
    3. Da chinel for sechtmogait
      Dona daoinib frie dograind,
      Da deisgipul sechtmogat
      Fedoid Feinius fria foglaim.
    4. Da tuaith tsaora sechtmogat
      Forofoglait fir thalman;
      Da prim tsaora sechtmogat
      Frie heladain na n-adpar.
    5. Da aigdi for sechtmogait
      2600] Na adhpar comadh gnathach,
      Iter ael is bitamain
      Is talmain ocus tathlaiph.
    6. Secht cubait dec deimnighti
      Ag nim suas fri gaoith ngairig;
      2605] Is da ceim for sechtmogait
      Ina lethet frie haiream.


{YBL folio 222a1} Adberait aroile immorro is naoi n-adhpair nama
batar isin tour .i. cre & uisgi, ola & fuil, ros et aol, seuchim,
2610] lin, bitamain de quipus dicitur:—

    1. Cre, uisgi, olam is fouil,
      Ros, is aol, is incuir lan,
      Tuis, mirr, biodamain co mbuaid,
      Naoi n-adhpair in tuir Nemruaidh.


{YBL folio 222a5} {Eg folio 65 1a10}
Caiti log & aimser et persa & tugait (sgribind) ind Uraicepto?
Ni ansa. Haonlog eim is coir dona ceithrib
leapraip sin, amal isber in file: In os toisechu is edh is
deighencu; in os dethencu is ed is toisichu. In us toisichu
a gcurp lipair is edh is deighencu ariecht .i. leapar Cinnfaolidh
2620] meic Oilella.

Log & aimsir & persa et tuccait sgriphind an lipair-si.
Loc do ceudus: Doire Luruain, & aimsir di aimsir
Domnaill meic Aodha meic Ainmerech. Persa do
Cendfaolaidh mac Ailella. A tuccait sgribind a inchind
2625] dermait do bein a cind Cindfaolad i gcath Muighe
Rath. Ceithri buadha didiu in chatha sin .i. maidm
for Congall ina gaoe rie nDomnall ina firinde; et Suiphne
Geilt do dol for gealtacht ar médh do laidhiph doroine; &
in fer d'feraiph Alpan do phreith ind fir d'feraiph Erenn
2630] ina chois leis gan airiugud .i. Duip Die ainm ind fhir
thall dono; et a inchind dermaid do bhreith a cind Cinnfaoladh
ar a mhed do filidecht & do bhreathemnus & do
leighend doleasaig.

Caiti log & aimser et persa & tugait sgribind ind
2635] Airraicepto? Ni ansa. Log do Emin Macha & a
n-aimsir Conchubair meic Nessa arichta. Feirchertne
file dorinne do breith aosa faind for seis. Cendfaolad
mac Ailella doathnuaighiuster i nDoire Lurain maille
le hurmor na sgreaphtra. Atberat aroile cona bad
2640] aenliphar acht liphair imda & ni hinand log-aimsera doiph.
Is e log-aimser an cetliphair iarin chetfaidsi. Log dó
Daire Lurain, & aimser Domnaill meic Aoda. Persa dó
Cendfaolad mac Oilella. A tugait sgribhind & rl.

Atat da erndail forsan aipgitir Laitianta (.i. coindealc
2645] annsin,)
.i. guta & consain .i. doaithned da
firdegail asin fis foirithnech for eibe ind ugtair luaidius in
ai ier bfiordliged fothu an gotha uais toghaidhe lasa


{YBL folio 222a30} {Eg folio 65 1a43}
gcomhfograigit suin. Atat .i. sunt a frithindlidech
Laitianto .i. a bunad for lethon: totus a bunad ruidlista
2650] .i. derpad andsin .i. frecra do toit na haipgitre dobeirsim

Ar atait tri hernaile for bunad .i. bunad ier fogar
nama, & bunad iar gceill nama, & bunad iar gceill & fogar:
ier bfogar amal ata modao a nomine quod est modus: iar
2655] gceill prius, id est, ab uno a bunad: iar gceill & fogar,
ut est, quartus a quatuor, uel tercius a teirsio. Bunad ier
gcosmailius foghair nama totus don focul is atat, ar is
ainm totus, & briathar atat. Coic rand indsgi ind focail
is atat, ar atat ocht randa indsgi and, id est: Nomen .i.
2660] ainm. Pronomen .i. ni ar son anma .i. me, tu. Uerbom,
atuerbium. Participium .i. ni cruthaigther a hainm & a
breithir, Coniungcio .i. ni cenglus na foclu re cheile.
Prepositio .i. ni geinter a breithir & ciell preithri aici &
cena beith 'na prethair. Inteiriectio ni asa dtuigther toil
2665] na hinntindi & gan a peth 'na focul .i. ac, ua, u. It e a
n-anmanda laisin Laitneoir .i. ainm, pronomen, briathar
& dobriathar, randgapal & comacomal, remsuidigud et
interecht lasin nGaidel chena. Is deimin am is briathar
in focul is atat .i. sunt; & masa briathar ca ball do breithir?
2670] ar atat a tri a n-uathad & a tri a n-ilar and.

Sum .i. ataim, es .i. ata tu, est .i. ata se, a tri a n-uathad.
Sumus .i. atamait, estis .i. atathai, sunt .i. atait siat, a tri
a n-ilar. Ceudpersa uathaid sum, persa tanaise uathaid
eis, tre persa uathaid est. Ceudpersa ilair sumus, persa
2675] tanusa ilair estis, {YBL folio 222b1} tre persa ilair sunt.

A indi dano .i. atat da ai a n-ait .i. ai guta & ai
consaini. Ata ai a n-ait .i. ata dliged a n-ait ind ollaman.
No atat .i. ata ai uait ar in deisgipul frisin maigistir.
A inde beus ataat a tuided, doaithnet, doaidbed, doiagod,
2680] A airpert .i. atat a n-aigne .i. na guta & na consaine:


{YBL folio 222b5} {Eg folio 65 1b28}
dotuidhet uait a lipriph uaid a litrib .i. tinntaidhid
asinn aignedh sin i litriph: doaithnet asna litriph sin i
bfoclaiph: dotiagat asna foclaib sin a sretha rosga &
fasaigh & airchetail on filidecht .i. ros eolus & sgoth indsgi
2685] .i. indsge eolais: doaitbet .i. doaisbenad d'eochtaiph .i. a
ciall & a caireachtaire .i. fuatha na litrech: no go mad
totus a bunad Laitne in focail is atat ud docent ali. Da
erndail .i. da duer deil .i. eur uasal & deil degail .i. da
degail uaisle indsin. Is cotearsna dono anisin arin bfail a
2690] mbith da degail uaisle bit vii randa and. Ni cotarsna dono,
ar atat a secht indip iar sonaib cen co beith iar gceill.
Da erndail .i. da dul ferrda no da ard dul .i. da dul arda
no da eur dul .i. da uasal dul. Da ernduil .i. da .i. da
fir-indeall nou da firnaill no da firdul no da erdeghail no
2695] erdail no da eurdual .i. lanfogur & defogur & consanacht .i.
an u & an í it e da dual na ngutha no da orra dul no da
orra dul no da orra degail no da orra dail. Is iat sin tri
or & tri er & tri ir ind Uraiciopta. Caidiet da dual & tri
duail & ceithre duail & v duail & vi an Uraicepto?
2700] Ni ansa. Lanfogar & defogar da dual na nguta, leth-guta
& muiti et tinfedh, tri duail na consaine; intan is
cethair immorro, da dhual na nguta & da dual na
gconsaini; & intan is a cuig, da dual na nguta & tri
duail na gconsaini; & intan is a se .i. tri duail na consaini
2705] & tri duail na nguta .i. lánfogar & defoghar & consonacht
.i. in i & in u: lethguta & muiti & tinfed, tri duail na gconsaini.
Da dual na consaini, lethguta & muiti; ar is muiti

Forsin aipcitir .i. ondi is aipcitorium .i. tindsgetal: no
2710] epe actor no ebe ughdair: no ebe ioc duar no ic tur .i.
rohicad ic an tor: no aipcitir ondi .i. iss i aipcidhius a
mbeusgna do chach: no aipcitir ondi is aperieis, ar is hi


{YBL folio 222b32} {Eg folio 65 2a14}
sgailius a mbesgna do chach: no aipgitir ondí is aipex a
Greig .i. cindedh no tosach aipcitre a Gaidilc, incipit a
2715] Laitin, apex a Greic
, apexe de deubam a hEpra, no
aipgitir ab agitorio, ut dixit quasi a, b, c, d, & reliqua & ais e
sin a main in duol coir, ar is lor do taithmech gacha focail
a bhreith co punad Laitne. Aipgitir est copula con uel
literaram per se .i. ata ind aipgitir ina coimtinol no comcengal
2720] litrioch cona comfielus archena, no dano aipgitir
a Gaidilc, a bhreith co punad Laitne. Aipgitir est copula con uel
incipe a Laitin, apexa a Greig, apexade depham
a hEeapra, & rl. Laitin o Laitin mac Puin meic Picc
meic Sadairn dictus est. Latinatass, Laitianda uada-side:
no Laitin a latitudine dicta est, ar is leithe i quam
2725] cech mbesgna cenmotha Gaidilc ar is17 ier
dtogail Troe ropoi Laitin, & is fada roime sin rofoghlait
na berlada & ropui Latinatas o tsin ale. No Laitinnda
luaided inde na focal. Edon .i. ed aon a eirnedh .i.
edh dliged, & eirnedh .i. fuasgladh no dliged bis aenar
2730] ag fuasgladh: no edh ain a aineolais: no edh ind so on
.i. is edh son a bfuil remaind: no edhon .i. edh dliged &
don tidlocad no 18 tidnocul .i. tidnocul dligthech
dobeir se don focul da cheile.

Guta .i. guth fhotha .i. fotha gotha iad-sidhen no
2735] guth faiti iersinni faoidit triotha: no guth sed .i. sed in
gotha: no guth fed iersinní fédaid guth ind aonar. Ut
Prisianus dixit: Litera quaisi leigiteria eo quod iter leginti
prebed .i. ita in litir amal inntech in leigind iersinni faoires
séd an leighind: no guth-ethait iersinni fedaid guth
2740] treotha a n-aonar, amal ata a ard, & í inis, & o cluas, & o
forcend: no guth ait .i. dogniat guth a n-ait, ut Donatus
dixit: Uocaileis dicuntur quae per se {YBL folio 223a1} quidim proferuntur
et per se sillabam faciunt .i. atat na guthaigi doturgbat
treotha fein & dogniat sillaoba a n-aonar, ut Prisianus dixit:


{YBL folio 223a3} {Eg folio 65 2a49}
Uocaleis dicuntaur que per se voces eficiuntur .i. is ed is uocales
and litri dogni guth tretho fein, uel sine quibus vox
literailis profeirri non potest .i. litir na fetar guth do denam
'na hecmais. Consoin onni is consanantes comfograightech
.i. iarsinni fograided la guthagaibh do greas. No consoin .i.
2750] cuma suoin no caoin suin no caom tsoin .i. soin caoma
ar is caimiti a n-irlapra fogar na consaine maille fri
guthagaiph inti: no consain .i. coma tsuin .i. suin cumaidhi
.i. caomsuin .i. tainic a fogar a n-aonur: no .i. comason
.i. focul et siomol fri guthaigi dogniatsum focul. Cid
2755] ar a n-eipertsium guta & consaine, uair guthaigi uathaid &
consaini iolair? Ni ansa. Guta & consaine is maith and.
Cid ar a n-epert guta .i. guth fotha no guth fouiti? uair
ni fotha in guth do fein, & ni faoidhend guth trid fein.
Cid ar a nd-eupert consain comfograigtech? uair ni comfograigend
2760] in consain fria fein na frie guthaigi. Cid ar
a nd-epert guta .i. guth séd? uor ni sédh disi hi puddein.

Caiti ruidlius & dilius, coitcend & indlius in focail is
guta? Ni ansa. Ruidles di guth fet, uair fedhaig guth
a aonar. Diles di guth fuiti, uair nos-fuidhend fein.
2765] Coitcend di guth fotha, uair is fota cend dona foclaiph.
Indles di guth fotha, uair ni fotha is i innti fein. Cid ar a
nd-upart aipgitir .i. eipi ic tuor, ar ní agin tor rotindscointi
na haipgitri amal isbeir Feinius. Pa sai sidhe isna tri
primberlaib cid riesiu tisad atuaid & ni saithe cen aipcitri.
2770] Is a nAisia dono aricht aipgitir ind oghaim amal
remebartmar. Cest, caiti in condelg n-eteichta? Ni
ansa. In cetna hernail ind Airaicepto. Fors, .i. ferr anfis
.i. etargaire comparaitio .i. fors hic tre fortciudh na
Gaideilgi .i. conndelg n-edtechta .i. fors ferr fios .i. etechta
2775] indsin, ar ni maith ainbfios.


{YBL folio 223a29}
Cid doichned, & ced dichned an Airaicepta sond? A
ceddoichned fern arin focul is fors, no forail arin bfocul is
for. A ceddichned .i. eipi ugdair, oir teibi in focul fein

Atat dano da erndail forsan mbeithi-luis-nion an
ogaim. Roraidius atad romaind. Dana .i. da n-ai indsin .i.
ai caingen .i. in caingen remaind & an ai i n-ar ndiagh.
Da ernail .i. da ier ndail forsin mbeithi-luis-nion an ogaim
.i. foirithned in beithi luis .i. bioth ai eolus .i. eolus na hai
2785] isin mbith: no bithi leisna suidib nobith slonnad leis on
.i. fedha & taobomna, id est, uocales et consonantes, uair
doradus da erndail forsan aipgitir Laitianta. Da erndail
dano forsan mbeithi-luis-nin an ogaim .i. in og uma .i.
forsin mbitheolus leiterda ind ogaim .i. onní is Ogmu .i.
2790] nion ogaim & nion tond, ar is nin ainm da gach litir amal
ispert in file:

Mell suide, dar mo niona Neidhi.

Ni fortgeallad {illu187.1} la {illu187.2} {illu187.3} la heigius .i. filid.
Ailiter fortgellaid eiccius tar idha & ailm ceinelo lugha
2795] andsin. Idhedh is he a fidh is moaum toraind dona v
primfedhaiph. Ailm didiu cetlapra gach pi & iachtad
gach mairp. Is sruithe ierum in dedi sin. No bethi-luis-nin
ainm d' aipgitir ind ogaim, ar is do is ainm aipgitri
don ni doinsgain o a. Is airi itet beithe sech gach fidh,
2800] ar is and rosgripad ogum & is hi in roscripad indi
{illu187.4} .i. in beithe rosgripad do breith robaid do
Lug mac Eithlend im dala a mna ‘na rugtha uad hi a
sidhaip'’ .i. vii mbethi a n-aonfleisg do beithi .i. ‘berthar
do ben uait fo vii a sith no a bferandaip aile muna {YBL folio 223b1}
2805] coimeta hi.’ Bethi-luis-nion ainm aipgitri an ogaim, ar
is o beithe doinsgain in ogum .i. in ogh uama, ar is de
fuaigther go hog a n-irlapra. No ogum .i. og uaim a


{YBL folio 223b4} {Eg folio 66 1a10}
bfoclaib cid anogh cugam a litribh. No occum .i. o
Ogma mac Ealathan meic Dealphaith, ar is he rainig
2810] litri na Sgot cusna hanmandoiph filet forra aniugh, ut est
in Britainia, id est, libro isto nomine uocatur uel in lingua
& amal isber in leapar ogaim: Athair ogaim Ogma,
mathair Ogaim lam no sgian Ogma.

Fedha dano & fid, atat da gne for suidhe .i.
2815] fidh saorda & fid aiccenta: fidh saorda .i. fidh ind ogaim:
fid aiccenta .i. fidh na coilled. Fid saorda cetamus: atat
da gne do bunadh occa. Fiod dano on breithir is fundis .i.
fothoigim, uel a nomine fundamentum .i. fotha uel a funo,
fograidim. Feda ierum iersinni is fotha foghair isin
2820] Gaidilc in guthaigi & is coitcend d'fidh saorda & aigenta
in bunad sin .i. fundamentum. A indi immorro fidh fo
fedh .i. maith a edh ag foghrugud. Ingnad cid fodera na
da bunad agin fid saorda & aonbunad icon bfid aiccenta.
Ag phfidh saorda .i. funo & fundamentum, funo a dualgus
2825] fogair, fundamentum a dualgus fotha, & is coitcend doibh
araon fotha. A airpert immorro .i. eipert aire .i. (focul)
is aitheanta indas fein fair .i. coill no doire forin bfidh
intan is fid aigenta: litir immorro no guthaigi no
consain fair intan is fidh saorda: no go mad fotha a
2830] airpert iter saorda & aigenta. Coitchend dano a tapairt
frie sloindedh saorda & aiccenta.

Indles dono a tapairt for losaiph fedha intan is fidh
aigenta, ut est int aitend no in fraoch & rl.: no a tapairt for
legtachad no for fonialus intan is fid saorda et is techta
2835] in secht sin do iarraidh in gach focul Gaoidelce. Cid
fodera comad iar q no g no st do beith nialsa for u sech gach
consoin? Ni ansa. Ar is blod do q quidim u, ni hingnad
cia mad solma tista di forsin nguthaigi iermo. Ata dano do
med fogair s cona rathoigther fogaur u ierum, ut Ogricus (?)
2840] dixit: s in principio uel ut sillabam sonat. Comacsi dano


{YBL folio 223b34} {Eg folio 66 1a45}
luicc beime g don guthaigi iermo no cid do u fein no ar a
cairdius fri q. Fid aiccenta immorro fidh na coiled .i.
fo edh a airdi: no fo edh .i. teine i suidhiu ina inne: no
fo a edh .i. a fosgadh no (fo) a suth .i. a torad a indi
2845] .i. is e sund a inne .i. fedha fo edh a aei uair atat coic
aoi and, ai ailius, & aei canus, & ai shaighius, aoi
miodius, aoi suighius, Ai ailius dano in gcein pis
fora menmain: ai chanus .i. oga gapail: ai saigius .i.
og cuincced a loige: aoi miodius .i. ima med no ima
2850] loiget: ai tsuigius .i. ier n-ioc a loigi.

Et taopomna .i. taoph uaim na haoi .i. taob uaim a
n-airchetal: aoi .i. onní is aoi , raidim: no taobomna
.i. do thaobaiph na n-oumna mor bit 19: no taob uaimnecha: no taob omna
2855] .i. toba damna iarsinni tophar damhna na focul, eisibh.
Cid ar a nd-epairt taob uaim n-ai .i. taop uaim n-airchetail,
ar bi ant airchetal a n-ecmhais na dtaophoumna. Cid ar
a nd-epairt do taobaiph na n-omna mor (bit), ar ní
da taophaib na bfiod bit acht rempa no ina ndiaigh
2860] isna foclaib pit na taopoumna. Toba damhna immorro
is he ruidhlius in focail. Frecra do breithir 20 tug intan roraid, [rsquor]atat da ernail forsin
mbethi-luis-nin an ogaim.'

Cuin is aonda in beithi-luis-nion? Ni ansa. Uile
{YBL folio 224a1} . Cuin is deda? .i. fedha et taophomna. Cuin is
treda? .i. fedha & forfedha & taopomna. Cuin is cetharda?
Ni ansa. Tri haicme na taopomna .i. b, h, m, &
na cuig fedha airedha ind ogaim. Cuin is coicti? .i.
2870] fedha & forfedha & taopomna .i. tri haicmi na dtaopomna:
no co mad hed bud coicti and .i. seichimh nGreigda
frisinni roraidius {illu189.1} .i. e fota & o fota. Cuin is


{YBL folio 224a7} {Eg folio 66 1b28}
seda? .i. tri foilcesta in ogaim {illu190.1}
No comad hed pud seda and seichimh coicte in Gaoidil
2875] frisna .v. rannaiph ut est {illu190.2}
Cuin is seachta? .i. teora fuillti ind Uraicepto .i.
{illu190.3} No tri foilcesta in ogaim frisna se
remaind .i. {illu190.4} H cetus is ed fuillius
bethe conngaip greim p, amal isbeir in Laitneoir: b
2880] cum aspiracione ante omnes vocaleis ponitur pro p .i.
remsamuigther b co dtinfed ar p conid fuilles h, ar is p
tinfed a nGaidilc. Dicunt aili co na bi h araon re b do
lucc p acht is b a aonar bis ar p, ut dixit Priscianus:
Ambo pro ampo, buxus pro puxus: b inntib sin ar p & ni
2885] b co tinfed amail adberat araile.

Forsail is e in fuilled aile .i. dobeir cumang fedha
forin son do fot .i. srón. Airnin is e in tres fuilled
oile, bfail i recair a les da taobomna, gaibid airnin
greim in dara n-ai, ut est cenn no glounn, ar ni bi emnad
2890] in ogaim.

Is aire gaibius airnin greim in dara taobomna. Teora
fuilcesta inn ogaim {illu190.5} .i. in bfail
a mbiad coll ria .u. is q sgripthar and amal ata
{illu190.6} Coll cetus ar coll ndiuit ata.
2895] Cech baile i mbiadh nion re ngort is ngetol sgribthar
and, ut est {illu190.7} occus
{illu190.8} Gort cetus ar gort ndiuit ata. Cech


{YBL folio 224a28} {Eg folio 66 2a6}
bfaili i mbia sail rie tinne is sdraiph is sgripta and amal
ata {illu191.1} Sail cetus ar sail ndiuit ata; ar
2900] is iat sin treidhi is coir do imcisin isinn ogam. Is aire
is coir teora foillcesta na formcesta is coir and.

Da ernail dano for consanaibh lasin Laitneoir .i. da
firdegail .i. lethguta & muiti. Ina lethguta cetus .i. f, l,
m, n, r, s, x a ttuisdigi rempa. Cia adupramar gu rab
2905] lethguta f, ni fir sin acht is ed o guth & ni hedh o fogur.
Na muiti .i. b, c, d, g, h, k, p, q, t a dtuistige ina ndeoig
de suidhip. Di ernail dano .i. da firdegail forna consanaiph
cumaidhi lasin Laitneoir .i. lasin lethanfoirithin
.i. iarsinni foirius in Laitneoir gach red isin Laitin: no
2910] Laitneoir .i. laithreoir .i. iarsinni laithres co treorach: no
Laitneoir .i. onní is latinatas: no Laitneoir .i. litirthreoraid
no legh-treoraid no lethan-toirnit. Lethguta
.i. lethghotha focerdad dia fogrugad no luitguth no
luaidhit guth no lethguthait no lethguthsédh no lethguthfotha
2915] & ni hiersinni co mad leth gotha go cert nobeith
inntib acht nad roichit lanfogur, ut Priscianus dixit:
Seime dei seime uiri dicuntur sed I. non quia qui de
meidiam partim deorum uel uirorum habent sed qui pleni dei
uel uiri non sunt .i. cia raiter lethdei no lethfir, ni hiersinni
2920] baitis lethdei no lethfhir acht na tot comhlana, sic
na lethguta ni dod comlana .i. amal ata a mbaili oile
quicuit in duas partes dividitur altera pars semis dicet .i.
secib ni foghailther a ndiph randaip raiter in dara rand co
rab leth {YBL folio 224b1} cin cob cudruma, sic na lethguta ni dot
2925] comlana, ud Donatus uel Priscianus dixit: Seme uocales
sunt que per se quidim proferuntur et per se sillabam non
faciunt & rla: Atat na leth guta ni hi doturgbat treotha fein
et ni denait sillaib treotha fein. Quiquid asperum dicitur
auditus expeillit .i. indarbaid int esticht secip ni raiter


{YBL folio 224b6} {Eg folio 66 2a35}
co hacarp. Muiti .i. mi-aiti .i. bec ait a fogair: no a muiti
.i. muitid a n-aonur no muiti .i. meto a n-aonar iet: no
muiti .i. moiti muiti .i. míiti in guth a mbeth maraon re
guthagaib: no muiti .i. onni is mutus, amlapar .i. ainm do
mnai bailph, & uodhside for chat n-amlapar & as-
2935] sidhie forsnahisi & ni ara ni batis amlabra doraith, ar atat
a fogur inntib cid ad beca ut Priscianus dixit: Informis
mulier dicitur non quia caret forma sed quia male formata est
.i. adberat in bansgul dodhelpha & ni he sin ni tsechmallus
o deilph acht drochdealph fuirre tantum.

Is amlaidh sin iarum na muiti ni tat nemfogair acht
ar terci a bfogair inntib nama. No muiti .i. mifotha
indsin ar thanacht & ar etroime a fogair, ut Donatus
dixit: Mutae sunt que nec per se proferuntur et per se
sillabam non faciunt .i. atat na muiti acht nocha denait int
2945] sillaib treotha fein & nocha turgbat treotha budeisin. Ina
lethguta cetumus .i. in cetna mes brethemhnus: no don
cetna hamus forsinn aisneis: no don cetna hai for seis:
no don cetna hai fis: no co na ba heiccen a taithmech iter
a menma thaithmigher in timarr o fil ac clusail na muiti ar
2950] is o quidem ata cechtar de. A tuisdige .i. an luchd ota a
tuismed .i. na fedha oirechda do suidhiph .i. dona haib
adhaip .i. dona caingnibh dligtechaib no for suidhiph no
do suidhiph .i. doipsidhe. A tuisdige .i. an lucht o ata a
tuisdige .i. tesargain no a tinnsgna .i. na guthaigi. Cid
2955] ar a nd-epertsum a tuistigi ina ndiaig masa tustaigi in
tinsgetal, uair ni gnath in tinsgetal fa deoigh. 21 & an dliged
2960] consanachta fil inntib fa deoigh do chur uad prius. Nir po
himairgidi son lasin nGaidel mac Eithiuir ar mad aiccenta


{YBL folio 224b30} {Eg folio 66 2b26}
doip diplinaiph an guth reimhiph & ina ndiaig. Ar as ed
roba himairgide laisium comad in tuisech do airisim lais &
an deigenach do chur uadh conid muiti uile bethi-luis-nin
2965] an ogaim acht forfedha nama. Nir po himairgidi son .i.
nir ba himaruga son .i. togaidi .i. nir bo heim airec suadh
son .i. nir bo himaireachtain suadh son .i. sillab fortormaigh.
Cid ar narpo himarccide son lasin nGaoidel .i.
lasin ngaoth dul .i. an fer aga raibi in dul gaoth. Ar mad
2970] aigned no ar mad aigenti doip dib lionaiph .i. dona
lethgutaiph & dona muitibh .i. remaibh dona lethgutaib et
ina ndiaigh dona muitibh. Ata acht lem and chena iss ed
ropui eimh airechta suad laisium on comad a ix rosheichustar
ina menmain .i. in guthaige fil isin lethguta noairised
2975] lais fo deoigh & an deigenach do cur uadh .i. in deigenach
fuach do choir ai int suad .i. in tdaopomna do cur ar tus co
na mba miait lapartha ata bitheolus literda ind ogaim acht
fedha nama. Per enistrafen a hainm sin lasin Laitneoir
.i. tria deigenach impod amal ata el, le nobeith and, & en
2980] comad ne nobeith and. Cid ar mad ferr laisim a mbeth
comdis muiti uile ina mbeth comdis lethguta & muiti
amal robatar agin Laitneoir? Ni ansa. Ar seichimh
nGreg, ar ni filet lethguta leoside, ar robad do Greigaip
do Feinius: no dono is ar uaisli uird na nGrec no na nguthuigedh
2985] fri suidiugud a n-uord focal, ut dicitur: Oimne uile
prius ponitur et oimne bonum postponitur .i. samaigther
{YBL folio 225a1} & gach 22 maith fa deoig et
gach sainemail co forbha ar mad aiccenta .i. ar mad dliged
togaide no madh ai gnithi diphlinaiph .i. dona lethgutaib
2990] & dona muitibh. Ciarpo himairccide isna muitibh nir bo
hedh isna lethgutaib. Roimhe isna lethguthaigib 'na
ndeoigh .i. isna muitiph nir bo himairgide son et nir puo
coir son, et nir po hecoir son. Ar is ed roba himairccide
lasuidhe comad touisech doairised lais, et in deigenach


{YBL folio 225a7} {Eg folio 67 1a19}
do chur uadh co na muiti uile beithi-luis-nin an ogaim
acht fedha nama; la suidhi .i. lasin suidh .i. la Gaidel
mac Eithiuir no comad o Gaoidel Glas mac Niuil meic
Feniusa Farsaidh23 nohainmnigther Gaidelg: no la
suidi .i. laisidhe, co mad a tuisech do airisiodh lais .i. go mad
3000] inndi is tuisech .i. guthaigi agin Laitneoir isna lethguthagaib
noairised lais .i. nobeth fo deoig inntip uile lethguthaigi
& go mad isin guthaige nobeth forpa na cantana indiph &
in deigenach do cur uad ar tus .i. muiti conach muiti uile
.i. co nach a ngne muiti uile. Ata bitheolus literda an
3005] oguim acht fedha nama .i. a tinsgetal uadaibh fen & a forpa i
nguthagaiph. Cinnus is fir sin, ar ni a nguthagoiph forpaigter
uile, ut est f, s, n, & reliqua, & is eidir na muiti a
tinsgetul uadaiph fein & a forpa a nguthagaibh cidh
uadhaibh fein tinsgantar . Ni a nguthagaiph
3010] forphaighter. Ni insa. Ni thapair int ugdar in
airemh a fil on guthaigi sis acht amal bid fhe .i. fern, no
ne .i. nin, no saoi .i. sail nopedh and, no ni mo ni ar
a n-apar muiti risna muitib quam ar a dtinsgetul uadaiph
fein & ata do litriph an ogaim sin & ni heiccen co mad aisdi
3015] do ierraidh do litrib ind ogaim & do muitibh na Laitne, ar
is a nguthagoip forbaigter-side do gres. 'Na nguthagtaibh
immorro forpaigter f, s, n: forpaigter immorro litri
ind ogaim a nguthagaip, ut est beithi, tinne, & rl.; & a
lethguta, ut est luis, fearn & rl. A muitib, ut est uad, quert.
3020] Muiti iat, ar is o muiti tinsganait acht fedha nama; & mad
iadside is o guthagaiph tinsganait.

Insgi tra cis lir insgi docuisin? Ni ansa. A tri .i. ferindsge
banindsge demeindsge lasin nGaidel. Masgal &
feimin & nemutur lasin Laitneoir. Cest, caiti deochair? Ni
3025] ansa. Nus-deochrend a tri herlanna innsge, id est hic,
hec, hoc; is i, is e, is edh; is e in fer, is i in ben, is
edh in nem. Insge tra orasio uel sginnsia a bunad Laitni


{YBL folio 225a30} {Eg folio 67 1b9}
.i. a indi sgiensia .i. a inde fesa; no indi sin ier cai .i.
ier conair: no inniscai .i. cai innisti neich a inne. A
3030] airpert .i. erlapra no rad & rl. Coitcend a thapairt
for cech innsge iter ciallaide no neamciallaide, saorda &
aigenta. Dilius a tapairt for gach n-insce n-aiccenta
iter ferinnsgi & baninnsgi. Ruidlius a tapairt for gach
ferinsge aiccenta nama; ar is fer toisech do rad innsge
3035] .i. Adam dixit: Ecce ous de osibus meis et cara de carne
mea .i. adcimsus .i. adcimsi cnaimh dom cnamhaibh
& feoil dom feoil. Indlius a tapairt for innsgi tsaorda.
Tra .i. dorae uain .i. dorae innsge cuccaind .i. aisneis
iar n-indisin aipcitre: no tra .i. tri .i. na tri hinnsge — fer,
3040] ban, deme. Cis lir .i. cia ler; no cia lin .i. se himcomairsnig
airme filet lasin nGaidel, a tri a n-ilar, a tri a
n-uathad. It e cetus na tri a n-ilar, cislir, cidne, caidiet.24
It e dono a tri a n-uathad, cesc, cuin, cid.
Docuisin .i. douisim innsge: no docuisin .i. do coi sin .i.
3045] don conair sin; no don coi innisin; no d'fis cuinngid fair,
no disgnaigter, no tarrustar. Cia lion atat na hinnsge
(sin)? Ni ansa; .i. ni handsa lasin saidh indsin; no ni
anond said ag saei in son; no ni handsa son .i. ni
doiligh. A tri .i. ier n-airem. Atat dano tri hernaile for
3050] nuimir .i. in nuimir anfoirphti amal ata a tri no a cuig
ar ni fasand o quoitibh. Nuimir foirpti immorro amal ata
a se, ar tairisigh co cóir a gcoitibh .i. aon a tseissed, a do
a trien, a tri a leth. Ant aon ierum & na do et na tri,
a se sin .i. a haon fo se, a do fo tri, a tri fo do, & airemh
3055] foirpti sin, uair airisid coir 'na coitibh. Nuimir oullforpthi
immorro amal ata {YBL folio 225b1} a dó dec, oir is he i sé déc
fasait estiph .i. a haon a oile dec, a do a seissed, a tri a
cethraime, a cethair a trien, a se a leth, amal rogaph a
do dec a haon ierum & na do et na tri a se sin, a


{YBL folio 225b2} {Eg folio 67 1b40}
cethair iar sin conid a deich samlaidh et ina
se iarsin conid a se dec samlaidh conid nuimir and-sin
is uille ara bunad tria na coitidhecht n-airme .i. trie
taithmech a lethae i coitidhe. Is cach coititi is rannoigi
et ni gach rannaighe is coitige dano.

Ferindsgi .i. ferrda a n-indsge .i. ferr ina indsge na
mna: no firindsge; no firenindsge; no foirindsge iarsinni
foirius im dula do luga: no uir innsge id est a uiro: no fir
innsge na mna pios indsge ind fir dano.

Panindsge .i. bona indsge .i. indsge maith; no bo
3070] indsge .i. fo indsce in fir bios indsge na mna; no
bannda indsge .i. indsge bannda indsin; no banindsge .i.
firindsge .i. banfir indsin.

Deimindsge .i. deimin indsge; no doeim innsge fuirri
o neoch oile; no do ouma indsge .i. indsge do duine, ar
3075] is duine raidius; no in deime fil and is on brethir is demo,
digbaim, ata; ar rodigbait fuirre in dedha remainn: no
demhoe cech neotar lasin Laitneoir is deime laisin bfilid
nGaoidelach. No deimindsge .i. indsge dembeoaighthi
.i. ni hi hindsge sloinnius do phiu. Deimindsge dano .i.
3080] indsge neotur.

Masgul .i. mo a sgel no a sgoul quam in feimen; no
mascul .i. mas fer & cul coimet: no mascol mo a fis & a
col quam an femen no
onni is masgolínus, mascaldo.
Feimen .i. foimin .i. fo fir; no femin onni is femur,
3085] sliasat, ar as and is ben si intan fognaigther die sliasait:
no feme Grecio, id est uirgo Latina. Der Greco, id est,
filia Latine. Feimder dono .i. ogh ingen; no onní is
femininus .i. feimenda; no feimder dono: no flesgda: no
maothcnesach dicitur onní is femen: femenina .i. bannda,
3090] no banecusgda, no bangnimach, no bangneithech. Neutur
.i. ni fidir cía cinel, uair nach se (no) nach si: no neutur


{YBL folio 225b25} {Eg folio 67 2a28}
onni is neutrum .i. nemnechtarda, nec masgulionum nec
feminionum, nec hoc nec illat: no neumtor ni masgal ni

Cesc, caiti deochair etorra .i. cia hait ata etourra .i.
iter da aoi: no cia hait ita degcorugud etorra .i. iter da ai
nos-deilighther .i. nos-dedualoigther. A tri herlanda
indsge: is e, is i, is ed .i. is he in fer, is i in ben, is ed in

Cesc, .i. cia haisg, onni is sciscor .i. comarcim. A tri
herloind .i. a tri firloind: no a tri erlaind: no a tri
remhsloind. Cuin is urland, cuin is indsge, cuin is
etargairi? Is he isi, issedh: indsci emh intan itberor
nama gan araill imaille fris. Urlond eim antan dobeire
3105] fria araill, ut est is he in feur. Etargaire dono iter feimen
et masgul & neutur: no is etargaire dono intan dechraigi
fria nech aile co n-anmaim a athar sainrud, ut dixit mac

    1. Uinnsi cugut in gillcucan,
      3110] Mac rergoccain,
      Pid gach maith ara cionnccoccan,
      A chendgoccain.

Urland ria n-urland & urland iar n-urland & urland
inand iter da urland nach it inanda. Urland rie n-urland
3115] quidem, iní rie se, no rie sí, no re séudh. Erland ier
n-urland .i. in se, no in si, no in sedh. Urland inand
iter da urlaind nach it inanda .i. in se inand fil in gach
focul, ni herlond is achd reimtsuidugud; no is fri se no
fri sedh. Tri herlonda indsge .i. tri remsloind .i. tri
3120] sloinnti rempa riasna hindsgibh .i. is se, is si, is edh;
achd at urlunda, it indsgi, it etargaire .i. it remtsloinnti
dona foclaip ina ndegaid & indsge feimin masgal &
neuotur tig ina ndeoigh eitirdeiligthi treotha. Ata dono
dedha in gach indsge .i. aiccenta & ealadha. Feirindsge
3125] aigenta, is he in fer; feirindsge tsaorda, is he in nemh:


{YBL folio 225b48} {Eg folio 67 2b17}
banindsgi aigenta, is i in ben: bainindsgi tsaorda, is i
in cloch. Deimindsgi tsaorda, is ed in cend. Deimindsgi
aigenta, is ed in nemh. Aigned caom and & aigned
n-eitig {YBL folio 226a1}. Aiccned caom cetumus: is i sron no suil
3130] na mna. Aiccned n-eitigh: is e (no is i) fiacail no bel na
mna et cail gotha fodera sin et ni ni achd nemhgnathugud,
amal atat na focuil perla nat-aithgeunam, ni bind lind
uair nis-gnathoigim; ar ni bind la nech ni nach
gnathoigend. No in deime fil and, is oni is demo ita, ar
3135] rodipad fuirre in dedha remaind: no deme cech neutur
lasin bfilid nGaidelach. Deimhindsge .i. indsge neutur
Insge tra sgieinsia a bunud Laitne. Sgothecna a airpert.
In inniscoi a hinne .i. coi conair, conair indiste neich:
conair .i. gan fher no gan ar. Insge tra intan ismberar
3140] se nama cen araill imalle fris, ut Priscianus dixit: Oracio
est ordinacio congruam dixionim profectarum scentenciarum
demonstrans .i. ata ind indsge ina hordugud comimairccide
na n-epert foillsigius in cheill foirpti. Cesc, cuin imaricc iter
ind indsge .i. an foghar et in duil dia n-indisin .i. an diail,
3145] et is he sin an red fomamoighti .i. comaircim. Cuin is
eimh irrochtain suad iter in indsge agus in duil dia n-indisi?
Ni ansa. Antan fedhair a hindsge coir fuirre .i. ni himairccide
immorro itir etourra intan fedhair indsge for araile
.i. ferindsge for banindsge, no banindsge for ferindsge,
3150] no deimindsge for cechtar n-ae. Imaric .i. imaric .i.
eim airechtain a n-ai .i. iter in indsge & in duil. Duil
.i. diail: fedair .i. athtairgither: no fedhair .i. fiadhair
.i. aisneter indsge coir, ut est:—
    1. Samail a dealpha, gan cleith,
      3155] Elpa ingine Fidaidh,
      Fri gour grene glaine ar gurt,
      Is fris tsamhlaim a caomhcucht.


{YBL folio 226a25}{Eg folio 68 1a5}

Ni himaircide .i. ni heim aireachta iter i n-ai .i. iter in
indsge & in duil .i. indisi oile fair achd indisi coir. Fedhair
3160] eim ferindsge for banindsge antan adberar, is he in
banmac-sa, ut dicitur:—

    1. Die mad meisi in banmacam,
      Ni cechraind nach fealmacan:
      Fer nat-finntar go gcloinnter,
      3165] Slanceill cein dib, a muinter.

Fedhair eim banindsge for ferindsge intan isberar ‘is i
in gobur,’ ut dixit:—

    1. Is i in gopar tan is each,
      is he in gabar cid meglech,
      3170] Is i in corr cid reil nus-reill,
      is he in menntan gid banen.

Fedhair dano deimindsge for ferindsge no four banindsge
intan isberar ‘iss ed in cend,’ sech is cend fir
no mna. Deimhindsge for ferindsge quidem, ut est:—

    1. Is e in daigh dergdighe dath
      Fris nach gapar cath no cioth;
      Iss ed cend is caoime cruth
      Fil go mbrath for braoine in bith.

Deimindsge for banindsge, ut dixit:—

    1. Cend mna romandair mo modh,
      Don-farraid duin, ni deilm ndil;
      Is ed cend is grainde ind sin
      Do neoch fil for muin fo nim.

Ferindsge for banindsge, ut dixit Colum Cille fri
3185] hinccin Aodha mic Gaphrain:—

    1. Alaind damna marphain bain
      Doching tar airther in lair,
      Mac marph et ua aroile,
      Is mairg recfus dia aire


{YBL folio 226a42}{Eg folio 68 1a26}

Fedair eimh ferindsge et banindsge for demindsge
intan isberar, ‘is i an cloch, is he an lia,’ ut est hicc:—

    1. Is e in lia, lith rolas,
      Iar srethaib suadh in senchas;
      Is ed ounn iar n-aiccned ail,
      3195] Is i an cloch iar saordataid.
    2. Ait a n-abar deime donn,
      For founn feimin fichtibh cland,
      Ni cheil in fer a n-aigned n-oll,
      Iss ed inond in ingne and

Ata tra amlaid sin {YBL folio 226b1} aigned et saordatu in gach
indsge, ar atae da modh laparda fil and .i. mod aigenta et
modh saorda. Atat dano ceithri fodla for tsaordataid
deichfer raindi, & tugait mbindiusa, & cuimre raid, & iolugud
laparda. Deichfer rainde cetumus amal rogaph, is he an
3205] banmac so .i. don roind oighi fil isinn ingin is ainm:
Tuccait mbindiusa amal ata, is i in gobar et d'eoch ban
is ainm .i. goour, solus isin mBretnus, go dtug an file
b fris ar tucait mbindiusa: Iolugud laparda amal ata, iss ed
in cend, sech is liaiti a n-irlapra: Cuimri raid amal ata,
3210] rusg ime & criathar arba & leastar uisgie, ar robad eimilt
rusg im imb & criathar im arpar & lestur im uisgi do rada.
Gabar intan is trie ailm quaisi caper is ed rotruailled and;
gobar tria onn .i. don eoch is nomen son & is Combrec. Rotruailled
goor, cach solus, a suidhe unde dicitur gobar donn
3215] eoch giuol. Cidh nach dath oile bes fair, is in ech die mbe
bec do giul and is gobar a nomen, ar is asan dath
is airechdam bes and nominatur. Rotuill an file
Gaoidelach b fair no and, ar rob aille leo gobar quam
goour unndi dicitur gobar nominatur.

Atad dono indsge and ata coitcend iter ferindsce & banindsge,
ut est Flann no Cellach no Buodach. Phidh dono


{YBL folio 226b17} {Eg folio 68 2a11}
indsgi qumusda isin Gaidilc amal bis an cenel cumassu
Laitin, ut est in menntan et an truid & in coirr,
ut dicitur:—

Is he in minntan cid boinend, cid firend.
Mad iar n-aigned coir immorro na ndula ni hainm
ferindsge na banindsge achd do neoch dofuisim .i. fer,
& o dtuismer .i. beun & ba deime chena aiccned na ndul
uili archena.

Atat dano da ernail for tuismiud .i. tuismiud saorda &
tuismiud aigenta. Tuismiud saorda cetomus .i. fer o
toalmain & luibi ar is ní don talmain fein an fer, ut est
espa in talman muna tuismed clanda & pa deime chena .i.
pa sloind neutur int uile aiccenta ar chena, ut est Pompeus
3235] dixit: Omnium rerum uocabaloum aut corparailium aut
sexu naturaliter carencium per arteim
Graciam esse asgribimus, hoc est ne utrum .i.e. nec masgolinum
nec feimininum, ut est (?) haec iusticia, haec ueritas.
Consinsius dicit: Quiquit per naturam sexsus non assingnat
3240] neutrum habere oportet set ars qui uoluit gignere seu liquenda
seu dicenda asgribsit .i. iar saordataid. Cid inní is aiccenta
raiter suond? Ni ansa. Foillsiugisgtair go n-apair:
Natura quae motatur per tempera nec uairitatur nec
separabitur et natura non est quiquid motatur et non sdaire
3245] uidetur et quaecumque extrinsecus accidundur sed quae
constant in sé, ud sdabilitas in terra, gurbitas in lapedebus,
umeditas in aqua, claritas in aere, calar in ingne.
Doepenar dano deimindsge a ferindsge no a banindsge.
Doeipenar dono ferindsge & banindsge a deimindsge amal
3250] ata isnahaib reimendouiph & it iat sin na deime teibidi
& na lanomna deime & a ngeine-sidhe. It e andso
deismerachta in deime teiphighe isnahaibh reimendaibh .i.
cend & cride fulaing a deime deiphide a ndetbir diplinaib.


{YBL folio 226b43} {Eg folio 68 2a41}
Lanamna in cind suil & fiecail: lanamna an cride sreband
3255] & cru: lanamna in fulaing lurcca & troig: geine dono ina
lanamna deime: gene na sul .i. abrachtur & malo; gene na
fiecal bun & leithe: geine int srephaind tanoigecht & dath
.i. baine et glaisi: geine in cride tigi & dath beos .i. ruade
& deirge {YBL folio 227a1}.

Secht n-etargairi tra docuisnet .i. disgnaigter .i. in
grad conneilg lasin Laitneoir, etargaire a ainm lasin
pfilid. Etargairi incuisg i persoind. Etargaire incuisg
persainde. Etargairi persainde a ngnimh. Etargaire
persainde i gceussad .i. caisacht antan is maith, ciacht intan
3265] is oulc. Etargaire derrsgaigti a nderrsgugud .i. poisit,
comparait, & superlait laisin Laitneoir. Fothugud et fourran
et fourmoulad lasin bfilid. Maith et ferr et ferrsoun, lasin
nGaidel. Etargairi meiti a meudugud .i. mor et moo et
moosoun. Etargoire lugaidhe a lugugud .i. pec et luga
3270] et lugasoun. Etargoire incoisg persainde .i. me budein,
tu budein25 se budein, sib budein, sinde budeisin,
siphsi badeisin, siadsum padeisin. Sechta .i. seiptim a
bunad Laitne. Secht n-ai a inde no sechtai, is soigti
dia mbe a n-eolus, is saigti dia mbe a n-aineolus.
3275] Etargaire .i. isin etechtu ita .i. isin sechtmad ernail in
Uraicioptou: no isin sechta ita in conndelc .i. in
caindeiliugud, ut est: Pars pro toto et totom pro pairte
.i. in rand tar eis na toiti et in toit tar eis na rainde.
Etargaire .i. eitercoraigti .i. eiterdeiffrigti: no etargaire
3280] .i. eiterdeiligti a treidiph: no etargaire .i. gair guth .i.
etergnougud in gotha andsin: no etergleithi .i. gleas
etarro: no etargaire .i. edargleodh iar ngleodh a fesa
etorra: in gradh onni is gradus .i. ceim. Coindelg .i.
caindeiligti: no comdheiligte ar in gcoindeilg uile, ut
3285] est: Pars pro toto et totum pro parte. Cid ar nach treide
lasin Laitneoir in coindeilg amal is tredi lasin phfilid in


{YBL folio 227a24} {Eg folio 68 1b27}
etargoire? Is treidi eim lasin bfilid .i. mét et inde &
incosg; et adbeurait aroile fouirend and nach bfil acht
deidhe nama agan Laitneoir .i. inde et met et bonus et
3290] malus, is i in inde. Is edh a inde immorro lasin nGaidel
.i. maith & olc
Magnus et paruus, is i an mét .i. mour
et bec .i. is mor lais-sium in bec i gcondeilg neich is lugha.

Incousg immorro icon pfilid ni conndelg side lasin
Laitneoir acht pronomen & dopriathar. Cid fodera dossum
3295] a radh a ngrad conndeilge lasin Laitneoir, is etargaire a
ainm lasin bfilid? Ar ni filit acht tri graid conndeilge
agin Laitneoir, & atat secht n-etargaire icon pfilid. Ni
da cudruomugud eim dosum ani adbersiom sin acht is
fior a mbeith amlaidh. Is ed sin ata etargoire lasin
3300] filid is conndelg lasin Laitneoir .i. etargaire derrsgaighti a
nderrsgugud, ar ni gach etargaire is grad conndeilgi acht
etargaire derrsgoigti a nderrsgugud. Is cach grad
conndeilge is eutargaire, no ar ni leithe conndelg oldas

File .i. fel sai no fial sai: no file onni is filososubus .i.
fe feallsoum, ar dlegar don filid feallsamhnacht aigi: no file
.i. fi ani aorus, & li anni molus: no file .i. it fele ai, ar
dlegar de ar is ed nodus-saora, feile dano indracus nos-ditne
an file & r la: no file a flectendis carminibus: no file .i. fel sai,
3310] sai fhoglama, amal ata felmac: no file .i. fi a oumna & li a
danu fair: no file .i. fial do aei: no file .i. fi oulc & li maith
.i. moulad & aorad. Cubhaidh cia fhasus deisidhe ainm
in fhilid dia fhognat.

Cid ar mad conelcc las-sium in poisit, uair nocha
3315] derrsgugud do ní? Ni ansa. Ar o is i is foutha & ata
derrsgugud dhi, ut dicitur airim frie hunair, {YBL folio 227b1} ut est:
Unus non est numerus set fundamentum numeri .i. nocha
nfuil int aonni conid airim acht ata conid fotha airme; &


{YBL folio 227b3} {Eg folio 68 2b15}
amal ata deach icon bfilidh .i. dialt, ni deach side(n) fodheisin
3320] cid la deachaiph atrimther. Et tria tsaordatait ind sin
.i. int alt aigenta immorro do posit: posit a positus .i.
suidhiugte. Cid ar mad ainm compariti doberitsim arin
gcoindeilcc uile? Ni ansa. Posit cetumus: ni dersgaig
do ni. Comparit immorro seoch derrsgaigid do neoch &
3325] derrsgaigther di. Superlait immorro ni derrsgaigther di
conid airisin is ainm foriata in conndelg uile. Atberat
araile foirend connach dersgaighther do comparit acht do
posit derrsgaigit araon .i. comparit et superlait. Bec brab-beirius
comparit, mor brab-beirius superlait.

Caiti conndelg cheille cen soun? bonus, melior, optimus.
Coindelg suoin cen cheill, ut est: Uirgilus, Uirglior,
Uirglisiumus no-rad frie sin arai tsouin & ni bfuil connelg
arai cheille and, ar ni conndelgter anmanda dilsi do gres,
acht is cruthugud frie fousgadh andsin. Coindelg souin
3335] gan cheill bonus, bonior, bonimus nobiad sin iar soun et ni
bfuil iar gceill. Coindelg suin & ceilli imalle, amal ata
fortis, fortior, fortissimus, & is hi sin in connelg techta.
Coindealg tsoin & ceille imalle .i. magnus, magior, maximus
& rlo. Pid dano maith & ni bi derrsgugud di, ut bounus
3340] Deus, fó Die . Bid dano conealg and et
ni dia hinne fein dersgaigius, ut est: Mairie Pounticum
duilsius est quam setera mairia .i. is somillsi an muir
Ponteca oldat na maire oile olchena; & ni hiarsani badis
somillsi acht is luga a serbiu. Conndelg cotursna andsin
3345] don indsi dono.

Etargaire inchouisg i persainde cetumus .i. uindsi
uindsie oundar: uindse no sonnse .i. uainse no
sonnse: uinnsi .i. uainsi no suinnsi: ondar .i. ander .i.
aund a fir isin nem, id est Deus. Uindsie .i. an fer:
3350] uindsi an ben: oundaur .i. in dem.


{YBL folio 227b31} {Eg folio 69 1a5}
Etargaire incouisg persainde .i. me budein, tu budein,
se budein & rlo, amal adubramar romhaind. Etargaire persainde
a ngnimh: dorignes, dorignis, dorigne; dorigensum
dorighensat, dorigheunsait. Etargaire persainde i ceussad
3355] .i. a foditen dia n-echtair .i. nom-cartar-sa, not-carthar-si,
carthar-sim; non-cartar-ne, nobar-carthar-si, carthar-sim.

Etargoire deurrsgaighti a ndersgugud .i. fouthugud in
cetna graidh .i. poisit: forran .i. forrain fair in gradh tanaisi
.i. comparit: fourmoulad .i. formfuilled fair in treas gradh
3360] .i. formoulad .i. molad for molad reimhtechtach .i. brabh
for in mbrabh toisiuch .i. superlait i maith et ferr et
feurrsoun laisin nGaoidel coithcend i bfecmais in filed
Fouthugud, immorro, & forran, & fourmolad lasidhe. Etargaire
meide a meudugud .i. mour & mouo & moosoun: &
3365] etargaire lugaiti a lugugadh .i. bec & lugha & lughasoun.
Atberait araile ni bfuilit acht cuig etargoire and, ar is aon-etargaire
leo na tri hernaile deighencha .i. edargoire méte
& lugaide occus eutargaire dersgaigti a nderrsgugud. Cie
adberadsim eutargaire mete a metugud & eutargaire
3370] lugaite a lugugad is ionand {YBL folio 228a1} et etargaire dersgaigti
a ndersgugud26, ar is derrsgugud in meud et in
laighet fil inntip beuos.

Etargnougud beurla et ni ar cheana, ar roghaphar
na da perla lxx. ina fecmais fir don foirind ceachtar sic.
3375] Gaidelcc .i. guth ealg .i. guth irdercaigti. Elg .i. Eire
.i. guth Eirennuch andsin .i. berla is gnath i nEirinn
dano. Ní certtuirem na gcinedh ar ni phfilet do reir inn
ugdardais. Secht bfeudhu oiredha filet and fo aisti an
Gregaid .i. ebo et oir suas. Itberat araile co mad aonleapar
3380] int Uraicipt uile. Is iat adber sin an lucht-sa anuas
dono .i. ua Bruic cona tseitchib. Atbeurat dano in
lucht-sa sis is liophair imda .i. hua Coirill & ua Coindi


{YBL folio 228a11} {Eg folio 69 1a36}
et na maithi ar cheana. Do thoit na h-aipgitrech dobeir
frecra sound et ni da hurbernadh .i. is fairre uile liess da
3385] eurndail do beith fuoirre. Da erndail .i. da fir n-aile,
uocales et consanantes. Madh fo athargab beus ni27
con fil isin coipdi, iss ed bid foullus as sin go mbetis and
guthaige na turgbadis per se & na tagendais sillaib per se.
Go heiccintech is coir a beith .i. connahi quidim. Atber
3390] ua Bruic is dobriathar. Adber ou Find immorro is comacomal
& ag frecru o da-n-imorr o fil ag clusail na nuimre
primo frecrus. Atat tri heurnaile for fuirmed foucal.
Patronoimic is leithe a fuirmed quam a innde ar ni hebertai
do reir a inde acht risin patronomic dogentai a patre
3395] & aderar riu uile cid a patribus uel a matribus beit. Lapis
dicitur eo quod leidit peidim is cumga a fuirmed quidim
deiside quam a inde. Robad dir deiside lapis do rada fri
gach ni tarraigther cois.

Bonus is comforlethan a fuirmed et a inde, ar ni habar
3400] bonus acht bail a mbi cail bonitatis. Laitneoir .i. lethan
foires .i. ara leithe fouirius cech ni a nLaitin: no Laitneoir
.i. ar feuphus a treorach isin Laitin. Ni lanceurt dochoidh
in Gaoidel i ssund ac deunam muiti dona taophomnaibh
ar in fath sin .i. ar a tosach do airisim occa & an dered
3405] do chur uada, sic est in beithi-luis, ar robdis muiti uile
na feudha ar in bfath sin no ceudna. Ar is ed fil doip-side
tosach a n-anmando do airisim ag nech do deunam
foucail et a nderedh do chur uadha, amal ata ailm .i. a &
onn o & araill and dano die ndenait muiti dona taoboumnaiph
3410] agon Gaidel i dtossach do airisim aicce. Robtis muiti
uile litri na haipgitre Ephraide & Gregda, ar is toiseach a
n-anmand-side do airisim ag nech et an deired do chur uad,
ut est alebh .i. a agconn Ephraide, alpa .i. a icon


{YBL folio 228a39} {Eg folio 69 1b27}
agcon Gregda, ailm agcon Gaoidel. Is amlaidh sin atat
3415] na tri haipgitri .i. i dtusach do airisim ag nech & an
deredh do cur uad. Is ar seichim Gregda immorro
& Ebraide bud couir don Gaoidel int ord dorinne et ni
arai comdis muiti iar mbrigh na dtaobomna uile, sic
nach dat muiti ag Ephradaiph & ag Gregaip na consaini
3420] uile cid i dtousach do airisim leo. Ma do reir immorro
na sgrephtra naibe & ughdair in leighind is i
in aipgitir Ephraide is bunad don aipgitir Gregda
& Laitianda & don bethe-luis-nion a n-ogaim cen co n-indisit
ugdair in leighind, ut est aleb isinn Eabhra, alpa uadha-side
3425] isin Greic, a isin Laitin, ailm isin Gaoidilc
ogaim. Inscie tra dano inde in focail is indsge, {YBL folio 228b1}
ar is ind sgie fil iar gcomtach isinni is a sciensia, an ecna,
i n-aendefoghair. Ni ceart dochuaid in Gaidel i sund .i.
tiachtain dó o aipgitir co hindsge cen taithmech sillaibi
3430] no-eperta rempe, ar is tousacha iat quam innsge. Femin
& reliqua .i. foimin .i. mion an ben i n-athfegad in fir: no
fo an bfer bis an ben. Mion foir deisidhe an ben. Deithpir
raindi (.i. idir da raind .i. ingen & mac) is he in banmac-sa
d'airighti go ttugad as sin co nderna fermac co rannda
3435] de a ndeipir iter in mbanmac & in fermac28. Is he
deismeracht na hetargaire i ssunda iarsin deuda remaind .i.
irland & indsge .i. taithmech deidhe and for aird .i.
taithmeth masgail & feimin do neoch dofuisim et o
ttuismither .i. a tuismiud and o mnai et ata tuismiud di
3440] .i. in modh ar a tuismed si budein o neuch oile & dano an
modh o dtuismend-si cloind uaithi pudein na triau & rlo.
Iss iarmo si tucc erchoiliud aiccenta hic. Ar tanic
taithmech aigenta reime, quando dixit .i. tuismiud saorda
& tiusmiudh aigenta ideo dorad ercoiliud aigenta ar
3445] aird hic.

Incusg et innde et méud is amlaidh so is treidhe in


{YBL folio 228b15} {Eg folio 69 2a17}
sechta remaind. Ina hetargaire incoisg persainde uile
ig gabail fo incousg, oir is incosg fil inntib uile. Etargaire
derrsgaighti i nderrsgugud ag gapail fo inde iter poisit &
3450] comparit & superlait. Etargaire meidi a meudugud &
etargaire lugaite i lughugud ig gaphail fo mét dip lionaibh.
Conid hamlaid sin is treidhe in sechta remhaind. Adberat
aroile immorro is deda dip lionaibh. Is amhlaid so beus
oun .i. eutargaire dersgaighti a nderrsguccud ic gaphail fo
3455] indi, sicut dixit prius. Etargoire meidi a mheudugud &
etargaire lugaite a lugugud ic gapail beos fo meud, is
amlaid sin feughthar so conid deudo.

Caiti deochur ider is e & uindsi? Ni ansa. Uindsie
cetomus: sloindedh persainde saindredaige indsin .i. uatuaslaictech,
3460] ut dixit: Dicitur uindse uait in fer saindredach
cona anmaim, ut dixit poeata:—

    1. Uinnsi cugat in gillccuccan
      Mac rerccuccain(.i. Lonain)
      Bith gach maith agat ar a cindguccan(.i. long brab iffin)
      3465] A ceundgagain(.i. a Chind Geuccan).

Sloinded coitchend immorro amal ata se in fer et ni feus cia
saindredach acht is fer tantum, sic uindsie & si & oundar
& sed. Cidh fodera in irland conid indsge & conid
edargaire .i. intan is indsge is ag sloindedh indsge a
3480] haonur bioss, et itberat araile is e in fer, uair is remtsloindedh
i ssuidiu. Is and is etargaire intan isbeurar

Sloinded cenil amal ata etargaire ioncoisg i persaind
.i. issin persaind fein ita a hincousg co n-aithnigther trit
3475] icc slouinded ceutpersainde, et persainde tanuise .i. triena
n-ioncosg doip budeine & tre persainde amal atat na
hetargaire aile. Cidh ar narbo lor lais-sium a n-etargaire
incoisg persainde a rad me nama con n-abair me budein?
Ni lor eim, uair is deimnigte et is deiligte eimh rie cach


{YBL folio 228b41} {Eg folio 69 2b11}
persaind a rad me budein, ut dicitur an pronomine egomet
ipsi. Nam ego feci et non alius cum dicitur egomet .i. is
me budein & ni nech aile intan isberar egomit. Quiquid
iterator infirmas fiat .i. biaid gurab deimnigthi cach
ni athraigther.

Fogaphar dano comparit cen posit amal ata: Dulcis est
mare Ponticum quam setera mairia .i. is somillsi an muir
Pountiogda oldtait na muire oile ar cheuna & ni hiarsiní
batis somillsi acht is lugam a serbi. Coindealg in edtachtau
son. Coindealg n-edteuchta in ceudna hernail {YBL folio 229a1}
3490] ind Airraiceptau .i. fors ferr anfios: etoechta sin ar ni
maith ind anbfios.

Finis don ceudliophar.

[An dara leaphar]

Incipit leaphar Feircheirtne sundo.

Log do Emhain
: & aimser do aimser Concapair meic Neusa.
Persa do Ferchertne file. A tuccait dono do breith
3495] aossa faind for seis.

    1. Duiphithir daol dath a berrda
      Ge raga co ngeog na craunn,
      Caisithir casnaide a chul,
      Glaisithir sul frie bugha mor.

D:: b:. r. d. t. h: br. t. sc: th: tt: br:: n:: rbr
t. n. f. c:: b. c. n:: cusnt:: rb:. r. t. s:. u::: ds:: n.
gl:. cc. c. r:: ch:: mu. rt.

Sechtau frise toimsighther Gaidelc .i. fidh & deach, reim
et forpaid, alt & indsge et etargoire. Seuctu .i. seiptim
3505] a bunad Laitne: secht n-ai a inde: no sechtui i n-ai.
Secht do aiph domiter and .i. secht n-aisti na filidechta


{YBL folio 229a15} {Eg folio 69 2b40} & vii mbrousnacha na bairdne: no ais soigti die mbe
a n-eolus & rl.

A airbert .i. a airiom .i. vii primeillgi na filidechta
3510] .i. vii mbrosnacha na bairdne: no secht ndeichit na filidechta
i nd-ecmais dialta, ar ni bfuil in sechta andsin
is aire rofagpar.

Coitcend et dilius, ruidlius & indlius, connagar don
focul is sechta. Coitcend do cach uile airem sechta
3515] frisand-euprad. Dilius do vii ndiuitip na filidechta.
Ruidlius don cetairm vii frisand-euphradh .i. fri vii laithib
na sechtmaine. Indlios a thapairt for airem aile acht
four a vii.

Tomus, id est mensura, a bunad Laitne .i. tomeus a
3520] inde: no tomess .i. to teunga a airbert & meus aire fein:
no cudrumad a airpert .i. meus dognither o theungaid. Is
fisid an gne no in cinel in tomus. Is ceinel eimh. Cait
eat a ngnee? Ni ansa. Tomus filidechta et toumus
bairdne & tomhus prosta .i. a breith frie seachda cach ae
3525] diph. Caiti ruidhlius & dilius, coitchend et indlius i tomus?
Ni ansa. Ruidlius do filidecht a preith re sechta. Dilius
do bairdne a tomus re cluais et coir n-anala. Coitceund
indlius do prois .i. coitchend o dialt imach. Indlius
do sidein, ar ni fil alt aund.

Cindus aithfeugthar in foucul is sechta fri vii laithibh
na sechtmaine? Ni ansa. Grian mar Doumnach .i. fiodh.
Eusga mar Luan .i. deach. Mars mar Mairt .i. reim.
Meurcuir mar Ceudaoin .i. fourpaid. Ioib mar Dardaoin
.i. alt. Uenir mar Aoine .i. indsge. Satarn mar Satharn
3535] .i. eutargaire. Conid amhlaidh sin cuirter na vii n-airdrenda
& vii n-aiste na filidechtu & vii la na sechtmaine
fri comuaim n-uad, a tri a ndialt, 's a tri a reucomarc, & a
haon a n-iargcomarc.

Gaidelc. i. guth Elg .i. Ealg Eire .i. guth Eirennach .i.


{YBL folio 229a40} {Eg folio 70a29}
berla Eirenn: no Gaidelcc .i. ealg oirderc .i. Gaaidel
rus-oirrdercaich, ar ni duthcha do reir an indaithmige sin
ina do cach ni dooirdhercaigh Gaidel. In gach Gaidilc
tomustar re sechta.

Is edh eim a secht dialt & cid edh oun touimsighter iar
3545] saordataid, uair adcodar a chondail amal ata fe-fri-er, & ni
gach sechta domiter and, ar is aonseachta fil aund.
Connaghar dono a secht fo tsecht. A sechta .i. punad
& inde & airbert, coitchend & dilius & ruidhlius & indlius in
gach focul don tsechta {YBL folio 229b1}.

Fid ceutumus .i. fundamentum: uel a funo a bunad
Laitne. Fo eadh a inde isna foclaib. A airbert .i. a
thapairt for v fedhaib fichit inn ogaim: no airbert .i. air
epert .i. eipert aire .i. litir no guthaighi no consaine fair.
Ruidlius, dilius, coitcend, indlius, do feudhaiph. Coitcend
3555] doip uili fedha do radh riu. Ruidlius do feudhaiph
airedhaiph. Dilius do forfedhaiph. Coitchend immorro
dona taobomnaib acht uath. Indlius immorro doip-siden,
ar ni taophomhna itir, ut est: h non est litera sed
nota aspiracionis .i. nochan fuil uath conid litir acht ata
3560] conid not tinfidh. Tinfedh .i. tinugud feudha .i. neimtniugud
feda do radh riu sin uile acht is dilius & indlius &
coitcend daip ouile. Fid na filidechta .i. in ceudna fiodh
airedha phis a bfocul an imfrecra, & an taophomna docuirither
reisin bfiod sin do thapairt ar aird, & go rab inand
3565] fidh oiredha beas a dtaopcuibdiph an raind & a n-imfrecra
na dtarmartcend. Fid in anma prosta in cetna fidh airedha
bis and & in taobomna docuirether reisin fid sin & deuoch
.i. traig i frithindlidhech Laitne. Deach .i. di fuach intan
is dialt: no daghfuach no defuach intan is recomrac: no
3570] is de fuaigther int aircetal .i. coruige ocht sillaoba.
Connagar dono bunadh & inde & airbert, coitchend & dilius
& ruidluis & indlius a ndeach. Punad quidem onni is tectum


{YBL folio 229b21} {Eg folio 70 1b15}
.i. didiu arinní is ditiu in deach do gach round. A
inde immorro daghfuach no defuach. A airbert .i. o dialt
3575] co bricht: no focal aile fair .i. sillab. A inde dono diph
fuaigther intan is sreth. Coitchend doib uile dialt do rad
riu, ar is dialt doformaigh for cach n-ai dibh fri araile.
Dilius iar sun didiu: ruidlius iar ceill & son imale ina
n-anma dilsi budhein do radh fria cach n-ai .i. rechomarc
3580] no iarchomarc & rlo. Indlius do dialt ainm deigh dona vii
ndeachaibh aile do radh fris, ar ni foil alt and, ut dicitur
cenib deach-side fo deisiu is la deachaib atsamaighther.
Deach na filidhechta .i. in lin siollab mbios isin rund.
Deach in anma prosta in lion sillab mbios isin ainm .i. a
3585] fios cie deach do na hocht ndechaib doroich int ainm.

Reim .i. re uama aei a indi antan is filidhecht: no
uaim dognither i reidhe cen comuaim tomuis dligthig
antan is bairnde acht tomhus fri cloais & coir n-anala: no
raidh uaim intan is proiss. Reim dono cém a airbert:
3590] diall no tuisil a bunaidh Laitne: no rem a bunadh >quidem
.i. onni is robamus comsuidigti. Ruidlius do rem d'fidh
for fiodh i filidecht. Dilis do taibrem cethorcubaidh filidechta
& bairdne. Coitqent do rem suin cin cheill & do
rem suin & cheilli imale. Dilis di prois. Indlis do rem
3595] suin nama, uair ni filltir. Cesc, in gne no in cenel in rem?
Is cinel eimh. Caitet a ngne? Ni ansa. Reimh fidliachta,
& rem bairdne, & rem proisi. Da gne immorro for filidhacht
& bairdne .i. rem d'fidh for fidh & taobreimh.
Rem d'fidh for fidh cetamus:

    1. Colum caidh comachtach.
      Sian sleibi slatu seiscind, & rlo.

Taobhreimh amal ata sund:

    1. A Flaind, a luam in gaisce grind
      Co Maistin moill;
      3605] It glana, it gaoth, it gart, no it garg, do rinn, no it grind,
      It laoch, a Flaind.


{YBL folio 229b44}{Eg folio 70 2a2}

Ceithri gne immorro for prois o reim .i. reim suin amal
ata fer, ar is as reimmthar. Rem ceille dano amal ata
Patraic. Ni herecor a reim suin, ar is aondelb for a
3610] ainmnigh & for a ginitil. Reim suin & ceille imale, amal
ata Fland Flaind. Taobreimh prosta me budein, ar is
taobhreim cach ni nach lanreim. Treide ara {YBL folio 230a1} togtar
reim .i. reim as amal ata fer, ar is as reimnighther: reim
ind amal ata fir, ar is ind reimnigther. Reim ind & as
3615] imalle, ut est in fer, ainmnid & inchousg aund imalle.
Reim dano ceim a airbert:

    1. Bellat mathair Niuil neimhnigh
      Do claind Laidin langeimligh,
      Fuair bas a lo greine glain,
      3620] Ceile Feniusa Farsaidh.
    2. Cia taopomna na techt raind?
      i mbeth-luis-nion an ogaim
      On lo rocruta na ceoil
      is guta lasin Laitneoir .i. v consaini.

Connagar dono i ssund bunad & inde & airbert, coitchend
& dilius & ruidlius & indlius. Bunad quidim oní as robamus
amal adrubrumair. Re & uaim a inde. A airbert .i. ceim.
Coitchend dona huilib reimendaiph reim do radh ríu.
Diles a beith a n-uathad. Ruidles a beith a n-ilar;
3630] no diles do reim na bairdne. Ruidles do reim na
filidhechta. Indlius do reim na proisi: no indlius reim
inn uathaigh i n-ilar cen adcodar a ilar. Et forpaid
.i. fair bith for in bfocul no forsin rand .i. forsail & airnin
& dinion disail: no forpaid .i. fourbeoaid intan is forsail:
3635] no forpaid intan is dinion disail: no fair bidh intan is
airnion. Forbaidh .i. foirbeoaidh .i. foirid in mbeo i
dtuigsin ind anma dia dtapharthar in forbaidh no in rand
dia breith re seachta.

Caiti bunad et inde & airbert, coitchend & dilius &


{YBL folio 230a22} {Eg folio 70 2a29}
ruidlius et indlius isin focul is fourbaid? Bunad cetoumus:
oni is accentus .i. formairius, ilgnuisseach. A inde .i. fair
dipad bid foursin bfoucul four fot no cumair .i. airnin,
forsail, dinin disail: no fourpaid a airpert .i. for fhidbaith
dono a airbert. Couitchend dona huilib forpaidhibh
3645] fourpaid do rad riu. Diles a beth for fut no gair. Rudlius
a radh fri fourbaid fordingi. Indlius do fourbaidiph dul a
loag aroile .i. do da forbaid na nguta & do aonforpaid na
gconssaine: no forbaid ilair for forbaid uathaid: no
forpaid fuit four qumair no forbaid cumair for fout: no
3650] indles cen a fuath do sgribend. Forbaid intan is foursail .i.
sail fair no foursail .i. four fuilliud iarsinni foutaighes an
foucal. fourpaid antan is dinion dissail, sech ni nion ni sail
acht is duir: no dinin disail .i. disin difuilliud .i. nemfuilliud.
Forpaid dono fair bid intan is airnion no forbuaidh
3655] intan is airnion. Airnin .i. eirnidh nion: no fourpaid .i. for
fhidhbaid a airbert. Ruidlius do forsail. Dilius do airnin.
Couitchend do dinion disail. Indles do fourpaidip dul a
log araile .i. do da forpaid na nguta & do eunforpaid na
consaine, ar at iat tri fourbaidi docuisin .i. airnion, forsail,
3660] & dinin disail. Airnin arding defidh .i. ding fil and is
teirce feuda fodera .i. di fo diultad co nach fidh acht is
taobomna, ut est ceund no glound. No airnin arin bfoucal
fir-dinggeas a deiredh29 Dinin disail ar gair geipid
.i. di fo diultad co nach nion co nach sail gairdigius in foucal
3665] acht duir, ar is duir (sgribthar) ag ionchousg na fourpaide
sin, ut est feur & leur & gach timourta oulchena. Forsail
for fuot feudair .i. sail fair forin bfoucal dia fot amal ata
bán & lán.

Alt onní is altus: uasal a bunad Laitne: no onní
3670] ailter ina menmain no go feiser cia halt {YBL folio 230b1} airchetail
berar re seachta .i. in nath, no ind anair, in laid, no


{YBL folio 230b1} {Eg folio 70 2b12}
ind emain, in sethrad, in seutrad 30, no in sainemain,
in dian dona dianaiph o sin anonn .i. ota na seacht primaiste
inonn is o deach slouinnter. Alt .i. onni ailter ina menmain.
3675] Alt in anma prousta .i. in re n-aimsire bioss iter
na da tsillaib a inde. Alt go bfeisser a airbert. Connaghar
dono bunad & inde & airbert, coitchend, dilius, ruidlius, indlius
isin bfoucul is ault. Bunad quidim oniss altus, ut diximus.
A inde dano .i. ail fuit no oull ait no ailid. A airpert .i.
3680] aigned saordatad. Coitchend do gach alt, alt do rad ris.
Dilius do ault saorda no da ault bauirdne. Ruidlius da
ault aignid no filidechta. Indlius do dialt, ar ni bi ault
and: no alt aiccenta a n-inad ailt tsaorda no alt saorda a n-inad
ailt aiccenta: no ruidlius & dilius, coitchend et indlius
3685] & rl. Alta ruidlius do ault filidechta .i. aisti. Dilius
immorro do alt bairdne .i. do aisti coitchend, no do
fouclaiph na proisi, & coitchend do gach focul i mbi alt.

Indsge .i. co bfeisser an aisti urdalta, no go bfeisser in
se no in si in aiste beraid re seachta, amal rogaph: is e in
3690] nath, is i an laidh. Indsge an anma prosta .i. firindsge no
banindsge no deimindsge. Connagar dono bunad & inde
& airbert, coitchend & dilius & ruidlius & indlius ind
indsge. Bunad cetamus: oniss ouratio a inde .i. innis coi
.i. coi innisti neich Airbert dono .i. irlapra. Coitchend
3695] do ferindsge & do banindsge & do deimindsge: no
indsge is coitchend do ferindsge & do banindsgi, ut est
Flann no Ceallach: no is couitchend dona huilib
masgal is se. Dilius antan raiter, is si sron no suil
an fir: no is he beul no fiacail na mna. Dilius is se an
3700] fer, is si in beun. Ruidlius intan raiter, is e bel no fiacail
an fir: no ruidlius is se an fer so, cona anmaim saindredaig.
Indlius is e do radha risin gcrand na tuismid
ní ier n-aiccned no intan fedhair indsgi for araile. No
bunad & inde & airrbert, coitchend & dilius & ruidlius &


{YBL folio 230b26} {Eg folio 70 2b45}
indlius. Indsge, sgiencia, a bunad: indis coi a inde:
sgouthecne a airbert.

Ruidlius do indsge aiccenta caom. Dilius do indsge
aiccenta euccaom. Coitchend indiles don indsge saorda.
Indlius ar indilsi. Couitchend ar a gnathugud: &
3710] etargaire .i. co feusair ind aisti eurdalta bera re seachta
.i. in nath debrichta no in trebrichta, an laid ar a chair no
in luipencoussach no in imrind bera re seachta. Etargaire
an anma prosta, is se an fer urdalta no is si an ben
urdaulta. Caiti bunad & inde & airbert, coitchend, dilius
3715] & ruidlius & indlius an etargradiamus .i. foruaslaigthech a
inde .i. euturgnod goutha quia fit gair .i. guth. Airbert .i. a
breith re toumus no re seacht: no eipert aire .i. deiliugud no
de dualugud. Coitchend dona huilib etargairibh etargaire
do rad riu .i. couitchend i n-ord comairme. Dilius a rad
3720] risna seacht n-etargairip tuas: no do etargaire inchoisc
i persain, uair is sloinded persainde sandradaige he.
Ruidlius a rad fri hetargaire deurrsgugud a nderrsgugud,
uair is si frecrus in coindealg: no ruidlius a radh re
hetargaire a tomus no frissna hetargaire iar ndilsi.
3725] Indlius .i. etargaire inchoisg persainde: no a rad fri
heutargaire aile cenmota in sechta tuas do neoch dip
na feo air coindelc. Coitchend indlius immorro dona
heutargairib ar cheuna. Couitchend a n-uord comairme.
Indlius do neoch diph nat frisgair in coindelcc.

Cesc, an gne no in cinel in fidh? Is cenel eimh. Masa
cinel, catet a gnee? Ni ansa. Fiodh saorda & fidh
aigenta. Fidh saorda .i. fidh ind ogaim. Fidh aiccenta
.i. fiodh na coille {YBL folio 231a1}. Fidh in ogaim, an gne no in cinel
e? Is cinel eiccen uair techtaig gne .i. fid airechda et
3735] fourfiod et taobomna, is e sin in cinel cinelach gnethach .i.
an fiod.

Cesc, an gne no an cinel an deach? Is cinel eimh uair


{YBL folio 231a4}
techtaid gnee .i. secht ndeich na filideechta. Is e sin in
cinel gneithech fogapaid ocht n-ernaili na filidechta.
3740] Cesc, an gne no in cinel in reim? Is cinel eim, uair
techtaid gnee .i. da gne filidechta et bairdne .i. reim
d'fiodh four fidh & taopreim lanreim, ut est:
Coulum caid cumachtach & rlo.
Taobreim, ut est:
3745] A Floind, a luam an gaisgid grind.

Ceitheora gnee four proiss o reim .i. reim souin gan
ceill, & reim soin & ceille imalle, & taophreim prosta, & reim
soin nama. Reim suin gan ceill cetumus .i. fer, fir. Reim
suin et ceille imalle .i. Fland Floind. Taophreim prosta
3750] me pudein. Reim suin nama .i. Patroig Patroig. Ni
hairecar a reim souin, ar is aondelph fora ainmniugud &
fora ginitil.

Tri gneithi ara togtar reim ind, & reim aus, & reim ind
& ass imalle. Reim as, amal ata fer, ar is as reimnigther.
3755] Reim ind, amal ata fir, ar is ind a reimniugud. Reim ind
& ass imalle, amail ata in fer .i. ind teit í & ass tét á .i. reim
ind ina dualgus foghair uathaid & reim as ina dualgus
foghair ilair & ind imalle & ina dualgus ceille imalle: no
reim ind .i. Patraic ar ni bfil as iar soun. Reim as .i. fer
3760] fir, ar ni fil ind iar gceill. Reim ind et ass imale .i. Fland
Flaind, ar ata ind iar gceill, & ata ass iar son.

Is e sin in cinel cinelach gneithech ceinelach rocoumad
sound forsna reimendaib. Is e in reim .i. reim Laitne
no Ebra no Grege no Gaoidelce as a fogbad bunad an
3765] focail, uair ni bunad acht cechtar de (no dib) sin.

Cesc, an gne no in ceinel in forpaid? Is cinel eimh,
uair techtaid tri gneithi. Is e sin an cinel foura
dtaurrustar tri gneithe na Gaidelcci. Cesc, in gne no in
cinel int alt? Is cinel eimh, uair atait tri gnee fair .i.
3770] alt saorda & ault aigenta & ault go bfeisser. Ant alt co


{YBL folio 231a27}
bfeisser immorro teuchtaid coig gne & coig cinela. Cesc,
an gne no in cinel ind indsge? Is derp conid cinel tria
chail na tri n-indsge sin & teachta na tri hindsgi. An
cenel deochraigius daoine an domain. Cesc, an gne no
3775] in cenel inn etargaire? Is ceinel eim, uair is diairmhiti
a gneithe. Is e sin in cenel etardeochraigius na huile.

Caiti eisi in tsechta frisa dtoimsigther Gaoidelc? Ni
ansa. Eisi feuda quidim .i. in blog aieoir teipidi gaibius
an fhiodh i n-elluch in focail, ut dixit in file:—

    1. Eisi fedha is freitighe,
      Ferr daiph a aithne ogaibh,
      In blad eieoir theipidhe
      Techtas ind eallach foucail.
Caiti eisi deiich? Ni ansa. An lion no in uaiti tson
3785] n-aonconngbalach ainmnigther o dialt gou briocht cona
n-athgapail diplinaiph. Caiti eisi reime? Ni ansa. An
bruud fillti fourbriste fogarda fil otha ainmniugud in
uataigh co foxlaid an ilair. Caiti eisi forpaide? Ni ansa.
In tormach no in dighbail aimsire airigius aigned a
3790] gcomsinedh fri fogur. Caiti eisi alta? Ni ansa. In toi
tengad fil don filid ag ceimniugud don litir for araile mad
alt saorda, no don tsillaib four araile mad alt aiccenta.
Caiti eisi indsge? Ni ansa. In foulud firen foirbthe
feudhair isna trib cenelaiph. Caiti eisi etargaire. Ni ansa.
3795] Ant athfeugad meidi inde no inchoisg no eiterdethbere
no etarderrsgaigti rodealph Die iter na duilib. Eisi .i.
go mbeith esse d'ecensia .i. mar roinnius rann & uilidhecht
.i. mar ta crand & a geuga & a cousmailius. Ese cruthoigti
& eisi adbarrda: Iss ed is eisi adbarrda and .i. mac do
3800] geineimain on athair & a cosmailius. Is ed is eisi
cruthoighti and mar ata mac aga foghlaim o oidi no
maigistir; & fiagfraidh int ugdar cie ai is uaisle, eisi
cruthoighthi na eisi adbarda, & ader gu rab {YBL folio 231b1} uaisli


{YBL folio 231b1}
eisi cruthoighthi: & is he a adpert sin nach bfil acht
3805] damna arna geinemain and no go gcruthoigther he o
fhoglaim, ut dixit Plato.

Cret iat na tri hernaile ata agin Laitneoir frecrus na
secht n-etargaire agon filid? Ni ansa. Coindealg &
pronomen & dobriathar. Secht .i. sechta do aib domiter
3810] and .i. secht n-aisti na filidechta & secht n-aisti na
bairdni domiter isi bfocal is sechta .i. seiptim sin. Punadh
(no capail) deside fri sechta do aibh and ai .i. secht
n-aisneissina na secht n-aisneis (no focul so) anuas in
seacht atat iar n-aisneis isin bfocul is seiptim co fail deiside
3815] in sechta do aib ind ai .i. ind aisneis sic. Breith rie secht
gach ai .i. foucal na filidechta cach ae diph .i. foucal do
breith re secht an seuchtsa anuass do iarair and sic
iarrtoigther i sidea aile .i. a bfoclaibh na bairdne & na
proisi. Ruidlius do filidecht & is aire is mo is ruidlius
3820] do filidecht, ar is innti is moum recar a les imfhrecra
imcupaid. Dligther comardad do beith iar bfeudaiph
airedhaiph, conid aire sin is ruidlius do fhilidecht. Dilius
do bairdne, ar is lugam rig a less comardad imcubaidh
dligther do iarair innti acht conub binn re cluais & co rab
3825] comardad cheudna & in gach Gaidilcc & rl. Is douilig cetus
dialt aontsillaopach do tomus fri sechta. Is amlaidh so
eimh, uair fogabar deiliugud aimserrda cen go bfoghabta
deiliugud folpthaigi. Is amlaid sin toimsigther dialt fri
sechta & ni gach sechta frisa dtoimhiuster Gaoidelc, ar
3830] is fri haontsechta toimsigther hi .i. frisin sechta romaind
.i. fidh & deach sic a bfoclaib ailiph in tsechta. Iarroigter
bunad & inde & airbert, coitchend & ruidlius & dilius & indlius.

    1. Lorc Luocha hEgbric hui Briain,
      Gourt a mbith bouth brat seoil,
      3835] Aide Mide meic don Grein,
      Sidhe na haoine im feil Eoin.


{YBL folio 231b27}

Iarraigther isin rand so soudhcuipdius .i. soad
cuipdiusa, & cretcuipdius & lethcuibdius; & iarraigther
isin deigenouch beous salcuibdis & cretcouibdius, lancuibdius,
3840] iargcuibdius. Coitchend doip uile deich do rad
riu. Dilius iar soun dialt do rad fri gach n-aontsillaib
neamciallaidi, sic est coax & ar a tsuin nemciallaide sin:
no dilius a radh iar bfougar friu uile. Ruidlius iar gceill
& soun imalle .i. gach bfail i mbia deich ciellaidi.

Caiti tomus fri sechta .i. an fiodh touisech biss isin
ruond, & an taobomna toisech do tapairt ar aird; & go
bfeisiur in da taophcupdius an raind .i. go raibe an fhidh
cetna beass a n-imfhrecra na da tarmortchend; & co rab
inand a lion do taophomnaib beus impo; & go bfeiser cia
3850] deach dona hocht ndeachaiph doroich an aisti; & go bfeiser
in taophreim no in reim d'fidh for fiodh; & co bfeisiur
cia forpaid bes a bfoclaip ind imfhrecra; & co feusair ca
halt dona secht n-altaibh an ercetail .i. na filidechta.

Indsge .i. go bfeiser an se no an si an aisti & eutargaire
3855] gne n-aircetail do gne do tomus re sechta, & intan ba
rosgad no tomusti and cibindas notomhusti; ar ni bi
lancubdius no taobcupdius and. Ni ansa. Do foclaib
forbta ainaile rotaisbenad .i. don coicid focal, oir is coic
focail romesad a n-anail in filed. Caiti secht an ochta in
3860] Airraiceptu? Ni ansa. Intan is ocht ndialta i mbricht, is
andsin is secht n-alto and. Caiti in foucal aoncongbaulach,
deconngbalach, treconngbalach? Ainmnigther o
triun {YBL folio 232a1}. Ni rodilssi dó an trian o n-ainmnigther ouldas
in dá trian o nach ainmnigther .i. iargcoumarc, tretsillaebach.
3865] Caitet na da taophoumna gauphus greim guthaige
.i. coull & ruis taur eis a, ut est Cuormac baurd:

    1. Im pa seussach, im pa seung,
      Im ba treusach, turme nglound,
      A Criosd! in congena friom?
      3870] O ti go techt tar forliond lound.


{YBL folio 232a6}
.i. reimtsuidhiugud da tsillab iter da choumuaim fidhraid,
is i sin an lourcc buddein bios uag imfulung an foucail co
auraile et ni louitend couir fiodraid:
    1. Cie leuth cou prath ier gcuairt chruos
      3875] Cusalua mo chouplauch creus:
      Im ba souir no siar, ni suaill,
      Im ba bi-thuaidh nou bu-deus.
‘Lound’ & ‘leuth cou prath iar gcuairt crous,’ a fidhrad
freucuomail sin no gu dtainic dialt n-eitterleime etraiph.
3880] ‘Cia’ iter ‘lound’ & ‘leuth’ an dialt n-eiterleime .i. eiter
deired in roind toisigh & toussach an rouind deighenaigh.
Cesc, caiti toumus fri fiodh .i. caiti iat na feudha frisin
a ndentar an toumus? Ni ansa. Co fesar a lion, a llion
et a n-uaiti et a mét et a loighet, a gcumang & a n-eugcuomaung,
3885] a nert et a n-aimnert.

Is ed a lion .i. cuicc aicme an ogaim et cuiccer ceucha
haicme. A n-uaiti .i. aon .i. aonaicme. A meut (.i. a
toirne, id est nion) .i. coic flesga. Et a laighet .i. aonfleusg,
ut est bethe. Caiti deochair iter a cumang .i. a
3890] feudhaib & a neart .i. a bfedhaib airedhaiph fri suidugud
sillaibe. Ni ansa. Cumoung cetamus: intan dogniat
guth ind-aonaur .i. a no o no u. A nert immorro antan
dusbere fri suidugud a sillaibe, amal ata bethe, ailm, souil;
& luis, ailm, souil. Caiti deochair iter a n-eugcumaung
3895] & a n-aimnert .i. a dtuoboumnaibh fri suidiugud sillaibe.
Ni ansa. Egcumoung cetamus: antan is fo nialus na
guthaige amal ata fidh: no egcumong .i. intan don-occaibh
uath cend douiph. Caiti deochair iter a n-egcumang
& a n-aimnert? Ni ansa. Egcumang cetamus:
3900] intan is fo nialus na nguthaige, amal ata fidh .i. a
taophomnaibh intan don-ouccaiph uath cend doiuph.
Fior eimh, ar ni tuigter na feuda deghenchuo filit isna
defougraibh sin tria na gcantain fo chetoir. Aimnert
ummorro antan bit ag comhsuidightiph cutrouma na ndefougar


{YBL folio 232a33}
isna forfeudhaib, amal ata fer & beun. Cuicc fedho
gaucha haicme & o aon go cuicc cach ai .i. oenfleisc go coic
flesgaibh .i. amal ata bethe 'na haonur & nion 'na cuicciur
doib. Gne aile: Egcumong cetuomus: antan piti fo
nialus, ut est: quoniam, quidem, lasin Laitneoir: no intan
3910] biti tri guthaighe a n-aontsillaib lasin nGaidel, ut est
Briain, gliaid, feoil, beoir. Caiti deochair iter an egcumoung
& an aimhnert? Eccoumong cetomus: intan na
bit comung occai. Aimnert immorro ni berar a comang
uadhaibh auchd ni mor chena i bfarrad na bfidh n-airedha.
3915] Aimhnert immorro intan biti fo consanachd, ut est
seruus uulgus, lasin Laitneoir; ut est iarum, cian & ciar,
uuall & auall lasin nGaidel. Lanchumang inntibh iter
fedhaibh & taophoumnaibh co nd-ouorba uath .i. co
{YBL folio 232b1} ndofir-baidhe, no co n-irdiphand. Cuicc aicme
3920] ougaim & cuiccer gacha haicme cenmotha na forfeudha
& o aon co cuic cach ai .i. o aonfidh co cuicc fedha & o
aonfleisg co coic fleisgaiph co ndod-deilighther .i. is
cain-nus-deiligther triana n-airde .i. trian a n-egcosg & it
e i n-airrde: Desdruim .i. bethe do deis an droma, is e
3925] aithne aicme bethe: Tuathdruim .i. do leth tuaidh an
droma, is e aithne aicmi uath: Tredruim aithne aicmi
muin: Imdruim aithne aiccme ailm adiu & anaull. Aithne
aicme na bforfiodh .i. on rand is mou rohainmnioged .i.
ouna tri feudhaiph & is iat shou anmounda dringtacha
3930] ind ogaim. Is amlaid (sin) imdrichaur ougam .i. amal
imdrengthar crand .i. is amlaid ceimnigther isinn ogam
aumail ceimnigther isin craund & iss ed is crand sound
conair aipgitri ind ogaim. Is hi frem .i. frem na craoiphi
.i. saltrad four frem an crouind ar tus, & do lam dheuss
3935] remhat .i. aiccme bethe, et do lam cleith fo deoigh .i.
aicme uath. Iarsin is leiss .i. uait, & is fris .i. cuccut .i.
aicmi muin, & is trit aicme ailm. Tairis & uime aicme na


{YBL folio 232b15}
bforfiodh. Is amlaid sin deiligter feudha et forfeudha
& taophoumna. Cesc, cid ar a n-eibertar fedha friusidhe
3940] .i. frisna taopoumna amal fida? Ni ansa. Fobith domioter
na taoboumna friu .i. a n-ainm prostu .i. iter fedha
& taopomna & cainfuaigter na foucail dip, ut est luis ailmi
& bethe ailme .i. la & ba. Is he sin in sealpad saorda
cin reim acht reim remraithi .i. do fedhaiph nama. Ita
3945] in comuaim amal ata fidh airedha in lethraind toisigh & in
lethraind deirig i teit in dis fuaigedh in rand. Cesc,
cinnus domither frisna taopoumnaib amal fidha? Ni
ansa. Cach da taopomna ar fidh a cupaid. Is ed a
cupaid iarum cach da coibfid a cubaidh co rabeth a fidh
3950] cetno beus i bfoclaiph ind imfhrecra & corab inand a
llion do taopomnaib, ut est bas & las, frass bras, cend
lend, corn dourn, dounn counn, nem cel. Cid ar a n-aubaur
feudha friusidhe .i. frisna taoboumnaiph? Ni
ansa. Amal iarraigther fidh airedha in anma icca breth re
3955] sechta, sic sin iarroigther in taoboumna bis and .i. isin
bfoucal cauch da taopoumna ar fiodh, ut dicitur:—
    1. Marcach autconndaurc ane,
      Eutach uime co nndath cro,
      A dath at gilithir geiss,
      3960] Uan tuinne dath a da o.
.i. coll & ruis a n-agaid onn: no cro a cubaid fri honn
tantum. Bas lass, lancupaid indsin. Taobcubaid .i.
bras & lass: no is e ant aontugud co n-inandus & int
aontugud cin inandus andsin. Dedha airecor and .i.
3965] aontugud co ndeiliugud amal ata bas & las, & is iar
comardad n-aircetail ata.,uair is inand fidh aireghdha fil
intibh & is inand taobomna deighenoch; sain immorro
taobhomna toisich.

Caite ruidlius & dilus, coitchend & indlius do fedoibh
3970] do tomus friu? Dilius do forfedhoibh. Ruidles do fedhuibh


{YBL folio 232b38}
airedhoibh. Coitchend do taobomna. Inlius do
taobomnaib sic isna foclaibh ailiph in tsechta.

Conagur dono isin aipgitir bunath o aon, & airec o
dedha, & a cor a tredhai, & a comuaim fri ceathardha, & a
3975] comhdluthugh fri cuicthi, a morudh fri sedhai, a foghail a
sechda, a riaghul re hochta, a hincosc a noie, a fastad
a ndeicthi. Is e tra int aon tuas .i. Feinius Farrsaidh,
in dedho mac Etheoir, in tredhath mac Aíngín, in cethruimthe
Cae, in coicidh Aimergin mac Noine meic Nionuail,
3980] an seisidh Fercheirtne {YBL folio 233a1}, in sechtmad a dalta, int
ochtmad Cendfaoladh, an noimad a dalta, an dechmad
Cínaotha, a fostad a n-aon .i. int uachdarach (.i. Fenius) .i.
in trefocul. Iss e so tosach an Airaicepto iar nAimirgin
nGluingeal .i. Aimirgin a fearsa: a n-aimsir mic Miled
3985] arriacht: Tochur Inbir Moir a crich hui nEnechglas
Cualund a loc: & tucaid a denma .i. Ir mac Miled dia
tolugud go heningen amal ata i n-ar ndeoigh.

Ceasc cia rainig in beurla Feine, & cia hairm a
n-airrniocht, & cisi haimsir i rriochd? Iss e immorro
3990] irrainic Feinius Farrsaidh .i. in persa: ogin tour .i. in
loug: in dara deisgiopul sechtmadad na sgoile. Pa do
Ephradaiph a bunadus & ba go hEceptacta rofaoided, fobith
iss and batar a tusdige & pa hand ron-alt. Is and roan
Feinius feissin accan tour no go tdourracht a sgoul cuigi
3995] as gach aird i cionn deich mbliedan iar sgailed oun tour
four gach leth, connaitchend cusin sai .i. gou Feinius berla
na beith ag nech aile douiph asna hilperlaib, achd comad
ouca a n-aonur no beith, no ag nech nofouglainnedh leo
doridisi. Is andsin doreiped doip in berlu-sa asna hilperlaiph
4000] rotaispenadh do aonfer diph, & pa he an fer sin
Gaidel mac Aingin, uair is he is mo darothlaig, no torothlaig,
& is he rob ferr diph conad he a ainm-sidhe fordota


{YBL folio 233a20}
in berla sin, conid Gaidelc deiside o Gaidel mac Aingin
meic Glunfind meic Laimfhind meic Eithiur meic Aghnomain
4005] do Gregaiph. Inand tra Gaidel mac Aingin &
Gaidel mac Eithiuir .i. da ainm patar four a athair .i.
Aingein & Eitheoir. Is andsin iarum doreiped in berlasa
u mba ferr .i. a n-edargna in gach berla, & u mpa caoine .i.
fri turgpail & u mba leithe .i. i gciallugud, iss ed doreiped
4010] insin Gaidilc. Gach soun do na hairrniocht cairechtairi
isna haipgitribh ailibh arnichta cairachtaire leosum
doip isin mbethe-luis-nion an ogaim, ut est {illu225.1}.

It iet sin no huocht litri sechnait in Gaidilc dona haipgitribh
aile. Rolaiti iarum i feudha for leth & a dtaobomna
4015] for leth lasin nGaidel go bfuil cach dip four leth (do)
araile ge nacha cumusg atait agin Gaidel amal atat agin
Laitneoir: cros ar ani is crux Latine is croch agin Gaidel:
grus ni fil a fregra lassin Laitneoir, ut est:—

    1. Aithne dam an lios
      4020] Sech a teit an glas
      Inab imda grus
      An gob imda auss.

Ceitheora randa forfogailti agin tour .i. da deisgiopul
sechtmogat, & da comairlech sechtmogat, da thuaith
4025] sechtmogat, da berla sechtmogat. Is e primthoissech
lasin ndernad an tor .i. Eber mac Saile, & Gregus mac
Gomer otat Gregaig. & Laitin mac Puin otat Latianda, &
Ribath Scout otat Scuit, & Nemruad mac Cuis meic Caim
meic Nai F. F.

Brec dano a rad so .i. Greccus mac Gomer do beith
agin tour, ut est in parabulamb genilogia .i. leapair
geinealaige na nEapraidi .i. ni rabatar acht tri meic ag
Gomer, Aisc, Necus 31, & Rifath a n-anmanda
& Togarma iarsin go rogenair Greccus o n-ainmnigtir


{YBL folio 233a42}
Greicc. Ni raibi immorro ingra .i. ingar {YBL folio 233b1} go mad
mac do Gouimer Grecus, co nnach raipe ic cumdach an
tuir amlaid sin. Coumaimsirad andso sis. Da bliadain
coicat o sgailiud an tuir go flaithius Nion meic Peil, a do
coicait dopoi a righe. Ceithri bliadna dec ar tri fichit ar
4040] secht cetaiph o flaithus Nion co deired flaithiusa
Tutaneis ri an doumain. Is re lind rotoglad an Trai fa
deigh secht mbliadna iarsin co dtug Aenias ingen Laitin
meic Puin, conid deich mbliadna ar ochtmogaid ar oucht
cetaiph o sgailiud an tuir Lauina & Laitin fein dorinne
4045] a caingin fris.

Is follus assin co nnach cert-tiaghait oes ind Uiraicepto
co na bou in sescatmad primhtoisech an tuir. Sgouta
ingen Fouraind ri Eigipti o n-ainmnigtir Scuit et as sou
rofaus .i. Nel mac Feiniusa Farrsaidh fer frichnamhach
4050] he go dtainig asin Sgeithia go magh Seunair mar a
rapatar na teungtha ar na sgailed & dob ail leis do
dtuicced se na teungtha & docuala ri Eigipti Nell do beith
ag sduidir innto. Dotogairm cuige fein he co tecusgad
se na hEigipti fo na tengtha & tug se a ingin fein do .i.
4055] Scouta & onoir romor, conid uaiti ainmigtir Sguit, ut
dixit poeta:

    1. Feine o Feinius atbertai,
      Brig gan douchta,
      Gaidil o Gaidiul Glas garta,
      4060] Sguit o Sgota.32

I mpau ferr & i mba lethe ina cach berla & rlo .i. ferr
leosim a n-etargna a mbith coumdis muiti uile quam a
mbeth comtis lethguta & muiti amal atat agin Laitneoir.
A mba caoine .i. caoime leis a cuig fo fut & a cuig fo lan &
4065] a cuig fo cruaidh .i. fedha airedha andsin. Caoime leosim
dono a cuig fo gair, a cuig fo bugu, a cuig fo deghfogair,
forfedha indsin, quam aon quig fuithibh uile amal ata agin


{YBL folio 233b25} {Eg folio 71 1 a 1}
Laitneoir fo dichronus .i. nemcinnti no nemtsealpad.
Iss ed isbeir in Laitneoir gabait na cuig guthaige an greim
4070] sin uile, ut est: Latini omneis suont uocales producti &
corropti posunt .i. atat na huile guthaige Latianda co
gcaomnagtar & co roectar & co dtimairgter. Leithe i gciallaibh
& a bfouclaib & a leitriph. Leithe i leitriph cetoumus:
{illu227.1}. Ni fil a frecra lasin Laitneoir. Lethe
4075] a bfouclaiph dono .i. grus .i. cluoch & lind: ni fil a frecra
lasin Laitneoir .i. grus & tanouch: gourmaulo lasin
Laitneoir, gruth laisin nGaidel dia frecra, Gourmarium
lasin Laitneoir, gruthrach laisin nGaidel. Grus immorro
laisin nGaidel, ni fil a frecra-sidhe lasin Laitneoir: lapis
4080] lasin Laitneoir clouch lasin nGaidel: peutra laisin,
Laitneoir, ail lasin nGaidel: sdrupala lasin Laitneoir
carrac lasin nGaidel, ound & ailcne, immorro, is iat na
cenela clouch do nach filit a frecarthaich agin Laitneoir.
Lethe dono i bfouclaib & i gciallaib & i litribh in Gaidelc
4085] de sin inas in Laitin. Cid leithi i foclaib, ni lethi i
gciallaib, ar cia beith ilanmanda agin Gaidel ag sloindedh
na ret, tic an ciall reullait sin isinn uathadh foucal fil icon
Laitneoir. Ni fior on amal isber in Laitneoir: Nicienciim
sgieris nomen, cognico rerum perit .i. atbail aithne na reut
4090] muna hetargnaither {YBL folio 234a1} ant ainm. Aqua lasin Laitneoir,
uisgi lasin nGaoidel: aimnis lasin Laitneoir, aphound
lasin nGaidel: pisginai laisin Laitneoir, iechlind lasin
nGaidel: lind immorro lasin nGaidel, ni fil a frecra lasin

Rolaiti iarum a feudha four leith et a thaophoumna
four leth co bfil cach ai diph for leith ou'raile, ar ni bfil
leuthguta and amal nach bfil la Grecca aucht muiti nama.
Gach duil do nach raibe ainmniuccud isna beurlaibh ailiph


{YBL folio 234a7}
arichta a ainmniugud doiph isin Gaidilc, ut est, grus, cluoch,
4100] lind.

.i. an dara sillab deigenach oir is ‘penuilt’ is asnin do
Cidh fuodera penuilt chumair
laasin Laitneoir & ‘uilt’ in sillab degenach .i. o circundas,
asiorcundamas,’ et conat
4105] oir is on persain tanuisi uathaigh cruither in cetpersa
on persaind tanaiste dognither
ilair lasin Laitneoir ar cor ‘mu’ iter a & s na persainde
tanuisi amal ata i ‘circundamus’: oir ‘circunda,’
4110] iteraets’? Ni ansa.
‘circundis,’ ‘circundit,’ poi and ar tus. Neoch ata
Do,’ ‘dis,’ ‘did,’ ropui
cumair rolean in cuimre no coibhiti 33 sin.
Dobai ar ‘circundimus’ i tosach ‘circundamas’
4115] ‘deriamfertar
ina aimsirad & is uime sin ita in penuilt
cuimre etdimusdon
tuas do beith cumair oir dobai si cumair a ‘sircundimus’ .i. is iat
ilur et rolen aims eradh
4120] na tri persanda huathaid: ‘sircundo,’ ‘sirqundas,’
na cuimre sin a cetpersain
‘sirqundad’ & na tri persanda ilair: ‘circundamus,’
ilair tuas, gen gurlen
‘sirqundimus,’ ‘cirqundercimus’ .i.
4125] i litrip, ar ni lenand i fout
nior doluidsi on a qumachtain .i. ar ‘do’ do
acht do aonsillab.
hi fada co nnderna.

Cid foudeura aiccent forin penuillt comair sen .i.
4130] ‘daet nach arcundata? Ni ansa. Ar ata do
met is luigtech in dobriathar issircuimreido


{YBL folio 234a34} {Eg folio 71 1a43}
conna romill uimpi a haimsered nach a haiccent amal na
romill acailirefacio.’ Millidh immorro inrein
suidiugud a rolagat. Is laigtech risin mbreithir.

Is ed ind son tosach ind Uraiciopta iar Feinius & iar
nIar mac Nema & iar nGaidel mac Eitheoir no mac
Aingin. Is iat sin a persanda & aimsir dano an aimsir a
tangadar meic Issrael a hEigipt. Is a nAisia aricht, cia
isberait isa muig tSeunair doriacht. Tuccait a sgriphind
4140] a touthlugud don sgoil moir go Feinius et co hIar mac
Nema & go Gaidel mac Eitheuir a tepidhi doiph ind
Uraiciopta & iar dtiodnacul (in) rechta do Maisi & iar
bfoglaim do Caei Cainbrethach oga, conid airi sin arriachta
na haipgitri a n-aontapaill amal isbeir: cuiteut aipgitri
4145] na dtri primberladh & rla.

Se primtoisigh lasin dernad in tour .i. Eimer mac
Saile, Greccus mac Goimer otat Gregaigh & rlo, amal
adrubrumair romaind. Partalon mac Sdairn {YBL folio 234b1} meic
Seura meic Sru meic Eusru cetnarogaph Eire rie
4150] ndilinn Neimruaid meic Aghnoumain meic Paim meic
Seura meic Sru & rlo.

Cest, caitiat aipgitri na tri primberla iter ainmnighe
agus cairechtairi? Ni ansa eim, aipgitir Ephraide
cetamus andso sios:—

{illu229.1} aleph 34 id est doctrina .i. forcetul.
{illu229.2} beth 35 i.e. domus .i. tech.
{illu229.3} gemel 36 i.e. plenum .i. lan.
{illu229.4} deleth 37 tabalarum .i. clair.
{illu229.5} hee 38 i.e. ista .i. andssou.
4160] {illu229.6} uau 39 i.e. prinncess 40 .i. tigerna.
{illu229.7} sdain 41 hec i.e. is he.
{illu229.8} heth 42 i.e. uita .i. beutha.
{illu229.9} teth 43 i.e. bonum .i. maith.


{YBL folio 234b14} {Eg folio 71 1b30}
{illu230.1} ioth 44 prinncipium .i. tossach.
4165] {illu230.2} cap 45 i.e. manus .i. lamh.
{illu230.4} lamiach 46 sum cordis, disciplina.
{illu230.5} mem 47 i.e. excipsis .i. uaitib.
{illu230.6} nun 48, sempiternum .i. co suthain.
{illu230.7} samet 49, adiutorium .i. furtacht.
4170] ith .i. ri.
{illu230.8} in, fons sum, oculus .i. topur no suil.
{illu230.9} fe, osa ab ore non ab osse 50.
{illu230.10} sade 51 iusticia .i. coir.
{illu230.11} cop 52 uocacio .i. gairm.
4175] {illu230.12} res 53 capites .i. cend.
{illu230.13} sen dentium .i. fiacla.
{illu230.14} tau .i. signa .i. comarda.
Finit disin.

Aipgitir Grecda suonda:—

A alpa (i).
B beta (ii).
{illu230.} gama (iii).
{illu230.} delta (iv).
E ersion (v).
4185] Z steta (vi). 54
H eta (vii).
{illu230.} teta (8).
I iota (ix).
K kapa (x).
4190] L luta (xx).
M imos (xxx).
N oz xl.
{illu230.} csi lx.
II phi [ó] lxx. [{illu230.}] 700.


{YBL folio 234b44} {Eg folio 71 1b37}
Fi [p] lxxx. 3 [sampi] {illu231.1}900.
um [k] lxl us
pro [r] centum us
csima [s'] centum ono55 us
uu [t] tri centum.
4200] [ ] xc.
hi [H] cuic cetus f
psi 3 [sampi] nai cet us
uio [y] seacht cet us
tau [da oo =w] uocht cet.

Finit disin o Domnall ua Aoda & doberim mo secht
mallacht & mallacht Dia doberair air sin di ollomain Ó
Maolchonaire. Is olc in cumain dam cuige so é—
uile raot & is damsa is mo dobeir se cunain (?) aithigh


Aipgitir Laitianda indso. a i.e. prinncipium .i. tossach.
b i.e. iusticia .i. indrucus. c i.e. utilitas .i. tarbdacht.
d i.e.fortitudo .i. nert. e i.e. duailitas .i. eathnadh 56.
f i.e. ueneracio .i. ogmoir 57 g i.e. pietas .i.
trocaire. h i.e. hilaritas .i. subachas. i i.e. regnoum .i.
4215] flaithemnus. k i.e. religio .i. craphachtt i i.e. nobilitais
.i. nertmairecht. m i.e. dignitas .i. diuiti. n i.e.
recongnitio .i. aithne. o i.e. onora (sic) .i. onoir. p i.e.
opsequium .i. umla. q i.e. lux solis .i. griansolustur. r
i.e. pulma 58 .i. fertain. s i.e. dies et nox .i. la &
4220] adaig. t i.e. pax .i. sithchain. u i.e. aqua et ignis .i. uisgi
& teine. x i.e. longa uita .i. betha fota. y i.e. aurum .i.
or. z presiositas .i. loghmaireacht.

Is e in feur cetna tra Fenius Farsaidh (rainic) na
ceitheora haipgitri asrubartamar .i. aipgitir Greccda &
4225] aipgitir Ephraidhe & aipgitir Laitianda & in bethi-luis-nion


{YBL folio 234b30}{Eg folio 71 2a16}
an ogaim & is aire is certi in deigenach ar is fa deoigh
arichta in beithi-luiss-nion an ogaim.
.i. a sgriphend a n-aontapaill a ropatar roimhe uile no
4230] comad he fath arriachta aipgitri ind ogaim & sgribhind
na n-aipgitri oile i nd-aontapaill .i. aipgitir ind ogaim
imalle, ut diximus .i. uair itait .u. forfeuda agin Gaidilcc
& rola a guthaigi for leith a n-urd aipgitri o consanaip,
non sic na haipgitri aile acht a c cumusg atat inntip uocales
4235] & ar ba coiger ar fhichit lion na sgoile is aire
is he lin aipgitri in ogaim & it e an anmanda fordota in
bethi-luis-nion an ogaim, conid uadh rolaiti for leith.
It e in anmanda fordota iarum, ut est {illu232.2}
Asberat araile conid deich feudha airedha filit and & it e
4240] an tri dofhourmaghat frisna vii tuas, uilleand, ifin, emancoull,
conidh aire rolaiti four leith {YBL folio 235a1}. Ismberait araile
co nnach o dainiph itir ainmnigther aipgitir (no fedha) in
ogaim isin Gaidilcc acht o chrandaiph cin cob aithionta
indiugh araile croind diph, ar atat tri hernaile for
4245] crandaiph .i. aire feudha, & aithig fedha, & losa feudha et
uaithibh sin ainmnigter feudha ind ougaim. Aire fedha
quidim: dair, coull, cuillend, aball, uindis, ibor, gius.
Aithig fedha: fern, sail, bethe, lem, sceu, caorthand,
crithouch, droigen, trom, feorus, crand fir, feithlend,
4250] fidhout, fiondcoull. Lousa feudha .i. aitend, fraoch
gilcach, rait, eidhend, driss, spin, leclo .i. luachair & rlo.
Beithi didiu o beithe rohainmnigther ara chousmalius fri
cois an beithi, ut dicitur:

Feochuos foultcain .i. beithi.

& is airi sin is a mbeithe rosgripad in ceutna hainm
ougaim tuccadh a nEirinn .i. secht mbeithe tugtha do
Lug mac Eithlenn .i. bertar do ben fo shecht a


{YBL folio 235a12} {Eg folio 71 2b1}
sidhaiph uait nisi eam custodieris .i. muna coimhéta tu hi.
Et is airi sin beoss sgripthair bethe i dtousach aipgitri ind
4260] ogaim. Luis dono is o crand rohainmnigther .i. o chaorthand
uair luis ainm do chaorthand, isin tseunGaidilcc, ut
dicitur li sula luis .i. caourthand, ar ailleacht dath a
chaor. Fern dono is o crand rohainmnigther .i. fern, ut
dicitur aireunach Fian fern ar is di dogniter na sgeith.
4265] Sail didiu is o chrand rohainmnigther, ut dicitur li ambi
soil .i. nembi soil ara cosmalius a datha fri marph. Nin
dono is o chrand rohainmnigther .i. o uinnsind, ut dicitur
coscrad sidhe nin .i. uindis .i. ar is di na croind gaei
triesa cosgarthar an sith: no costad side uindis .i. nin
4270] giniol garmno dognither do uindis .i. ar isinn aimsir tsidha
togbaither garmna. Huath dano is o chrandrohainmnigther
.i. sge, ut dicitur comdal quan uath, ar is uath mor hi ar a
deilgniph: no is minic la cach comdail ic sgiaigh. Duir
dono is o chrand rohainmnigther .i. dair, ut dicitur airdem
4275] dosaiph dair. Tinne dono is o chrand rohainmnigther .i.
cuilend, ut dicitur trian roith tinne .i. cuilend ar is cuilend
in treus fidh roth in charpaid. Coll dono is o
chrand rohainmnigther .i. coull, ut dicitur cno-car
fer .i. cach ag ithe a cno .i. coull: no ith-car fer: no
4280] cain-car fid. Queirt dono is o chrand rohainmnigther .i.
apall, ut dicitur clithour baisgell .i. eilit. Quiert (.i. cli) .i.
abull, oelit gelt queirt .i. apall. Muin dano is o chrand
rohainmnigther .i. finemain, ut dicitur airden maisi muin
.i. finemain .i. iarsani fasas a n-airdi .i. finemain. Gort
4285] dono eidheand, ut dicitur glasibh geltaip gort .i. eidheand,
Ngedal .i. gilcach nuo raith, ut dicitur luth lego ngedal .i.
gilcach no raith, ar is luth laisna legaib & coibnes iter k &
ng: no miodach ice .i. ar imad a ice no .i. gilcach no
raith. Straif dono .i. droigend, ut dicitur aire sraba
4290] ssdraibh .i. droigend no straif .i. saididh nell .i. a dhe


{YBL folio 235a38}
ssuass. Ruis dono .i. troum, ut dicitur ruamna ruici
ruis .i. trom: no ruamna ruisg .i. teine truim. Ailm
.i. ochtach: no ailm airdeumh iachtadha .i. feth .i.
fe ue, at uath feirrdris: no ailm, id est, quaisi pailm a
4295] palma. Onn .i. aitend, ut dicitur cudnoudh eich .i. aitend no
echlaisg. Ur .i. fraoch, ut dicitur guiremh dal .i. frech.
Edath .i. edh uath .i. crand fir no crithach, ut dicitur
erchra fer fe fe flesg. Idedh .i. iobhar, ut dicitur
sioneim fedha iobair: iobhar .i. eo barr simper. Eba .i.
4300] crithuch, ut est snamchar fer. Oir .i. feoruss no edlend,
ut dicitur tuathmar fidh .i. eithlend, ut dicitur
sruithem aicdhe feorus .i. fiarses. Uilleand .i. eidleand.
ut dicitur tuathmar fid no edleand. Ipin .i. spinan no
spin, ut dicitur millsim fedha pin .i. caor. Emancoll .i.
4305] umda a fedha: no emancoll .i. gabar emancoll ar ach
cia gabar ar aill .i. midiuiti, ut dicitur oud saothaid .i. uch:
no emancholl .i. seim muin caol.

Uch is tinn mo chorp59

{YBL folio 235b1} Anmanda fiodh tra sin uile amal foghaphar isin
4310] Duili Feudha, & is uadaiph ainmnigter feudha in ogaim isin
Gaidilc & nochan o dainip itir ut aili dicunt. Cesc, ciss
lir a cumang? Ni ansa. Lancumang inntib uile iter
fedha & taobomna co nd-ourba huath .i. amal bes a
n-aigned cidh mor cidh bec iat. Is imne innister isin
4315] Cin Oullaman .i. ceithirtsliocht fedhair for fedhaib &
taobhoumnaiph .i. cumang & ecumang lancumang &
lethchumang: cumang a forfeudhaiph, ecgumang a
muitibh, lanchumang a fedhaiph; lethchumang i lethgutaibh.
Itberat araile is tretslicht is coir and .i.
4320] lanqumang a muitibh ar ni bfilet lethguta lasin nGaidel.

Treidhe dogni uath .i. bogad et seimhugud & urdipdad.
Bogad cetamus: for taobomnaib & isna ndiaigh do-ecaiph


{YBL folio 235b12} {Eg folio 72 1a17} doibh .i. do p & do c & do t & do duir & do gourt. Iersin
Laitneoir, immorro, bidh tinfed ar gach taobomna don
4325] Gaidilc & seimiugud for guthaigiph & is rempa do-ecaiph
doiph. Bouccad beithi, sop; boucad cuill, cloch; bogad
tinde, ath; bogad duir, sodh; bogad guirt, magh. Seimugud
dono for taophomnaibh & is rempa do-ecaip doiph.
Seimiugud uatha, Phatraig. Seimhiugud d, dhamsa,
4330] dhuitsi. Seimiugud b, a bheun. Seimiugud c, a cheun.
Seimiugud tinde, a thir. Seimugud g, a ghrad, a oghda.
Seimugud ar gutaibh & is rempu do-ecaiph doibh. Pidh
dano tinfed ar gach taoboumna indsa Gaidilcc.

Boccad b cetamus: amal ata Bhatraig, ar as uath bogas in
4335] b fil and; ar ni bi p lasin nGaidilc. Seimugud uatha amal
ata a Phatraig; ar cia beith uath and, is seime ina a n-aill.
Airdipdad (.i. o rodipad) sail immorro .i. a shail: airdipdad
f, a fhind, a fhir, in fheudha .i. in taobomna do bricht
as do raith, ut est amal no60 cindus domiter frisna
4340] taopoumnaiph amal fidha sic fidhau. Iss ed ropad chert
and acht uath baidhius in fern, conidh airdipdad fil and.

Seimugud immorro amal ata a fher .i. ni tét as air ec &
ni bí lancumang ind. Ar at e teora fuillti in Uiraicepto
.i. uath & forsail & airnin.
Ni ansa. Huath cetumus.
4345] Is ed fuillius b conngaib greim p, ar ni bi p lasin nGaidel.
Caiti a deimniugud? Ni ansa. Amal ata ogin Laitneoir: b
cum aspiracione ponitur pro p .i. samaigther b co tinfed ar
p. Dicunt ali cona bi uath araon re b do log p
acht bi a aonur ar p, ut Presens: buxus pro puxus, ambou
4350] pro ampo .i. b inntib sin ar p, & ni b co tinfed amal
adberait araile.

Forsail dono in fuilled tanaise .i. doberat for in son dia
fattugud, ut est sroun.

Airnin is e in tres fuilled .i. in baile i recar a leuss da


{YBL folio 235b37} {Eg folio 72 1 a 24}
taopoumna gaipid airnin greim in dala n-ai, ut est cend;
ar ni bi eumhnad in ogaim. Teora foilcesta in ogaim
.i. quert, {illu236.1} Is iat sin treidhe is coir do
imchisin isin ogam. Is aire is teora foirmcestu no imcesta
is coir and ut dicunt ailii: ‘Cia haon fid bog blath
4360] morbuan Bis ag ugdar da imluad61, Geiphius
greim fedha is forpai? Is consain is taophomna .i. huath.’

Caiti deochair iter indell & tindell? Ni ansa. Indell
int imcomarc & tindell int ernedh.

Cesc, caiti deochair itir chinnedh & cinntech &
4365] cinntecha son? Ni ansa. Cinnedh a n-aipgitir Gregdo ar
is cinntechem oldas aipgitir Eupra. Cinntecha an aipgitir
Laitianda oldas an aipgitir Grecdu. Cinntechsom in
bethi-luis-nion uair is fa deoig irriachta. Cia haonfoucal
gaibius ar na ceithri hernaile an Airraicepto cin nach
4370] dethbir tomuis na tarmortcind na fedha na focal na
forgnuisi? Ni ansa. In focal is aipgitir Gregda & Ebra,
Laitinitas & ogam. Is e in cethir slicht for fedaibh &
for forfedhaibh .i. fot n-aiccenta {YBL folio 236a1} et fot suidigthe i
bfoclaiph fotaiph .i. i bfedhaiph airedhaiph: gair n-aigenta
4375] & gair suidigthi i bfoclaip gairdiph. Fot n-aicenta quidim
isna forfeudhaiph & gairtsuidigti .i. gairdi iar suidiugud
i bfoclaip iet fecht and & fotaig fecht aile, ut est cain cáin,
laig láig, coir cóir: no amal ata feur eua a fidh in anma
a fhiodh airechda amal rogab i mbrethaibh neimed .i.
4380] cenmotha forfeuda a bfil deghafoghar na nguta.

Cesc, caiti fout et gair inntiph? Ni ansa. Fout i
bfeudaip & a forfeudhaibh & gair i taopoumnaiph .i.
gairtshuudighti ar is lethaimser for thaophoumna do
ghreus .i. a corus forfedh. Asin Cin Ollam touccad in
4385] blog-sa reumaind & ni do chourp ind Uraicepta.

Cesc, caiti fot et gair? Ni ansa. Amal ata nemh, forfedh
fil and. Neim, immorro, fidh airreghdo fil and. Nidat
inonda suoin frisna da chupaid {illu236.2} .i. e co ndefogur


{YBL folio 236a16} {Eg folio 72 2a33}
& e glan uerbi Gracia, ut est, seudu óir & sét conaire,
4390] éua and: no seut .i. lepaid, is eugad icca sgribend-sidhe ar a
cruaidhe. Is an e glain teid, is aire sgripthar eghad and.
Sét an teinid immorro tre eughadh a sgripend. Nemh
im talmain, eua and. Neim nathrach, eghad and 'na
sgriphend. Mind, iphin and. Min immorro, beg, iphin
4395] and. Min arba, immorro, idedh aund, ar deudha ar a
dtuctha forfedha itir isin n-aipgitir in ogaim .i. do fregra
do defoghur amal ata isnahip brethaibh nemed geunmótha
forfedha a bfil defougur na nguta & rlo, & dono do
tseimugud foghair forsna feudhaibh, ar is buigi bis isna
4400] forfeudhaibh. Cruas immorro i bfeudaibh airedhaiph:
forfedha, ut est nem, eua and: naom, immorro, emhancoull
and: nim in uisgi, idedh and: fourfeudha idio
dicuntur .i. foirithnig na fedha im fout, ar is ed ismbert
araile is cuimre foghair fil isna feudhaibh & fot a forfedhaib:
4405] no forfedha .i. firfedha: no forfedhai .i. fidh for fid inntib:
no forfedhai .i. for eudha ar no-sechantais iat: no forna
feudhaiph atat and for ail & ni for a n-aild: no forfeuda
dono it inanda & na defoughair .i. in defoghar fil inntiph,
amal ata peun, & bein dogeuntai de mina beth defoghur
4410] is amlaidh na forfedha. Cionnus on & ebai a fidh in anma
intan isberar fer? Ni cotarsna inní sin arin defougur. Is
cumair sidhe & ni bi fair achd aimser co leth nama anas
mode. Di aimsir dono forsin nguthaige fouta. Cia bat
gairit iarum in defoghar reumain inrathoighti. Ceunmota
4415] dono an fed, connicc comardad fuit & gair inntib
amal itber in Laitneoir: sircumplex four na sillabaib
foutaiph, ut est do, si,& rl.: acuit four na sillabaib cuimribh,
ut est pax & rlo.

Eba .i. eadhad pudhein. Oir .i. ounn iar bfir. Uilleand .i
4420] u uile and. Ipin .i. i budein. Emhancoll .i. emhnad col
a fuath .i. fuat cuoill emnaither and. Atmberat araile


{YBL folio 236a45} {Eg folio 72 1b19}
dono ebad & oir is ar fheudhaibh fotaibh atat: uilleand
immorro is ar y fo meudontaig no is ar ú fo medhontaigh
ita: ipin is ar í fo medhontuig ita: no is pin is coir and
4425] ar p. Emhancoll dono is ar x ata fri foimdin na focal
nGregda no Laitne do thaphairt isin Gaidilc & is aire
raiter emhancoll friss, ar is coll indara taoboumna fil an
x & is {YBL folio 236b1} aire is coll roheumnad and & ni sail ar is
toissecha coll an ix quam sail.

Connaghar dono isin beithi-luis-nin an ogaim caiti
in fidh gaipius greim taoboumna & an fidh ghaiphius
greim da thaoboumna .i. in fidh gaiphius greim foucail
& in fidh na geiph greim taopoumna na fedha na
foucail. Is e in fidh gaiphius greim taopoumna quidem .i.
4435] fidh a ndiaigh araile .i. fidh bis araon re primfidh a focuil
no araon re defogur i n-aontsillaib, ut est feoil, beoir, Briain,
& rl.: no fidh tet a gconsanacht, i & u Fidh gaipius greim
di thaopoumna .i. aonfidh frecrus i tomus do diph
taopomnaibh, ut dicitur gach da taopomna ar fidh.
4440] Fidh gaiphius greim focail .i. fid laphrus a eonar. Fiodh
na geip greim taopomna na feudha na foucail .i. u nialsa,
ut dicitur: nec uocales nec consanantes habentur: no fidh
bis a ndiaigh araile, ut diximus. Connaghar dano isin
beithi-luis-nin an ogaim taopomna gaiphius greim feudha
4445] & taobomna & foucail, et taophomna gaiphius greim da
fidh et da taopoomna, & da taopomnai gaiphius greim
feudha, et taopomna gapus greim quicc fed & se
dtaopomna, & taopomna gaipius greim foucail, & taobomna
na gheiph greim taophomna na feudha na foucail. Ni ansa.
4450] Is i an taophomna gapus greim feuda & taopomna
& foucail .i. q. Et taophomna gaibhius greim da fiodh
& da thaoboumna .i. ngedal. Et da thaopomna gaiphius
greim fedha .i. gach da thaophomna ar fidh a thomais.
Taopomna gaiphius greim v bfedha & se dtaophomna


{YBL folio 236b19} {Eg folio 72 2b3}
.i. duir i n-ait dinin disail. Ni machtnadh intan gaphus
greim na coic bfedh & na se dtaophoumna, cia nogaphad
greim da fiodh & da thaopomna. Taopomna gapus greim
tri bfidh & ceithri dtaopomna .i. sail a n-inad forsail.
Taopomna gaphus greim focail .i. taobomna congaib
4460] greim forpaidi. Taopomna na geibh greim taopomna na
fedha na focail .i. taobomna die dtogaiph h cend conad
marbh do raith, no uath budein.

Cest, cis lir deach dochuisin? Ni ansa. A houcht .i.
dialt, regcomrac, iarcomrac, feiles, claonre, luipenchoussach,
4465] claidemnus, bricht. Deach .i. daghfuach .i. focal intan is
dialt: dagh .i. maith: fuach .i. focal invenitur. Daghfuach
intan is regcomrac, dib fuigther intan is sreth. Dialt .i.
di fo diultad co nnach bfuil alt and: regcomrac re i
gcomraicit in da tsillaib umann alt .i. (no) re iarsin
4470] comarc int alt tanaise. Iargcomrac .i. iar comraigit .i.
iarsin comrac int alt iachtarach .i. iar gach ndeighenach
.i. comarc in (tres) sillab forsna da tsillabaib toisseacha.
Feiles .i. fillis na lama .i. filled luis .i. lam .i.
baile ata filled an duirn: no filis .i. fis fillti: no
4475] fo lais cebe diberius .i. leisin mbfilid, uair is cudruma di
tsillaib di gach leith de. Claonre .i. claon indara re .i. a
do ar an dara leth & a tri ar in leith aile. Luipencoussach
.i. an coss cona luibnib .i. na coic meoir & in traig in
seissedh daib. Claidemnus .i. claidem manus .i. manus
4480] lamh, & claidem na laime in slindean, ar is he in sechtmad
dialt claidemnus. Bricht .i. brigh a hocht .i. brigh
briathar .i. hocht mbriathar and: no bricht iarsanni
brightar ocht sillaba and cenmota a taobomna agin
bfilid & consain agin Laitneoir. Aenfid a ndialt, a do a
4485] recomarc, a tri a n-iarcomarc, a cethair a fheilius, a cuig
a claenre, a se a luipencoussach, a secht a clouidemnas


{YBL folio 236b42} {Eg folio 72 2b38}
a hocht a mbricht, ceinmóta taobhomna andsein dano.
Is aire sin ni talla in trefogur a nd-aonndialt.

Is e int ainm airme a tri no a ceuthir. It iat na
4490] hanmanda uird airme primus, secundus, tersius: a tress
.i. anmanda uird airme iar bproiss, & anmanda uird airme
immorro iar n-aigned. Is si sin in dethber airme anforbhthe
amal rogabh a tri no a cuig, ar nach fuillter o chouitibh.

Caiti sechta in ochta ind Uraicepto? Ni ansa.
4495] Intan is ocht ndialta a mbricht is and it secht n-alta
and .i. dialt co gceill: cuig litri and a n-us moam de,
aonlitir a n-us lughamh dei .i. ig sloindedh ceilli
comhlaine. {YBL folio 237a1} Rosaig a lagat co haonfid. Cid
timarda iarum eba isini is fer, ni luga is defoughar ind sin
4500] chena. Ni la Gréugda iss defougar sin. Cidh fodera in
cotarsanai & na coig feudha & na secht fedha & na x
bfeuda iar bfuilliucht aile? Ni ansa. Na cuig fedha
cétumus: ag fregra dona cuig guthaigib tuc na secht
fedha fregra dona defograiph tuc .i. ea oi: na x feudha,
4505] ipin ar defougar, ata emhancoull ar x no ar emnad, ata
pin ar p, conid x samlaidh. Iar n-Uiraicecht Muimnig so.

Caiti bunad & inde et airbert, coitchend & diles, ruidles
& indles isin bfoucal is deach? Ni ansa. Bunad quidem
oni is deach us Grecum nomen. Defuach a inde, ut
4510] diximus. A airbert .i. troig o dialt go bricht, ut
prodiximus. An troigh lasin Laitneoir is deach a ainm
lasin bfilidh, ut Donatus dixit: Pes est sillabarum et
temporum certa enumeratio .i. ita in troig .i. an chous
conad airmideta derbh na sillab et na n-aimser icon
4515] Laitneoir. Ata dono airmideta derpta a sillab .i. ceithri
troigi desillaebaig et a houcht tresillaebaig & a se dec
emnaiti & troigid et aimsir agan Gaidel o dialt go bricht
.i. sillab forbes cech deach dip di araile isin Gaidilcc, conidh


{YBL folio 237a16} {Eg folio 73 1a18}
a hocht samlaidh a mbricht conid airmideta deurph sin
4520] o haontsillaib conicce a houcht.

Ocht sillaba (.i. minabdis ecsamla) isin pfocul is mo
isin Gaidilcc, ut est fianamailecharadhartai & inrocomraircnigsiomairne
& rlo. Focail doilphdi so rodolpset filid na
Gaidhilcci et na Laitne a n-agaid araile dia mbreith re
4525] sechtu. Teora sillaba x isin bfocul is mo isin Laitin, ut
est teinerifficabiletudinetatibus.

Cesc, cia roich dialt a meut ogus a laighet? Ni ansa.
Rosouich a laighet co haonfiodh .i. ag sloindedh cheille
comlaine & is foucul so, ut est a & i & o .i. a sleibhe & o
4530] forcind & i inis .i. I Cholaim Cille, amal ata A' Chuisi & A'
Chairtend i Sliab Luachra .i. anmanda sleibhi sainriud,
ut dixit Mac Da Cerda:—

    1. Dam congair iter da a,
      Fongluaisi glaodh gulpanda,
      4535] Is uallach int arganda
      La tricha segh (.i. os) lurganda.
(.i. dialt co ceill andsin, coic litri is mo do, litir is luga).
Rosoich dano co a cuicc a mét, ut est flesg & triosg, brisg,
sgailp, tracht, et bricht .i. epaid, et bracht .i. ut est:—
    1. Conberbtar brachta
      A n-ebron bru,
      Feisi gan lachta
      Nach fuor tnu (.i. teine).
Ni airmither h isna foclaib deighenchu, ar ni litir fiadha
4545] amal adbert in Laitneoir: H non est litera seut nota
spiracione .i. nochin fuil uath conidh litir acht ata conid
not tinfid. Tinfed .i. tinugud fedha .i. neimtniugud .i. a
chor as do raith. Gach dialt iarum imatormaig fria araile
cocumaong cech aon focail. Deich co houcht i mbricht
4550] & is he meud & laiget cecha Gaidilci o dialt conna n-athgapail


{YBL folio 237a36} {Eg folio 73 2a7}
diplínaiph .i. co gcumangar do gach dialt diph
iarna tinol deach. Isin mbricht a mbit ocht sillaba.

Etargairi a n-innsgib: is e, is i, is eudh, iar macaib
Miled: masgoul, feimin, neotor lasin Laitneoir: uindse,
4555] uindsi, oundar, iar bFeraib Bolg: moth, touth, traothad,
la Tuaith De Danann. Is e punad gacha Gaidilcci dialt
acht moth toth traoth. Madh iadsidhe is iat fein ata
bunad and, ar ni bfil nach focal Gaidilici na bud indip-sut
dano. Mod (it) gach ferda, gach feirindsgi. Toth cach
4560] banda, gach banda indsgi. Traoth gach meotor, gach
neotarda, iss ed bunad gacha Gaidilci & rlo .i. ar ni
dialt is buonadh doibsidhe ar ni bunad aonreud dobudein:
nuo nit dat bunadh Gaidilci indso acht it bonnad cecha
ceniuil. Masa cenel, caiti in cinel dianat bunadh? Ni
4565] ansa. Moth .i. gach ball ferrda & gach cuma ferrda. Toth
.i. gach {YBL folio 237b1} mbannda no gach baull bannda et gach
cuma bannda oulchena. Traothad .i. gach neutordai .i. gach
(no nach) nectorde .i. gach cumai neimnechtorda .i. gach
cuma neimecuscdai: no dano is bunad gacha Gaidilcci
4570] dialt acht mouth touth traoth. Iss ed is moam lem cheuna
ciasa bunad Gaidilgi is bunad ceinil: no dono ni dat
dialta itir amal ata moudh mo a odh .i. in ceol is mo ina
in ceol is luga amal rogaph ant aidhpsi a nDrui m Cheutai:
no mo a fedh a n-airdi intan is tourand no caint. Toth
4575] .i. tai a oudh an ceol mbec a n-athfheugadh an ceoil is
mo .i. cronan no certan: no toth taoi a edh no a oudh
intan is femin: no tai a edh intan is fouta ron-cluine no
ron-aile is tai et is isliu quam a n-aill. Toth .i ar ani
traothait na ciuil isli na ciuil ardai .i. sdocairecht no
4580] cornairecht: no troeth .i. traothaig, traotus in tan is cruit
fo bith is caile & is cruaidhi quam ani aile is traoth: no
traoth treith a eudh no a odh fria feugad feimin .i.


{YBL folio 237b16} {Eg folio 73 I b 6}
masguol: no dono moth & touth & traoth .i. anmanda ball
ferrda et bannda & neotor amal itbeir in Laitneoir: Nomen
4585] membri uirilis et nomen meimbri mulieris et nomen membri
naturalis & is at focail Grecdu issin cias a Laitin ata
deismerecht dip & is aire nadat dialta, ar ni failit o neoch
& ni failter uathaib acht mina nderntar mot for moth & tot
for toth & troeth for traoth. Ismberat araile comdis
4590] anmand aidhmi ciuil. Caiti a deimhniugud? Ni ansa.
Moth mo a odh intan is cruit. Toth .i. tai odh intan is
binde .i. is tai et is isliu quam i n-aill. Troeth .i. traothaid
in dias aile intan is stocairacht fo bith is airde a faidh is
aire is traotha doiph. Is e so tra a chumair is he bunad
4595] gacha Gaidilci dialt .i. o regcomarc co bricht & ni bunad
he do entsillaib amal roghaph mot tot traoth & is ar gach
ndialt tugait-sidhe i sunda & is aire rothogait-sidhe sech
gach ndialt, ar dochuaidh menma friu comdis regcomrac,
ar fogabar a chondaill ut diximus.

Domiter alta uadh fri halta daine .i. toimsigter alta
an airchetail fri halta duine amal toimsigtir fri gach
n-indsge, sic domiter fri gach n-indsge. Cesc, cindus
domiter fri gach n-indsge? Ni ansa. Corab cach da dialt
frisgara araile, ut est dair & cair, tiar & ciar, tis cis, tuas
4605] luas; & corab gach da regcomrac frisgara araile, ut est
aingeal & daingen, lebhar & remhar, duine & mouine.
Iss ed a cupaid intan is comfid .i. focal imfrecra & is
comhdech .i. in tarmfortcind. Cidh ara dtugsum na
foclu sin ar aird sech gach ndialt archena? Is aire eimh
4610] dus-fug-sidhe, ar ata tuigsi ceinelach and (no inntib),
cidhad dialta, & ni cenelach dialta archena ata andsin.
Ni dialt dono cia madh iadsum adberdis ar aird suond,
ar ni bunad in reut do budhéin. Is bunadh an dialt do
gach Gaidilc uadh fein sechtair. Ni bunad immorro e


{YBL folio 237b46} {Eg folio 73 1b1}
(no iat) do budein. Ismberat araile comad aire na budh
bunadh Gaidilge, ar ni dialt itir he & ni bunad Gaidilge
aroile acht dialt.

It e v gne in berla thobaigi .i. teipide .i. berla
Feine & fasoighe {YBL folio 238a1} & iarmberla & beurla n-etarsgarta
4620] & berla fortcide na bfiled tresinn aigillit gach diph araile.
Berla Feine tra .i. in Feinechus no araile berla robui
ag Feinius ar leith.

Fasaigh .i. fis oghai na bfiled .i. dliged firfurtacht:
no na lurga fuach .i. forsna feroiph, fona, isna, tresna,
4625] fresna, sechna fira & rl: & na diailt n-eterleime, ut est e,
es, et, in, co, tre, tar, re, fo, fair & rlo. Iermberla dono cuic
(no coic) .i. ruin, ballorb .i. ball d'forpa na filidechta occa
muirni .i. miruine & is do canaid is ainm ballorb. Gne n-aill
do iarmberla .i. ierum, & dono, & tra, & hautem .i. ouccus,
4630] acht, et gidhed chena, & atat, cesc, cislir, cair, cisne, catiat.
Is aire raiter iarmberla de ara secucht & ara cruaidhi amal
iarand, uair ni heidir a thaithmech. No iarmberla Iar
mac Nema
arrainic fa deoigh & ni fedtar a thaithmech.
Berla n-etarsgarta iter na fedhaibh airedhaibh .i. berla
4635] triasa bfil deiliugud na bfiodh n-airedha isinn aonfoucal
tria na n-indaithmech, ut est (ros) re os intan is ros coille.
Ros .i. raidh as intan is ros uisgi: no rofhos intan is
marbhusge forsa mbi ros .i. roas intan is ros lin .i. ar a
luas & ar a tighe fasas. Berla fortcidi na bfiled .i.
4640] fordorchaidhe amal ismbert in filidh a sgoil Feinius .i.
etaill .i. etaill aro & í inis, etaill uassal & ar a imrum .i.
ni anfam d'iomram go risum an inis uasal .i. Eire & amal
rogabh 'san Imagallaim in Da Suadh no in Da Tuarad:
Brimon smitrach .i. brigh briathar & mon cleas: smetrach
4645] .i. smit forrach .i. fourrach neich o smit a cluaisi .i. cleas
briatharda donidis na filid fo daigin ecnaig go bfourrgitis


{YBL folio 238a23} {Eg folio 73 2 b 31}
nech tria smiot a chluaisi do tarraing: no smidrach .i.
smit cluas & rach rigi, forrach smit ai (?) ainm in cleasa sin.
Is e in coiged gne in gnathberla fogní do chach. Ismberat
4650] araile comad he in berla Feine fasoighe na bfiled, & co na
ba berla fo leth eitir.

Alt go bfeiser cia halt dona secht n-altaib uad .i. in
nath, in anair, in laid, in anamain, in sétrad, in sainemain,
in dian dona dianaiph. O ssen anond is o deachaibh
4655] tslointer alta ar na rob indsge cumusgai. Nath .i. no
fidh .i. indsge .i. anaor anair .i. a n-aor no an-air .i. aon a
hiar. Laidh .i. laitir no luater intan is aor: no onni is
lapus .i. moulad: no laid .i. lí suad no leth fedh fedh co
leith intan is luipencosach fo do reith. Anomain an a
4660] somaine reisna haistibh roimpi. Setrud .i. séd raid no
séd rith .i. rith iar scut cin cuibdius cosin lethrand
ndeighenach. Sainemain .i. saine a maine risna aistib
romaind. Dian .i. dion no dian .i. adpol an .i. di fo diultad
connach cutroma a hai reisna haistibh oile. O sin anond .i.
4665] ono sechd primaistibh imach ios o deach adrimtar .i.
is ni dona deachaib foricfa & is uathaip ata ainmneachad
doip .i. dialt a forbai cech rainde in duain & regcomrac a
forpai a bforduain, iarcomarc a casbairdne &
bairdne ar na rob innsgi cumusgcdhai ar na rab prois amal
4670] aisdi na ndaorbard.

Lorga fuach .i. lourga focul arusc reire .i. amal biti
lorga i lamhaip daoine iga n-imfoulang o port do port
arna dtaothsatis {YBL folio 238b1} ina lighe, samlaid (imthá) it e
andso lorga biti a ngeiniph na bfiled ig fousugud o
4675] focul d'foucul: lorga fuach .i. lorga foucul .i. remtsuidiugud
desillaebach biti iter da comuaim focul, ut est
Im ba sesach im ba seng & rlo.


{YBL folio 238b5} {Eg folio 74 1a16}
A dialt n-eterleime .i. aontsillab iter da chomuaim,
4680] ut dixit:—
Cia leith co prath iar gcuairt & rlo.

‘Cia’ iter ‘lound’ & ‘leth’ an dialt n-etarleime. Ita
dono lorga fuach & dialt n-etarleime isin rand, ‘im ba’
is he in lorga fuach & in ‘ba’ in dialt n-etarleime.

Fertot a tealgud nae .i. a tealgud duine, ar is nae
duine, ut dicitur: Dia ndamad nai for tir .i. dia ndamad
in duine for tir, dolleici in duine ceusadh fair. Teit
iarum dia fothrugud donn aphaind, doleigi sis don
bruach isinn uisgi. Arfaomsi eutach imat o neoch aile
4690] i ssuidi. Iss ed isbeir-sim dano fertom .i. ferde dam,
briathar cesta uoch (no och) indsin. Fertot ara cheile
fris, briathar gnimach son .i. gnim fairsium o nach aile
ailiter. Tét in duine iarum dia fuotrugud don uisgi,
doleici don bruach sis isinn uisgi. Tot tot, ol in tond
4695] fai .i. ainm don foghar sin dogni an tound frisin duine,
tot ua buo bo, go ged an anmanda forcmachta do soun
.i. do foghar in geinemnai rohainmnigter.

Aurland dano ainm d'airell in gai. In adharc duph bís
fonn gai, is di arsisider in gai, imtha samlaidh arsisiodhar an
4700] indsge dona deich n-airlondaib-si: no airisider gach indsge
dona tri hirlondaip-si .i. is e, is í, is ed. It e andsin
irlanda ferindsgi & banindsgi & deiminsgi hic, hec, hog, lasin
Laitneoir. Se, dai, tri, ceithri urlanda ferindsge indsin.
Se .i. is he an fer, da .i. da fher, tri .i. tri fir, ceithri .i.
4705] ceithri fir. Inanda immorro irlanda ferindsge & banindsge
o tsin imach. Is aire nach sinter sech a ceithri. Si, da,
teora, ceitheora urlanda banindsgi andsin: is i .i. is si in bean,
di .i. di mnai, teora mna, ceitheoram .i. ceitheora mna.
It he & atat immorro irlanda qoitcenda iter ferindsge &
4710] banindsge indsin. Is ed immorro irlanda deimindsge, ut
dicitur iss ed in ceund fir; herlond ferindsgi dano


{YBL folio 238b33} {Eg folio 74 2a12}
aontaighius deimindsge a n-urlandaibh ilair .i. da nem,
ut dicitur da fher: no urland indsge .i. remslondud in
indsgi .i. banindsge no ferindsge no deimindsge: urlanda
4715] .i. airslinnen .i. ainm bis a rind62 ria slinnen an gai: airell
didiu .i. iarial .i. iarn bis, ar is do is ainm cro in gai, is de
airsisiodar in gai fo deredh. Is e urland indsge andsin,
ar ni bi erland gan iarlaind. Gne n-aill: Se, da, tri,
cethair, .i. da masgal iter uathad & ilar: Si, di, tri, ceitheora
4720] .i. di feimin iter uathadh & ilor: hic, hec, hoc .i. do
nemtor iter uathad & ilar. Coitcend immorro doib iter
masgal & feimin & neutor o cethair imach, ut est v fir, v
mna, v anmando occu: freisligi foghair no ercro erlapra
aroile indsin.

Cuig fillte xx á reim .i. a cuig.

go hogfegait na filid re uama na hai {YBL folio 239} & xx
gne saorda olchena. Caite iat anmonda na n-inadh
asamberat cach ai diph do coma dilis budhein? Ni
ansa. A nai dib a ndeilb ainmneda & ainseda, & a tri
4730] a ndeilb geinitli et togarto, a secht a ndeilb togarto &
foxlada .i. tri a n-ilor (.i. fillti) & a tri i n-uathad: fer, fir,
og fir a n-uathad: na fir, na fer, na fira a n-ilor. Cuig
fillti xx fri reim .i. reimnigiud an anmo do filliud ina v
xx ta v fhegait na filid. Is edh reidhe inde cach anma &
4735] xx gne olchena. Tre brectrad ciall remsuighther friu no
is ed sedhait ac eimniugud fillti na fuach .i. na focla .s.
cin ainmniugad a n-airemh, & xx pro feugait andsin .i.
segait ut dixit .i. fer diall ata andso sis.
Fer a
ainmniugud, in fir a selpad, ar fer a aircill, a fiur a aitrebh,
4740] do fior a dhannad, a fir a togairm, o fir a foxal, co fir a


{YBL folio 239a12} {Eg folio 74 2a3}
asgnam, an fer a incousg, i fer a inotacht is inand &
ainmnechad, og fer a fuirmiud, for fer a fortad, fri fer a
freisligi do, o fior a foxal .i. digbail, la fer a thaophda, iar
bfer a tiarmoirecht is inand & a inatacht, im fer a timcell,
4745] frisin bfer a tormach is inand & a dhannadh, tre fer a
tregdad, dar fer a tairrsge. Is fer a tuarusgbail .i.
ainmniugud, fo fer a fouthud .i. a ciall inotachta uathaid,
re feur a remudh, ar fer a fresgabail. Feughthar dono a
n-ilar na delpa-sai fon gcuma cetnai .i. fir a n-ainmniugud,
4750] na fir a tuarusgbail, it fir a incosg, na fer a selpad, dona
feraibh a danad, uair ainmniugud ag ainmnechad, geinitil
ag selpad, tobarthid ag tinnlocud, ainsid ag faicsin,
togarmann ag gairm, foxla ag dibail no ag fagail, sic in
sequentibus: fer didiu eba a fidh an anma, e a guta, dialt
4755] a deach. Son aonconngbalach cin alt and iter in da
sillaib: idedh no ipfin in tselpad no ina reimh intan ismberar
fir, ar bit a ndis and ina reim, idhedh and (amal)
ata a fir, iphin and o fiur, sic in sequentibus.

Is aire didiu na hairim eubhai ina reim cia dobeith i n-
4760] aroiliph and, ut est co fer, ar ni bfil acht reim ceille nama i
in cach mbaile a marand in fid bis a n-ainmniugud
isna filltib tsios.

Idedh immorro no iphin bis inntib cach baile na
marand, conid aire sin itmberar idheth no iphin, a fidh ina
4765] reim no ina tselpad.

Dinin disail a forbaid .i. aiccent lasin Laitneoir. Ar
at e teora forbaidi docuisin lasin nGaidel .i. airnin &
forsail & dinin disail. Airnin arding defid .i. deredh na
bfocal: no defidh .i. nemhfidh, acht is taobomna: no is
4770] forbaid. Forsail for fout feudhair .i. tairgither fair conit
fota: no forsail .i. sail (no ail) fair .i. aimser sech an

Dinin disail ar gair geipid .i. gaibid fair conid gairit.
Airnin arding defidh .i. dered na focal no defidh .i.


{YBL folio 239a39} {Eg folio 74 2a35}
nemfidh, acht is taobhomna: no is forbaid forsail for
fot feghair .i. tairgither. Arnin arding defid: ut est
cend, glend & rl.: forsail for fid fada, ut est slogh, sron.
Dinin disail ar gair geibid, ut est fer, ler, & gach
timorta olchena. Intan sgripthar ainm ogaim, is and
4780] sgriptar na forbaidhe so uasa fri rellugud fuit no cuimre
no fri tendad, ar ni tuicfitis chena; uair amal itber in
Laitneoir acuit for na sillaba cuimbre, ut est pax, bac, &
sircumplex for na sillaba foutaibh, ut est res, sic dober an
Gaidel dinin disail forsna cuimrib, ut est {YBL folio 239b1} fear,
4785] forsail & for na fotaib, ut est lám; & amal bis graif ar gach
aoneipert ilfoclach la hacuit & la sircumplex, sic bis
airnin araon re forsail & re dinin disail, ut est cend, sroll
& rl. Airnin .i. eirnid nion: no airnin .i. nion fair, ar is
nin sgriphthar ag incosg na forbaidhe sin, ar is nin ainm
4790] coitchend da gach litir iter feudha & taophoumna: no
airnin .i. nin fair, ar is he nin cettaopomna riam in
rohaircced in forbaid sin. Forsail .i. sail fair, ar is sail
sgripthar ag incosg na forbaidi sin, ar is for fot feghair
forsail. (Is) sinedh n-aimsire doforne s amal is tiumortad
4795] tornes duir: no forsail .i. forfuilled an foucail conid fouda:
no forsail sech in qumair.

Dinin disail .i. di fo diultad and connach nion connach
sail sech is duir: no dinin disail disin difuilliud .i. nemh-
fuilliud. Ismbeurat araile as aire sgriphthar duir a ndinin
4800] disail, ar is duir fil ar tus a ndinin disail & is aire sgribthar
nion ar airnnin, ar is nin fil fa deoigh and & is aire
sgribhthar sail ar forsail, ar is sail fil ar medhon and, uel
ut alii dicunt: Ail .i. aimser furail sech in qumair. Dinin
disail .i. ni fidh, ni nin acht is forbaid. Disail .i. ni
4805] haimsir fota no diail .i. nemforail .i. nemhfhuilliud.

Cesc, in ar tomus tuccait i suound in foucul is feur?
Iss ed eim, ar gen go dtoimsigther iar n-aiccned, toimsighther


{YBL folio 239b17} {Eg folio 74 1b23}
iar saordataid, ar atcoutar alt saorda and .i.
fefriar a chounail. Atmberat araile na budh ar tomhus
48l0] doberta sound acht ar deochair iter fedha & forfeudha
.i. fot n-aignid & gair suidhighti a bforfedhaib, amal ata
fer. Fot suighighti & gair n-aiccnid a bfedaibh airedhaibh,
amal ata alt co bfeisser cia halt dona secht n-altaib an
airchetail .i. go bfeisair in nath, in anuir & rlo.

Gne n-ail do ferindsge & do banindsge andsou. Cuicc
fillti fichit a reim .i. a cuig go hoghfheughait na filid a
bfilliud re uama na hai & fiche gne saordu dono in xx
gne saorda sin. Cesc, caitiet a n-aradnai foraib o mberar
gach ai dip cum a dhilis fein? Berat eiccen uair delpait
4820] filltecha Iss ed a lion: a tri a n-uathad, & a tri a n-ilar,
conid se samlaid .i. fer, fir, og fir, a tri a n-uathadh:
a tri a n-iolar .i. na feur, na fir, na fiora. An xx gne
saordai sin is deimin eim is he so a n-aradhnai. A do
x dibh a forgnuis ainmneda & ainseda, & aon diph a
4825] forgnuis geinitli & toghartada, & a secht a ndeilph
thobartha & foxlaidae, in da filliud dec dibh tieghait a
bforgnuiss ainmneda & ainseda. It e andso ind anmanda
.i. ar fer a aircioll, go fer a asgnamh, i feur a inoutacht, sech
fer a tsechmall, for fer a fourtadh, fri feur a freislige, iar
4830] bfer a tiarmoracht, im fer a timceall, dar feur a thairrsgi,
frisin bfer a thormach, tre fer a tregdadh, is fer a tuarusgbail,
ut dixit in file:—

    1. Is iat so in da filltech dec,
      (Dar) lemsa nocha lanbrec,
      4835] Tiagait a bforgnuis feudha,
      Ainmneda ocus ainseda.
Na secht bfillti, immorro, tiaghait a bforgnuis thobartada
& foxlada .i. a fior a aitreuph, og fior a fuirmed, fo fior a


{YBL folio 239b41} {Eg folio 74 2a16}
fouthad, do fir a danadh, do fir a dighpail, iar fir a
4840] thiarmoiracht, fri fir a fhresgabail, ria fir a reimniugud,
ut poeta:—
    1. Is iat so na secht fillti,
      Nit ernaile adhmillti,
      Tiagait a ngnuisibh glana,
      4845] Tobharta ocus foxladha.
Aonfilltech immorro teit a forgnuis toghorta & geinitli,
ut dixit in file:—
    1. In fer a tusdighe tiar tsoir
      Do tsealpad, do toghartaidh,
      4850] Ogus doib araon ni ricc
      Gus mad int aon don fichit.{YBL folio 240a1}

Is iat sin in fiche gne saerda con a n-aradhnaib corraib
forra & rlo. Fer didiu, ebadh a fiod, idedh no iphin ina
reim no ina tsealpad, no is idhedh ina tsealpad & ina
4855] thogairm, ipin ina togartaid & ina foxlaid. Eba immorro
a fidh ina ainmnid & ina n-ainsid ar chena. Cidh ini is ipin
and (?) .i. guthaige inna comaccomal frisna guthoighibh oile.
Cinnus didiu a radh comad ipin fiodh in anma is fir, ar
is ididh glan fil and? Ni ansa eim, qumusg nobeith
4860] and .i. dinin disail a forbaid ina tsealpad .i. in fir, & iphin
a fidh ina reimim .i. don fir, ar is reim gach tuissel on
ainmnid sis: no dono int ipin isber i suond, is ar
idhedha ata, ar is o idhedh doinsgain iphin.

Caiti dilius feudha a bfeudhaibh, & dilius feuda a bfidh, &
4865] dilis fid i bfedaibh? Dilis fedha i bfedoibh cetumus .i. a
riasna ceithri guthagaibh oiliph, ar is hi cetlabra gach bi
a & iachtad gacha mairb ach: dilis fedho i fidh dono .i. is
dilis in forfidh ogaim secip fid ina sgripthar. Dilis fidh a
bfedhaib .i. amal ata in fidh is defoghar .i. is ed is dilis
4870] and an foghar toisech, ar ni hairmither in foghar


{YBL folio 240a17} {Eg folio 75 1b6}
Alt go bfeisser .i. go bfesor an aisti dona secht n-aisti
bprimda na filidhechta do gne do thomhus. O tsin anond
is o deachaib tsloinnter alto uadh .i. na rab indsgi
4875] cumusgda .i. o sin anound is do defuachaib .i. is do
tsloinnter aisti in airchetail, ar na rab
indsge cumusgda .i. amal dogniat na daorbaird.

Lourcca fuach .i. lairge no lourgaidhe: reimtsuigiugad
detsillaebach bis riasna da chomuaim ica saorad ar da gne
4880] ernail .i. fogair & claon ceille.

Fertout a tealccud nea. Et buo bo & go ged .i.
anmanda sin rangautar na filedha tre ealadain doib do
reir foughair. Fertout .i. fer dotuit aund & bou comad a
buo on geim nobeith & gedh comad on gedh ghoutha
4885] dobir as nobeith, amal isber in Laitneoir: Nomen de suono
factum est .i. fourcaomnagair int ainm don foughar, amal
itá condall, sdip, stip. Iss ed a foghar ica luosgadh. Is
aire sin rainicc stipula do anmoim do icon Laitneoir.
Tout dano nomen de suonofactum .i. in guth trom doni an
4890] duine oga legad for an toind

Aurland indsge .i. do airell gai is ainm. Caiti int
eurland saorda foghapar conid aiccned? Ni ansa. Urland
in gai. Caiti in erland indsge do nach bfasand indsge
acht aonindsge .i. indsge in bais? Ni ansa. Indsge
4895] grainde in gai. Caiti int erlond is iarlond, & int iarlond
is urland, & int urland is remlond? Ni ansa. Urland in
gai .i. urlond fodeisin, iarlond doteis, ar is iar gach
ndeigheunach, conid he sin int irlound is iarlound &
int urlond is remlond .i. antan rosauoigh lar co haireill.
4900] Caiti urland urlainne a n-urlaind? Ni ansa. Ferurlond,
beunurlond, nemurlond. Urlond uorlainde a n-urlond?
Ni ansa63 .i. bean an fir. Aurland a ndis ind
urlond .i. ind eum a nemh nou a n-iffern. Aurlanda
ilair masgail et feimin andso sis: Se, dha, tri, ceithre: Si,


{YBL folio 240a41} {Eg folio 75 1b40}
di, teora, ceitheora; inanda insge airme o tsin imach.
Is andsin fogabar comrargai ilair neutuir .i. cen urland
iolair ogaib acht i n-uathati nama. Caiti ind indsge
tsaorda fogbur conid aiccenta? Ni ansa. Iss ed in cend,
ar as saorda a radh, & se for in duine. Is aiccenta
4910] immorro a radh ris iarna buain de. Cia haonfoucal
regcomarcach isna remendaiph {YBL folio 240b1} gebes eungradus
.i. greim ceithri n-ernaile dona reimeundaib? Ni ansa. In
foucal is treghdad & is aitrioph & indotouacht & is asgnam:
ar ni bi in tregdad gan int aitreph; ni bi ant aitrioph cin
4915] int indotacht; ni bi int inotacht cin int asgnamh; ni bi
int asgnamh cin an treghdad, conid treghdad o tuoind go
tuoind techtus. Cia bricht a mbit ocht bfeudha ocon
bfilid congeiph an aonguta greim a leithe, ut est sliachta
et is ogleth andsin & ni certleth .i. a aonar a n-aghaidh
4920] na secht litrioch aile.

Cia baile in Uraicepta idta in sealpad saordu cin reim
acht reim reimraiti, ut est luis ailme no bethe ailme .i.
sealpad ita do ailm isin bethe & isin luis? Cia baile
i bfoghapar comtath condsained cen tinfed threothaip?
4925] Ni ansa. An bail a mbi nin ria ngourt gan guthaigie
eutorra, ut est uinge.

Cia baile i bfogapar in fidh fourtormaigh iar bfourpa
na n-ocht sillab isin bfoucal is briocht? Ni ansa. In
baile a mbi deufougar isinn ochtmad dialt, is fidh fourtormaigh
4930] indala foghar.

Cie taopoumna gapus greim taopoumna et feudha
et foucail? Ni ansa. Quert. Cia taobomna na gabh
greim taoboumna na feudha na foucail? Ni ansa, h.
Caiti bunad ruidliusta in foucail is aipgitir? Apexedebam.
4935] Aipgitir, id est: copula con literarum per se .i. ita in
aipccitir ina comtinol litir cona comfialus: a litera oni is
legitera .i. ainm tighe aroile anmanda aitreupus a dtraigh


{YBL folio 240b19} {Eg folio 75 2 a 24}
maura dienad hainm Molosus & gibe nech adchi tegdus
a n-anmanda sin foillsigther do fis cecha healadna. Amal
4940] is seud iarum fouillsigius eolus do neoch faicsin na
teghduse sin, is amlaid is edh fouillsigius do neoch fiss &
aicsin litir, conid airesin tuccad int ainm is litir o anmaim
tige an anmanda sin reimraiti for litir cach baile ita:
no litera a literatura .i. on fouillsiugud & on coimilt
4945] doberdis arsanta forna claraib ciarta, ar inntib nosgripta
ar dtus.

Condagar bunad & inde & airbert, coitchend & diles
& rudlius & indles don foucal is aipgitir. Bunad eim
di epe ugdair: no eipe icon tor. A hairpert dano a
4950] tapairt four ni nach inde, ut dicitur: Aipgitir dno .i.
tossach & rlo.

Cach tan tiaghait na foucail sech a n-inde toirne
amach co ni nach ni is inde inntib: no comad i in airbert
focail aithnigte eile ar an focal anaithnigte .i. tinscetol
4955] no tosach no comad i a n-airbert
réim dia rosuigidh
na foucail ut. Beurla n-airperta: coitchend dona litriph
uile: diles dona consainib: ruidlius do guthagaibh: indlius
a tapairt for lethgutaib intan legait & for ni as lugaide
as a inde.

In tiasca do fedhaibh & deachaibh & reimeundaib &
for forbaidhib & altaibh & indsgibh & eutargairip amal
roshuidhigti la filedaib na sgoile ceuta robautar ag Feinius
iar dteipe na Gaidilci doip asna di berlaiph
lxx co rotaissealpad do Gaidel mac Angin. Ar is he sin
4965] rotothlustar ant aonbeurla do teipe asna hilberlaiph dona
mba haille & pa caine in gach berla dona dib berlaibh
lxx. Conid airesin doraisealpad do, conid de dogarar
Gaidelc & Gaidil. Nel mac Feiniusa Farrsaidh dia dtarthar
Sgouta, ingen Foraind, conid dia hainmside raiter
4970] Sguit amal adrupromar. Fer a hainmniugud uathaidh, fir


{YBL folio 240b41} {Eg folio 75 2b12}
a sealpad uathaid, fir a ainmnechad ilair, na fir a sealpadh
ilair, do fior a danodh uathaid, do feroib a danodh ilair,
in fer a incousg uathaid, na fir a incosg ilair, a fir a toghairm
uathaid, a fhira a thogairm ilair, o fer a foxal uathaid, o
4975] feraibh a foxal ilair, oc fir a fuirmed uathaid, og
feraib a fuirmed ilair, co fer a asgnam uathaid, co
feraiph a asgnam ilair, sech fir a sechmall uathaigh, sech
fera a sechmall ilair, tre fer a tregdad {YBL folio 241a1} uathaid, tre
fera a tregdad ilair, a fer a inotachta uathaigh, a fera a
4980] inotacht ilair, fo fer a fortud uathaigh, for feura a fortud
ilair, fo fior a fouthud uathaidh, fo fera a fouthud ilair,
tar fer a tairrsge uathaid, tar feura a tairrsgi ilair, fria fir
a fresgapail uathaid, fri fera a fresgapail ilair, fri feur a
freislige uathaid, fri feura a freislige ilair, sic in sequentibus:
4985] feron a formoulad, fer a codud, feear a mallrugud, rer a
deilidin, fefriar a chondail, fer a aon, fer a lan, ser a
chendfochrus tuois, fel a chendfochrus deirid. Ni airecor
i diabul .i. ferfir, firin a lugugad, sofer a saorugud, dofer
a daorugud, ni hairecour a urard .i. fera, feraibh a urisiol,
4990] feurtot a telccud nai, fe a aircill calaidh, ni hairecor a
aircell fuit, firr a deichned, fe a dichned, & is é iurlond

Cend cridhe fuolach deime teibidi in fir. It e sin
deismerecht na ndeime teibidi in fir isna reimendoibh:
4995] no lanamna an cind, suil & fiacail: lanamna in cride
srephand & cru: lanomna in fulaing, luorga & traghaid:
lanamna in chind, suil & fiecail.

Gene dano na lanomna ndeime: abratchor & maula,
geine na sula: bunad & leithet, geine na fiacla: tanaigecht
5000] et dath .i. ban no glas, geine int sreupaind: tighe
et dath beos .i. ruaidhe & deirge gene in cru: tond & lith,
gene na traigeudh: croicend & feithe, gene na lurgan: no
lethor et tound, geine na traigedh.


{YBL folio 241a21}{Eg folio 76 1a7}

Araile dono it e geine na lanomna deime a fuoirpdai.
5005] Ar at e tri geine docuisnet .i. gene forcometa & gen
frithchometa & gen decomhéta. Gen forcoiméta cetumus:
amal rogap faircle for glun.

Imtha samlaid is fair anuas ginither forsail is focetoir
geinither as do belaiph i fiout & gairdi. Gen decométa
5010] dinin disail amal rogap fuil ar dh' feoil agus isin feoil.
Is amlaidh dono dinin disail congaib lasin bfoucal o tousach
go deired cin urgabail cin urditeun. Gen frecometa airnin
amal rogab cnaim mullaich & leicne & cnuic & find & nahi
nat geiniter lasin dune fochetoir, uair is fo cousmalius
5015] alta duine domiter alta uad. Ni taidbeut dono in foucal
is airnin lasin bfoucal forsa dtouchrauthar foceutoir co
mbi fair fo deoigh ardingidh in foucal. Ferdialt co sin

In tiasca do bandialt andso siss: ben, mna, do bein, na
5020] mban, dona mnaib, in mnai, ina mna, a ben, a mna, on
mnai, ona mnaib, oc mnai, og mnaib, co mnai, co mnaib,
sech mnai, sech mnaib, tre mnai, tre mnaib, im
mnai, im mnaib, for mnai, for mnaibh, tar mnai, tar
mnaiph. Benon a formoulad, bein a coutud, beean a
5025] maullrugud, ben a aon, ben a lan, ni hairechar a diabal
.i. beanbean, gia isberat aroile ni bi nach lan cin a diabal,
beinin a lugugad, sobeun a saorugud, doben a daorugud.
Ni hairecar a urard .i. beana: airecar immorro mnaa.
Ni hairecar a urisil .i. benaib, bentot a telccud nae, be a
5030] aircealla calaith. Ni hairechar a aircealla fuit, bel a
cendfochrus deirid, beund a dichned, len a chendfochrus
tuis, be a dichned, si & uindsi a urland indsge; oig & glun
a deime teipidi; fair & srithiti a lanomna; blas & millsi
a geinsidhe; faircli & esgat a lanomna in gluin;
5035] cnaim & feoil a ngeinid-sidhe: no it e i fuirmthe a
ngeinsidhe amal reimeipertmor {YBL folio 241b1}. Banndialt co sin.


{YBL folio 241b1}{Eg folio 76 1a41}

Don deimdialt so sis.

Nem, nime, na nime, do nim, do nimibh, in nim, in
nimip, o nimh, o nimibh, oc nim, oc nimiph, co nemh,
5040] co nimip, sech nem, sech neimibh, for nemh, for neimibh,
tre nem, tre nimibh, tar nem, tar nimiph. Nemon a
formolad, neimh a cotud, neemh a mallrugud, nefriam
a chondail, nem a aon, nemh a lan. Ni hairecar a
diabal, na a tsaorugud, na a daorugud, na a urard, na
5045] a urisiol.

Forsna, fona, esna, isna, tresna, sech na nime a lourga
fuach: o, do, im, co, es, fo, for, e, sech nime a dialt
n-eitarleime e. Ni fogabar a thelga nue. Ni hairecar
a air-
cell fuit, nel a cheundfouchrus deridh. Nemm
5050] a deichned, nea a dichned, is ed & oundar a urlanda
indsge. Ni hairecar a deime teipidi, ar is deime fodeisin:
nell & sduag neime a lanamna deime; dath
& airdi a ngeinidh-sidhe: no is he is a foirbti an gen.

Dialt cou sin anuas.

Finit. Amen.




{YBL folio 308b44}
Caide loc & aimser & persu & fath airic in ogaim? Ni
5465] ansa. Loc do Hibernia insola quam nos Scoti habitamus.
I n-aimsir Brese mic Elathan rig Erenn dofrith. Persu
do Ogma mac Elathan mic Delbaeith derbrathair do Bres,
ar Bres & Ogma & Delbaeth tri mic Elathan mic Delbaeith
andsen. Ogma didiu, fer roeolach a mberla & a filidecht,
5470] is e rainic int ogam. Cuis airic {YBL folio 309a1} derbad a intlechta &
co mbeth in bescna-sa ic lucht in eolais fo leth, sech lucht
na tirdachta & na buicnechta. Can as fuair ainm iar sund
& ret int ogam, & caide mathair & athair in ogaim, & cia
cetainm roscribad tri ogam, & cia fid in roscribad, & cuis ar
5475] roscribad, & cia dia roscribad, & cid ara remtet bethi ria cach,
(hic uoluuntur omnia).

Ogam o Ogma suo inuentore primo ria sunn quidem;
iar ret, immorro, ogum og-uaim .i. og-uaim, doberait na
filid forsin filideacht trid, ar is fri fedaib toimsither
5480] Gaedelg icna filedaib: athair ogaim Ogma, mathair ogaim
lám no scian Ogma.

Is e so immorro in cetna ni roscribad tri ogam, {illu272.1}.
.i. in beithi roscribad, & do breith robaid do Lug mac
Etlenn roscribad im dala a mna na ructha uada hi
5485] i sidaib .i. secht mbethi i n-aenfhlesc do bethi: Berthar
fo secht do ben uait i sid no a ferand ali manis-cometa


{BB folio 309a15}
bethi. Is aire immorro remitet bethi, ar is a mbethi
ro-cetscribad ogam.

Cis lir fogla ogaim & caiteat? Ni ansa. A iiii: bethe
5490] a v, uath a v, muin a v, ailme a v, forfeda olcena.

Cis lir aicme ogaim? Ni ansa. A iii .i. viii n-airigh
fedha, & viii n-athaigh, & viii fidlosa. Ocht n-airigh
cetus:—fernn, dur, coll, muin, gort, straif, onn, or. Ocht
n-athaig .i. bethi, luis, sail, nin, huath, tinne, quert. Ar
5495] chuit a feda is athaig feda fidlosa olchena.

Quot sunt genera in ogaim? Ni ansa, CL, et
figuras eorum et potestates secundum ordinem nuntiabimus,
asnedim primus do fedaibh na crann o tuctha anmand
for fedhaibh in ogaim secundum alios et alios nominantur.
5500] Cesc, mased, can asin -ainmnigter feda &
taebomna in ogaim? Ni ansa. Secundum alios quidem
is o scoil Feniusa Farsaidh .i. scol na filideachta rofaid
Fenius fon domun d' fhoglalm na mberla. Bai xxv ba
huaisliu dib conid iat a n-anmann-saide tuctha for bethi-luis-nin
5505] in ogaim eter feda & taebomna; & bai cethrur ba
huaisli dibh-side iterum, conid iat a n-anmann-side tuctha
forna vii fedaib airegdaib {illu274.1}
& rotuillset triur eli friu, conid uaidib-side ainmnigter na
tri forfeda aile, conad aire deglaiter ar leth {illu274.2}.

Secundum alios is o fedaib na caille tuctha anmann for
fedaibh in ogaim trin-troip. Beithi immorro o bethi na
cailli forsin cetna fid for set na aipgitri in ogaim. Luis .i.


{BB folio 309a38}
lemh sin isna cailltib. Fern .i. fearn sin isin caill. Sail
in ogaim .i. sail dono sin isin caill. Nin in ogaim .i.
5515] ginol garmna no nenaid isna feadaib. Uath in ogaim
crand fir no sce ar a delgaighe insin. Dur in ogaim dair
dono isin caill. Tinne in ogaim .i. quulend no trom isin
caill. Coll in ogaim .i. coll isin caill. Quert in ogaim
quulend isin caill no cairthend no crithach. Muin .i.
5520] midiu. Gort .i. gius. Getal .i. gilcach. Straif saildrong
isin caill. Onn .i. aiten no uinius. Ur .i. draighen. Edad
.i. eu. Ida .i. ibhar. Ebad .i. elend. Oir .i. feorus.
Uilleann .i. edlend. Pin in ogaim, pin dano isin caill,
De atbertar caera pinne; ifin dano secundum alios ainm in
5525] feda sin. Emancoll dono .i. coll emnaide iar ret no iar
fuath .i. coll dar coll ina fuath.

Briatharogam Moraind mic Mhain andso. Feocus
foltchain ar beithi sen isin briatharogam, uair anmand
tuc {BB folio 309b1} Morand uaidh fen for fedaib in
5530] ogaim is iat gabus greim feda isin briatharogam
Feocus foltchain ar son bethi, ar at e sin da egosc
in bethi, & tucad uadsan for fidh in ogaim rogab ainm

Li sula .i. luis sin .i. in luisiu.

Airinach Fian .i. sciath ar fern aigiseom sin ar a
ndergi ar aenrian: no air is i in fern adbur in sceith tucad


{BB folio 309b6}
o fernae forsin fid ogaim rogab ainm uaidhi. Airenach
Fian .i. sciath fern sin aigisium.
Li n-aimbi .i. li mairb .i. am fo diultad conach beo
5540] acht is marb. Li n-ambi dono .i. sail aigiseom sin,
& tugad uaidisium forsin fid n-ogaim.
Cosdad sida .i. nin sen: ginol garmna fri fid e: airde
sida sin. Cosdad sida aigi sin o nin na garmna.
Conal cuan .i. uath sin, ar is uath la nech conal chon
5545] alladh. Conal cuan do rad re huath in ogaim ar coibnius
in anma, ar uath iat ar aenrian.
Ardam dossaibh .i. dur sin a dualus a feda isin caill.
Trían .i. aill inde sin aniu.
Cainiu fedaib .i. coll sin ar a chaini a fedaibh.
5550] Clithar mbaiscaill .i. buaili .i. boscell .i. gelt .i. basceall
.i. is and tic a ciall do in tan degas a bas. Clithar boiscell
dono .i. quert sin: no boscell .i. elti .i. edruma iat. Clithar
boiscell dono .i. gelti no elti: quert a dualus a feda.
Tresim fedma .i. muin leis-sium sin .i. ar aentaidh anma
5555] fri muin duine no daim, ar is iat is tresi feidm ann.
Millsiu feraib .i. gort leis-sium sin ar aentaidh in
anma frisin gort arba. In tan (quum) bis ina fuachonn, is


{BB folio 309b24}
millsi na gach fer in fer sin .i. in gort arba. Uad-side
forsin fid ut i n-ogam ar comaentaidh in anma atura.

Luth legha getal sen .i. ar is luth lasna leigib, &
coibnius etir cath & getal.

Tresim ruamna .i. straif leis-sium sin i n-ogam. Straif
iar raet; ar isin straif is tresiu ruamna ic dathadh na
raet, ar is i dogni in airget ngeal conad gorm ic denum
5565] airgit decht de. Is i berbthar tresin fual isin or mban co
ndene derg de. Tresim ruamna in straif iar raet.
Tugad uaid-side isin fid dianad ainm straif ar aentaid
anma aturu .i. straif ainm cechtar de.

Tinnem ruccae ruis sin .i. on ruidiudh no on ruis iar
5570] ret, ar is tre ruis scribthair, & is ruidhiud fasas a n-aigid
in duine tri sug in lossa do cuimilt faethi. Tindi rucae
dono do rad frisin ruis o rus no on ruided, ar is tri ruis
scribtair-side fen.

Ardam iactadh .i. mactad .i. ailm aigisium sin; ar is
5575] ailm (no a) adber in duine ac iachtad i ngalar, no ic
machtad .i. ag ingantugud secip raeta.

Congnamaigh echraide .i. onnaid in carpait .i. na roith
.i. onn leis-sium sin, ar is tri onn scribthar onnaid in
carbait. Aliter comguinidech .i. aiten. Tucad uad-side
5580] forsin fid ut dianad ainm onn ar aentaid ataru ar is ainm
onn do cechtar de; & is on aitenn tucad int ainm is onn
frisin fidh n-ogaim secundum alios.


{BB folio 309b47}

Etiud midach .i. cath. Tucad ua-side for getal.

Uaraib adbaib .i. ur aigisium sin ar is do uir in talman
5585] is ainm uaraib adbaib. Tucad uada-side forsin fidh
dianad ainm ur in ogaim, ar aentaid anma aturu .i. ur
cechtar de, & tre ur scribthair.

Ergnaid fid .i. edad {BB folio 310a1} aigisium sin, ar is don crunn
crithaig is ainm ergnaid fid. Tucad uada-side forsin
5590] fidh ogaim dianad ainm edhadh, ar is uad tucad edad

Siniu fedhaib .i. idad aigiseom sin; ar is do ibar as
ainm siniu fedaib. Tucad uad-side forsin fid ut i n-ogam
dianad ainm idad, ar is uad tucad int ainm is idad fair;
5595] ar is do ibar is ainm idad.

Snamchain fheda .i. ebad les-sium sin, ar snamchain
fid .i. don bran mor is ainm sen. Tucad uad-side forsin
fid dianid ainm ebad in ogaim, ar is ainm do bratan é
& is tri ebad scribthar side amal aipgitir in betha .i.
5600] tre seg (.i. os), eo (.i.) tre eonasc (.i. lon).

Sruitem aicdi .i. or iar ret. Tucad uad-side forsin fid
ar aentaid in anma fil aturu .i. or ainm cechtar de.

Tutmur fid uilleann .i. uilleann leis-sium sin, ar is do
edlenn is ainm. Tucadh uad-sidhe forsin ogam dianad
5605] ainm uilleann, ar is uadh tucad uilleann fair, ar is do edlinn
is ainm.

Millsim feda .i. pin sin aigisium, ar is don chrunn
dianid ainm pin is ainm millsium feda. De atbertar caera
pinne. Tucad uad-side forsin fid dianad ainm pin, ar is
5610] uadh tucad pin no ifin air.


{BB folio 310a19}
Luad saethaig .i. ach no uch, emancoll leis-sium sin,
ar gabair emuncoll ar ach gia gabar ar araill. Finit
Briatharogam Moraind.

Margin: Abgiter briathairogam Mic ind Oic annso
5615] sis.

Glaisium cnis .i. beithi sin in ogaim o bethi na cailli,
ar is uad tucad bethi fair; sic in reliquis sequentibus.

Cara ceathra (.i. lem). Cara .i. dil lasna ceathra in lem
ar a blath & ar canach. Tucad uad-side for luis in ogaim,
5620] ar is uad tuccad luis fair.

Comet lachta .i. ferrn in ogaim sin o fern na caill, ar
is i coimetas in lacht, ar is di doniter lestair imon lacht.

Luth bech .i. sail sin ar a blath & ar a canach. Tucad
uad-side ara fid coibhnesa in ogaim.

Bag ban .i. nin garmna .i. ginol garmna. Uad-side
fora fid coibnesa.

Banadh gnuisi .i. uath, ar is ban gnuis in duine in tan
doberar uath no uamun uimi. Uad-side for fid in ogaim
ar aentaid anma aturu fen .i. uath cechtar de.
5630] Gres saír .i. daír. Tucad uad-side fora fidh coibnesa
in ogaim.
Smir guailíi. cuillenn sen. Uad-side fora fidh coibnesa
in ogaim .i. tinne secundum alios; ar is ainm tindi
do cuillenn, ut alii dicunt.


{BB folio 310a36}

Cara bloisc .i. coll. Uad-side fora fidh coibnesa in
Brigh annum .i. quert. Uad-side fora fidh coibnesa.
Aruusc n-arrligh .i. muin duine. Uad-side fora fidh
5640] Mednercc, .i. gort. Uad-side fora fidh comainmnigthech.

Moridrun .i. straif. Tucad uad-side fora fidh comainmnightech.

Ruamna dreach .i. sug in rois doní ruamna na ndrech
5645] co mbi ruidead intib. Ruamna drech dano do rad fri
ruis in ogaim on ruidead no on rus, ar is tri ruis scribthar
side fen.

Tosach fregra .i. ailm sin; ar is i cetlabra gach duine
iarna genemain a.

Fethim saire no fedem .i. onn .i. o.

Siladh clann, ur les-sium sin, ar is i uir in talman
dogni silad na clann cuirtir inti. Silad clann dono do
rad o uir in talman do radh frisin fid n-ogaim rogab
comainm fria .i. ur cechtar de.

Comainm carat .i. edadh isin caill. Uad-side fora fidh
comainmnigthech i n-ogam.
Crinem feada no claidem .i. ibar. Uad-side forin fidh
n-ogaim, rogab ainm aile uadh .i. idadh.
Cosc lobair {BB folio 310b1}.i. elenn for in fid in ogaim, rogab
5660] ainm uad .i. ebad.


{BB folio 310b1}

Lí crotha .i. or. Uad-side fora fid comainmnigthech .i.
or in ogaim.

Cubat n-oll .i. uilleann .i. edlenn. Uad-side forsin fid
in ogaim rogab uaide .i. uilleann.
5665] Amram blais .i. pin no ifin. Uad-side forsin fidh
rogab ainm uaid .i. pin no iphin.

Mucogam in so.

Aicme bethi so prius.
Finn (b), liath (l), loch (f), cron (s), forglas (n)

Aicme huatha .i. cetoth find (h), cetoth leithe (d), cetdoth
5670] loichi (t), cetoth cron (c), cetoth forglaisi (q).

Aicme muine: indoth finni (m), indoth leithe (g), indoth
loichi (ng), indoth cron (str), indoth forglaisi (r).

Aicme ailmi: orc a cru finni (a), orc a cru leithi (o),
orc a cru loichi (u), orc a cru cron (e), orc a cru
5675] forglaisi (i). Foraicmi annso:

Fororc a cru findi (ea), fororc a cru leithi (oi), fororc
a cru loichi (ui), fororc a cru cron (iphin), fororc a cru
forglaisi (cc).


Aicmi bethi in so prius .i.
5680] Berba (b), Luimnech (l), Febal (f), Sinand (s), Nid (n).
Aicmi huatha: hon (h), Derg (d), Tearc (t), Teith (t),
Catt (c), Cusrat (q).

Aicme muine .i. Muinten (m), Gabal (g), nGrian (ng),
Strur (str), Rigi (r).

Aicme ailme .i. Aru (a), Eobul, Uisiu, Erbos, Indiurnn.

Dinnogam .i.

Aicme bethi .i. Bruiden, Lifi, Femin, Seolae, Nemthend.
Aicme huatha: h-Ochae, Dindrigh, Temair, Cerae, Quorann.
Aicme muine: Mide, Gabar, nGarmon, Streulae, Roigni.
5690] Aicme ailme .i. Æ, Ogba, Uisnech, Emain, Iliu.


{BB folio 310b23}

Enogam .i.

Aicme bethi: besan, lachu, faelinn, segh, naescu.
Aicme uatha: hadaig, droen, truiteoc, querc.
Aicme muine .i. mintan, geis, ngeigh, stmolach, rocnat.
5695] Aicme ailme .i. aidhircleog, odoroscrach, uiseoc, ela, illait.


Aicme bethi .i. ban, liath, flann, sodath, necht.
Aicme huatha .i. huath, dub, temen, cron, quiar.
Aicme muine .i. mbracht, gorm, nglas, srorca, ruadh.
5700] Aicme ailme: alath, odhar, usgdha erc, irfind.


Aicme bethi .i. Beanchar, Liath, Fearna, Saigear, Naendruim.

Aicme huatha: hIrard, Durmach, Tir-da-glas, Cluain
5705] maccu Nois
, Quell dara.
Aicme muine .i. Mugna, Sruthair, Raithen, & rl.
Aicme ailme .i. Ard macha, & rl.

Daenogam .i.

Fer no laech ar aicmi bethi: i fer, ii fer, iii fir, iiii fir, v fir.
5710] Minna (no mna) no clerig ar aicme uatha: i bean, ii
mnae, iii mna, iiii mna, v mna.
Oglach ar aicme muine: i oglach, ii oglach, iii oglaich,
iiii oglaich, v oglaich.


{BB folio 310b39}
Mac no gille ar aicme ailme: i mac, ii mac, iii mic,
5715] iiii mic, v mic .i. aenmac ar ailme, a ii ar onn, a iii
ar ur, sic in reliquis.
Daenogam: Laechesa ar aicme bethi iarsin imraet (no imirt)
cetna .i. a i ar bethi, & a ii ar luis, mar sin sis uili.
Caillige ar aicme huatha similiter.
5720] Macdachta ar aicme muine similiter.
Ingena bega ar aicme ailme similiter .i. oen ar ailm, a
do ar ur.

Ogam tirda.

Aicme bethi annso .i. biail, loman, fidba, strathar, nasc.
5725] Aicme huatha .i. huartan, dabach, tal, carr, qual.
Aicme muine: machad, gat, ngend, sust, rusc.
Aicme ailme .i. arathar, ord, usca, epit, indeoin.

Rigogam .i.

Bran, Labraidh, & rl. & mar sin uile, .i. ainm in righ
5730] tinnscanas on fid do gabail ar in ainm.

Ogam usceach .i.

Glais ar aicme bethi: .i. aenghlais ar bethi, v n.
Soud ar aicme huatha: i soud, ii soud, iii suid, iiii suid, v
5735] Abann ar aicme muine: i abann, ii abainn, iii aibne, iiii
aibne, v aibne.
Tipra ar aicme ailme: i tipra, ii tiprait, iii tiprait, iiii
tiprait, v tiprait.

Conogam .i.


Archu ar aicme bethi: i archu ii archu, iii archoin, iiii
archoin, v archoin.
Milchu ar aicme huatha: i milchu, ii milchu, a tri
milchoin, iiii milchoin, v milchoin.


{BB folio 311a7}
Conbuachaill ar aicme muine: i conbuachaill, ii conbuachaill,
5745] a tri conbuachaille, iiii conbuachaille, v conbuachaille.

Oirci ar aicme ailme: i oirci, a dho oirci, a tri oirci, iiii
oirci, v oirci.

Damogam .i.

Tarb ar aicme bethi: i tarb, a do tarb, a tri tairb, iiii tairb,
v tairb.
Dam ar aicme huatha: i damh, ii dam, iii daim, iiii daim,
v daim.
Colpthach firenn ar aicme muine: i colpthach, ii colpthach,
5755] a tri colpthacha, iiii colpthacha, v colpthacha.
Dartaid ar aicme ailme: i dartaid, ii dartaid, a tri dartada,
iiii dartada, v dartada.

Boogam .i.

Lilgach ar aicme bethi: i lilgach, ii lilgaig, a tri lilgacha,
5760] iiii lilgacha, v lilgacha.
Gamnach ar aicme huatha: i gamnach, ii gamnaig, iii
gamnacha, iiii gamnacha, v gamnacha.
Samaisc ar aicme muine: i samaisc, ii samaisc, iii samaisce,
iiii samaisce, v samaisce.
Dairt ar aicme ailme, & rl.

Caechanogam .i.

fodailter ainm in duine .i. aicme bethi don leth des:
aicme huatha don leth cli: aicme muine don leth
des: aicme ailme don leth cli.

Loscogam .i.

inann iat .i. fogail in anma.

Macogam .i.

ogam ban torrach .i. ainm na mna fodhailter ann mani
bera lenum roime. Dia mbera, immorro, lenum, is e


{BB folio 311a24}
ainm in lenim fodailter ann; & dia mbe litir forcraidh
ann, is mac. Mad coimlin, bud ingen berthair don

Cossogam .i.

mera da laime ar son na feadh imon lurgain & a tabairt
5780] don leth deis imon lurgain ar aicme beithi. Don leith
cli ar aicme huatha. Fiartharsna na lurgan ar aicme
muini. Cearttharsna ar aicme ailme .i. aenmer ar in
cetfidh na n-aicme, a dho ar in fid tanaise, co soised a
coig ar in coiged fid secip aicme.

Sronogam .i.

mera na lam imon sroin .i. similiter do deis & do chli, co
fiar, cearttarsna.

Basogam .i.

manus aliam percutit lignorum {BB folio 311b1}.

Naemogam .i.

ainm in naim i tinnscanfa gabar ar in fid .i.,
Brenaind, Laisreann, Finden, Sinchell, Nesan.
hAdamnan, Donnan, Tigernach, Cronan, Quiaran.
Manchan, Giurgu, nGeman, Strannan, Ruadan.
5795] Aed, Oena, Ultan, Ernen, Ite.


Bethumnacht, luamnacht, filideacht, sairsi, notaireacht.
H-airchetul, druidheacht, tornoracht, cruitireacht, quislenacht.

5800] Milaideacht, gaibneacht, ngibae, sreghuindeacht, ronnaireacht.

Airigeacht, ogmoracht, umaideacht, enaireacht, iascaireacht
no ibroracht.

Biadogam .i.


bairgen, leamnacht, sic usque in finem.


{BB folio 311b11}

Lusogam .i.

ainm secip nach losa do gabail ar in fidh a tindscanfa,
ut est, braisech ar bethi, & rl.

Cend a muine .i.


tairisem fo fid i tosach in anma .i. in fad as a hainm frisa
cosmailligeacht tosach secip anma, in fidh sain do
scribhinn i tosach in anma ar son a anma fen; &
deredh in anma do scribenn iarsna fedaib dilsib.
Ocus ogum n-airismech ainm ele in ogaim-sea, ut est,
5815] {illu298.1} .i. certle.

Cend fo muine dono:

Cotarsna int ogaim remut .i. tairsem fo fid i nderid in
anma, a tosach do scribenn iarna fedaib dilsib, ut est
{illu298.2} .i. Mael R .i. ruis.

Nathair im ceann .i.

in fid toisech in anma do scribenn i medon na craibi, & int
ainm do scribenn co direach uada co dered na craibi;
& a scribenn frithrusc co tosach na craibi conid inann
ni bis i tosach & a nderedh na craibi .i. dered in anma
5825] issed bis a cechtar de, ut est in hac figura, Ceallach,
coimdes a airlegind sis & suas, & is asa medon
airlegthar int ainm, ar is ann ita in fid tosach in
anma, ut est,